Verse 38. "In the wilderness of Sinai." - These laws were probably given to Moses while he was on the mount with God; the time was quite sufficient, as he was there with God not less than fourscore days in all; forty days at the giving, and forty days at the renewing of the law. As in the course of this book the different kinds of sacrifices commanded to be offered are repeatedly occurring, I think it best, once for all, to give a general account of them, and a definition of the original terms, as well as of all others relative to this subject which are used in the Old Testament, and the reference in which they all stood to the great sacrifice offered by Christ. 1. µa ASHAM, TRESPASS-offering, from µa asham, to be guilty, or liable to punishment; for in this sacrifice the guilt was considered as being transferred to the animal offered up to God, and the offerer redeemed from the penalty of his sin, ver. 37. Christ is said to have made his soul an offering for sin, ( µa ,) Isa. liii. 10. 2. ha ISHSHEH, FIRE-offering, probably from a ashash, to be grieved, angered, inflamed; either pointing out the distressing nature of sin, or its property of incensing Divine justice against the offender, who, in consequence, deserving burning for his offense, made use of this sacrifice to be freed from the punishment due to his transgression. It occurs Exod. xxix. 18, and in many places of this book. 3. µybhbh HABHABIM, ITERATED OR REPEATED offerings, from bhy yahab, to supply. The word occurs only in Hos. viii. 13, and probably means no more than the continual repetition of the accustomed offerings, or continuation of each part of the sacred service. 4. jbz ZEBACH, A SACRIFICE, (in Chaldee, jbd debach, the z zain being changed into d daleth,) a creature slain in sacrifice, from jbz zabach, to slay; hence the altar on which such sacrifices were offered was termed jbzm mizbeach, the place of sacrifice. See the note on "Gen. viii. 20". Zebach is a common name for sacrifices in general. 5. gj CHAG, a festival, especially such as had a periodical return, from ggj chagag, to celebrate a festival, to dance round and round in circles. See Exod. v. 1; xii. 24. The circular dance was probably intended to point out the revolution of the heavenly bodies, and the exact return of the different seasons. See Parkhurst. 6. tafj CHATTATH and hafj CHATTAAH, Sin-offering, from afj chata, to miss the mark; it also signifies sin in general, and is a very apt term to express its nature by. A sinner is continually aiming at and seeking happiness; but as he does not seek it in God, hence the Scripture represents him as missing his aim, or missing the mark. This is precisely the meaning of the Greek word amaptia, translated sin and sin-offering in our version; and this is the term by which the Hebrew word is translated both by the Septuagint and the inspired writers of the New Testament. The sin-offering was at once an acknowledgment of guilt, in having forsaken the fountain of living waters, and hewed out cisterns that could hold none; and also of the firm purpose of the offerer to return to God, the true and pure fountain of blessedness. This word often occurs. See the note on "Gen. iv. 7". See the note on "Genesis xiii. 13". 7. rpk COPHER, the EXPIATION or ATONEMENT, from rpk caphar, to cover, to smear over, or obliterate, or annul a contract. Used often to signify the atonement or expiation made for the pardon or cancelling of iniquity. See Clark's note on "Exod. xxv. 17". 8. d[wm MOED, an APPOINTED annual festival, from d[y yaad, to appoint or constitute, signifying such feasts as were instituted in commemoration of some great event or deliverance, such as the deliverance from Egypt. See Exodus xiii. 10, and thus differing from the chag mentioned above. See the note on "Gen. i. 14". 9. µyalm MILLUIM, CONSECRATIONS or consecration-offerings, from alm mala, to fill; those offerings made in consecrations, of which the priests partook, or, in the Hebrew phrase, had their hands filled, or which had filled the hands of them that offered them. See the note on "Exod. xxix. 19"; and see 2 Chron. xiii. 9. 10. hjnm MINCHAH, MEAT-offering, from jn nach, to rest, settle after toil. It generally consisted of things without life, such as green ears of corn, full ears of corn, flour, oil, and frankincense; (see on chap. ii. 1, &c.;) and may be considered as having its name from that rest from labour and toil which a man had when the fruits of the autumn were brought in, or when, in consequence of obtaining any rest, ease, &c., a significant offering or sacrifice was made to God. It often occurs. See the note on "Gen. iv. 3". The jealousy-offering (Num. v. 15) was a simple minchah, consisting of barley-meal only. 11. ūsm MESECH and ūsmm MIMSACH, a MIXTURE-offering, or MIXED LIBATION, called a DRINK-offering, Isa. lv. 11, from ūsm masach, to mingle; it seems in general to mean old wine mixed with the less, which made it extremely intoxicating. This offering does not appear to have had any place in the worship of the true God; but from Isa. lxv. 11, and Prov. xxiii. 30, it seems to have been used for idolatrous purposes, such as the Bacchanalia among the Greeks and Romans, "when all got drunk in honour of the god." 12. tam MASSEETH, an OBLATION, things carried to the temple to be presented to God, from an nasa, to bear or carry, to bear sin; typically, Exod. xxviii. 38; chap. x. 17; xvi. 21; really, Isaiah liii. 4, 12. The sufferings and death of Christ were the true masseeth or vicarious bearing of the sins of mankind, as the passage in Isaiah above referred to sufficiently proves.
