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1. Finally (to loipon). Lit., for the rest. Frequent in Paul's writings in introducing the conclusions of his letters. See 1 Thess. iv. 1; 2 Thessalonians iii. 1; 2 Cor. xiii. 11, note. Evidently Paul was about to close his letter, when his thought was directed into another channel - the Judaizing teachers, and their attempts to undermine his influence.
Rejoice (cairete). See on 2 Cor. xiii. 11.
The same things. It is doubtful what is referred to. Possibly previous letters, or the dissensions in the Church.
Grievous (oknhron). Only here, Matt. xxv. 26; Rom. xii. 11, in both instances rendered slothful. From ojknew to delay. Hence, in classical Greek, shrinking, backward, unready. The idea of delay underlies the secondary sense, burdensome, troublesome. It is the vexation arising from weary waiting, and which appears in the middle English irken to tire or to become tired, cognate with the Latin urgere to press, and English irk, irksome, work.
2. Beware (blepete). Lit., look to. Compare Mark iv. 24; viii. 15; Luke xxi. 8. Dogs. Rev., correctly, the dogs, referring to a well-known party - the Judaizers. These were nominally Christians who accepted Jesus as the Messiah, but as the Savior of Israel only. They insisted that Christ's kingdom could be entered only through the gate of Judaism. Only circumcised converts were fully accepted by God. They appeared quite early in the history of the Church, and are those referred to in Acts xv. 1. Paul was the object of their special hatred and abuse. They challenged his birth, his authority, and his motives. "'Paul must be destroyed,' was as truly their watchword as the cry for the destruction of Carthage had been of old to the Roman senator" (Stanley, "Sermons and Lectures on the Apostolic Age"). These are referred to in ch. i. 16; and the whole passage in the present chapter, from ver. 3 to ver. 11, is worthy of study, being full of incidental hints lurking in single words, and not always apparent in our versions; hints which, while they illustrate the main point of the discussion, are also aimed at the assertions of the Judaizers. Dogs was a term of reproach among both Greeks and Jews. Homer uses it of both women and men, implying shamelessness in the one, and recklessness in the other. Thus Helen: "Brother-in-law of me, a mischief devising dog" ("Iliad," vi., 344). Teucer of Hector: "I cannot hit this raging dog" ("Iliad," viii., 298). Dr. Thomson says of the dogs in oriental towns: "They lie about the streets in such numbers as to render it difficult and often dangerous to pick one's way over and amongst them - a lean, hungry, and sinister brood. They have no owners, but upon some principle known only to themselves, they combine into gangs, each of which assumes jurisdiction over a particular street; and they attack with the utmost ferocity all canine intruders into their territory. In those contests, and especially during the night, they keep up an incessant barking and howling, such as is rarely heard in any European city. The imprecations of David upon his enemies derive their significance, therefore, from this reference to one of the most odious of oriental annoyances" ("Land and Book," Central palestine and Phoenicia, 593). See Psalm lix. 6; xxii. 16. Being unclean animals, dogs were used to denote what was unholy or profane. So Matt. vii. 6; Apoc. xxii. 15. The Israelites are forbidden in Deuteronomy to bring the price of a dog into the house of God for any vow: Deut. xxiii. 18. The Gentiles of the Christian era were denominated "dogs" by the Jews, see Matt. xv. 26. Paul here retorts upon them their own epithet.
Evil workers. Compare deceitful workers, 2 Cor. xi. 13.
Concision (katatomhn). Only here in the New Testament. The kindred verb occurs in the Septuagint only, of mutilations forbidden by the Mosaic law. See Lev. xxi. 5. The noun here is a play upon peritomh circumcision. It means mutilation. Paul bitterly characterizes those who were not of the true circumcision (Rom. ii. 28, 29; Col. ii. 11; Eph. ii. 11) as merely mutilated. Compare Gal. v. 12, where he uses ajpokoptein to cut off, of those who would impose circumcision upon the Christian converts: "I would they would cut themselves off who trouble you;" that is, not merely circumcise, but mutilate themselves like the priests of Cybele.