See this alluded to by the Evangelist John, John i. 29; and see the root in Parkhurst. 13. hbdn NEDABAH, FREE-WILL, or voluntary offering; from bdn nadab, to be free, liberal, princely. An offering not commanded, but given as a particular proof of extraordinary gratitude to God for especial mercies, or on account of some vow or engagement voluntarily taken, ver. 16. 14. ūsn NESECH, LIBATION, OR DRINK-offering, from ūsn nasach, to diffuse or pour out. Water or wine poured out at the conclusion or confirmation of a treaty or covenant. To this kind of offering there is frequent allusion and reference in the New Testament, as it typified the blood of Christ poured out for the sin of the world; and to this our Lord himself alludes in the institution of the holy eucharist. The whole Gospel economy is represented as a covenant or treaty between God and man, Jesus Christ being not only the mediator, but the covenant sacrifice, whose blood was poured out for the ratification and confirmation of this covenant or agreement between God and man. 15. nl[ and hlw[ OLAH, BURNT-offering, from hl[ alah, to ascend, because this offering, as being wholly consumed, ascended as it were to God in smoke and vapor. It was a very expressive type of the sacrifice of Christ, as nothing less than his complete and full sacrifice could make atonement for the sin of the world.
In most other offerings the priest, and often the offerer, had a share, but in the whole burnt-offering all was given to God. 16. trfq KETORETH, INCENSE OR PERFUME-offering, from rfq katar, to burn, i. e., the frankincense, and other aromatics used as a perfume in different parts of the Divine service. To this St. Paul compares the agreeableness of the sacrifice of Christ to God, Eph. v. 2: Christ hath given himself for us, an offering-to God for a SWEET-SMELLING savour. From Rev. v. 8 we learn that it was intended also to represent the prayers of the saints, which, offered up on the altar, Christ Jesus, that sanctifies every gift, are highly pleasing in the sight of God. 17. brq KORBAN, the GIFT-offering, from brq karab to draw nigh or approach. See this explained on chap. i. 2.
Korban was a general name for any kind of offering, because through these it was supposed a man had access to his Maker. 18. µyml SHELAMIM, PEACE-offering, from µl shalam, to complete, make whole; for by these offerings that which was lacking was considered as being now made up, and that which was broken, viz., the covenant of God, by his creatures' transgression, was supposed to be made whole; so that after such an offering, the sincere and conscientious mind had a right to consider that the breach was made up between God and it, and that it might lay confident hold on this covenant of peace. To this the apostle evidently alludes, Eph. ii. 14-19: He is our peace, (i. e. our shalam or peace-offering,) who has made both one, and broken down the middle wall; having abolished in his flesh the enmity, &c. See the whole passage, and see the note on "Gen. xiv. 18". 19. hdwt TODAH, THANK- offering, from hdy yadah, to confess; offerings made to God with public confession of his power, goodness, mercy, &c. 20. hpwnt TENUPHAH, WAVE-offering, from Pn naph, to stretch out; an offering of the first-fruits stretched out before God, in acknowledgment of his providential goodness.
This offering was moved from the right hand to the left. See the note on "Exod. xxix. 27". 21. hmwrt TERUMAH, HEAVE- offering, from µark ram, to lift up, because the offering was lifted up towards heaven, as the wave - offering, in token of the kindness of God in granting rain and fruitful seasons, and filling the heart with food and gladness. As the wave- offering was moved from right to left, so the heave-offering was moved up and down; and in both cases this was done several times. These offerings had a blessed tendency to keep alive in the breasts of the people a due sense of their dependence on the Divine providence and bounty, and of their obligation to God for his continual and liberal supply of all their wants. See the note on "Exodus xxix. 27". In the above collection are comprised, as far as I can recollect, an explanation of all the terms used in the Hebrew Scriptures which signify sacrifice, oblation, atonement, offering, &c., &c., as well as the reference they bear to the great and only sufficient atonement, sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction made by Christ Jesus for the sins of mankind. Larger accounts must be sought in authors who treat professedly on these subjects.