Worship God in the spirit (pneumati Qew latreuontev). The correct reading is qeou of God. Render, as Rev., worship by the Spirit of God. Worship. See on Apoc. xxii. 3. Paul uses the Jews' word which denoted their own service of Jehovah as His peculiar people. Compare Acts xxvi. 7. A Jew would be scandalized by the application of this term to Christian worship.
4. Though I might also have confidence (kaiper egw ecwn pepoiqhsin). Lit., even though myself having confidence. Also should be joined with the flesh and rendered even. Rev., though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. The sense of the translation might have is correct; but Paul puts it that he actually has confidence in the flesh, placing himself at the Jews' stand-point.
Thinketh that he hath whereof he might trust (dokei pepoiqenai). The A.V. is needlessly verbose. Rev., much better, thinketh to have confidence.
5. Circumcised the eighth day (peritomh oktahmerov). Lit., eight days old in circumcision; or passing the eighth day. For the idiom, see on John xi. 39, and compare Acts xxviii. 13. Converts to Judaism were circumcised in maturity: Ishmaelites in their thirteenth year. He was thus shown to be neither a heathen nor an Ishmaelite.
Of the stock of Israel. Not a proselyte, but of the original stock (genouv); not grafted into the covenant race. A descendant of Jacob, not an Idumaean nor an Ishmaelite. For Israel, see on Acts iii. 12, and compare Rom. ix. 4; xi. 1; John i. 47. Descended not from Jacob, the supplanter, but from Israel, the prince of God. See Gen. xxxii. 28.
Of the tribe of Benjamin. Not from one of the lost tribes, but from that which gave to Israel its first king; which alone was faithful to Judah at the separation under Rehoboam, and which had always held the post of honor in the army. See Judg. v. 14; Hos. v. 8. Benjamin only of the twelve patriarchs was born in the land of promise. Mordecai, the deliverer of the Jews from Haman was a Benjamite. Paul's own original name, Saul, was probably derived from Saul the son of Kish, the Benjamite.
A Hebrew of the Hebrews (Ebraiov ex Ebraiwn). The (Hebrews) of the A.V. gives a wrong coloring to the phrase, as if Paul were claiming to be preeminently a Hebrew among other Hebrews He means a Hebrew from (ex) Hebrew parents. Rev., a Hebrew of Hebrews, which is no special improvement. The expression implies characteristics of language and manners. He might be an Israelite and yet a child of Greek-speaking Jews: but his parents had retained their native tongue and customs, and he himself, while understanding and speaking Greek, also spoke in Hebrew on occasion. See Acts xxi. 40; xxii. 2.
6. Zeal. Ironical.
Blameless (genomenov amemptov). The A.V. does not render the participle, proven or found. Rev., correctly, found blameless.
7. What things (atina). The double relative classifies; things which came under the category of gain. Compare Gal. iv. 24; Col. ii. 23. Gain (kerdh). Lit., gains. So Rev., in margin, and better. The various items of privilege are regarded separately.
I counted loss (hghmai zhmian). Better, as Rev., have counted. The perfect tense implies that he still counts them as loss. See on ver. 8. Notice the singular number loss, and the plural gains. The various gains are all counted as one loss.
8. Yea doubtless (alla men oun). Alla but, ver. 7, puts that verse in direct contrast with the preceding verse. Alla yea or verily, in this verse affirms more than the preceding statement, while oun therefore (not rendered), collects and concludes from what has been previously said: Yea verily therefore.
All things. An advance on those (things) of ver. 7.
For the excellency, etc. (dia). On account of: because the knowledge of Christ is so much greater than all things else.
All things (ta panta). Collectively. All things mentioned in vers. 5-7. Dung (skubala). Rev., refuse. Either excrement or what is thrown away from the table; leavings. The derivation is uncertain. According to some it is a contraction from ejv kunav ballw to throw to the dogs. See on filth, 1 Corinthians iv. 13. Notice the repetition of gain, count, loss, all things, Christ.
Win (kerdhsw). Rev., better, gain, corresponding with gain, ver. 7.
Mine own righteousness (emhn dikaiosunhn). Rev., correctly, a righteousness of mine own. The A.V. would require the article with ejmhn mine, and assumes the existence of a personal righteousness; whereas Paul says, not having any righteousness which can be called mine.
Which is of the law (thn ek nomou). Rev., better, even that which is of the law; thus bringing out the force of the article which defines the character of that righteousness which alone could be personal, viz., righteousness consisting in the strict fulfillment of the law.
Through the faith of Christ (dia pistewv Cristou). Rev., better, through faith in Christ. Faith as opposed to the law. The change of prepositions, through (dia) faith, and of (ek) the law, as turning on the distinction between faith represented as the medium, and the law as the source of justification, cannot be insisted upon as a rule, since both the prepositions are used with faith, as in Gal. ii. 16. Compare Romans iii. 30; v. 1.
Of God. Contrasted with my own.
By faith (epi). Resting upon faith, or on the condition of. Compare Acts iii. 16.
10. That I may know Him (tou gnwnai auton). Know is taken up from knowledge, ver. 8, and is joined with be found in Him, qualified by not having, etc. That I may be found in Him not having, etc., but having the righteousness which is of God so as to know him, etc.
The power of His resurrection (thn dunamin thv anastasewv autou). Power of His resurrection and fellowship of His sufferings furnish two specific points further defining the knowledge of Him. By the power of Christ's resurrection is meant the power which it exerts over believers. Here, more especially, according to the context, in assuring their present justification, and its outcome in their final glorification. See Rom. iv. 24, 25; viii. 11, 30; 1 Cor. xv. 17; Col. iii. 4; Philip. iii. 21. Fellowship of His sufferings. Participation in Christ's sufferings. See Matt. xx. 22, 23; and on Col. i. 24. Compare 2 Cor. i. 5; 1 Peter iv. 13. Faith makes a believer one with a suffering Christ.
Being made conformable (summorfizomenov). Explaining the previous clause: by my becoming conformed, etc. Rev., becoming conformed.
Compare 2 Cor. iv. 10; Rom. vi. 5. For conformed see on Matthew xvii. 2, and on form, ch. ii. 6. The most radical conformity is thus indicated: not merely undergoing physical death like Christ, but conformity to the spirit and temper, the meekness and submissiveness of Christ; to His unselfish love and devotion, and His anguish over human sin.
I might attain (katanthsw). See on Acts xxvi. 7.
The resurrection of the dead (thn exanastasin thn ek nekrwn). Rev., more correctly, from the dead. Lit., the resurrection, that, namely, from the dead. Compare Acts iv. 2. This compound noun for resurrection is found only here, and expresses the rising from or from among (ex), which is further emphasized by the repetition of the preposition ejk (from). The kindred compound verb occurs Mark xii. 19; Luke xx. 28; Acts xv. 5, but in neither passage of raising the dead. The word here does not differ in meaning from ajnastasiv, commonly used, except that the idea is more vividly conceived as a rising from the earth. See Matt. xxii. 31; Luke xx. 35. The phrase resurrection of or from the dead does not often occur in the Gospels, and resurrection ejk from the dead only twice in the New Testament, Acts iv. 2; 1 Pet. i. 3. For the phrase, see on Luke xvi. 31. Resurrection of the dead is a generic phrase, denoting the general resurrection of the dead, bad and good. Resurrection from the dead, in the only two passages where it occurs, signifies resurrection unto life. In 1 Peter i. 3, it is applied to Christ.
Had attained - were perfect (elabon - teteleiwmai). Rev., have attained, am made perfect. There is a change of tenses which may be intentional; the aorist attained pointing to the definite period of his conversion, the perfect, am made perfect, referring to his present state. Neither when I became Christ's did I attain, nor, up to this time, have I been perfected. With attained supply the prize from ver. 14. Rev., am made perfect, is preferable, as preserving the passive form of the verb. I follow after (diwkw). Rev., better, press on. The A.V. gives the sense of chasing; whereas the apostle's meaning is the pressing toward a fixed point. The continuous present would be better, I am pressing.
May apprehend (katalabw) American Rev., lay hold on. Neither A.V.
nor Rev. give the force of kai also; if I may also apprehend as well as pursue. For the verb, see on John i. 5.
For which also I am apprehended. Rev., correctly, was apprehended.
American Rev., laid hold on. Paul's meaning is, "I would grasp that for which Christ grasped me. Paul's conversion was literally of the nature of a seizure. That for which Christ laid hold of him was indeed his mission to the Gentiles, but it was also his personal salvation, and it is of this that the context treats. Some render, seeing that also I was apprehended. Rev., in margin.
13. Myself. As others count themselves.
14. One thing. I do is supplied. Some supply I count, which is less appropriate, since what follows is concerned with action rather than with thinking or reckoning.
Reaching forth (epekteinomenov). Only here in the New Testament.
15. Toward the mark (kata skopon). Rev., goal. Bear down upon (kata). Skopov mark, only here in the New Testament. See on look, ch. ii. 4. Used in the classics of a mark for shooting at, or as a moral or intellectual end. A somewhat similar figure occurs 1 Tim. i. 6; vi. 21; 2 Timothy ii. 18, in the verb ajstocew to miss the aim or the shot. A.V., swerved and erred.
Prize (brabeion). See on 1 Cor. ix. 24. Ignatius uses the word qema that which is deposited as a prize: a prize of money as distinct from the crown. "Be temperate as God's athlete. The prize is incorruption and eternal life" (to Polycarp, 2.). Chrysostom says: "He that runs looks not at the spectators, but at the prize. Whether they be rich or poor, if one mock them, applaud them, insult them, throw stones at them - if one plunder their house, if they see children or wife or anything whatsoever - the runner is not turned aside, but is concerned only with his running and winning the prize. He that runneth stoppeth nowhere; since, if he be a little remiss, all is lost. He that runneth relaxeth in no respect before the end, but then, most of all, stretcheth over the course."
High calling (anw klhsewv). Lit., upward calling. A calling which is from heaven and to heaven. Klhsiv calling, is habitually used in the New Testament of the act of calling. Compare Heb. iii. 1. The prize is bound up with the calling; promised when the call is issued, and given when the call is fulfilled.
Whereto we have already attained (eiv o efqasamen). Whatever real christian and moral attainment you may have made, let that serve as a rule for your further advance. The character of this standard of attainment is illustrated by the words in ver. 15, be thus minded, and by those in ver. 17, as ye have us for an example. The individual variations are not considered. He regards rather the collective development, and assumes the essentials of christian attainment on the part of his readers. For attained, see on we are come, 2 Cor. x. 14.
Let us walk by the same rule (tw autw stoicein) The idea of a regulative standard is implied, but rule kanoni must be omitted from the Greek text. Rev. brings out the antithesis better: whereunto we have already attained, by that same rule let us walk. Omit let us mind the same thing.
17. Followers together of me (summimhtai mou). Only here in the New Testament. Rev., more correctly, imitators. Compare 1 Cor. xi. 1. Not imitators of Christ in common with me, but be together, jointly, imitators of me.
Mark (skopeite). See on looking, ch. ii. 4.
18. Many walk. No word is supplied describing the character of their walk; but this is brought out by enemies of the cross of Christ, and in the details of ver. 19. The persons alluded to were probably those of Epicurean tendencies. This and Judaic formalism were the two prominent errors in the Philippian church.
19. Belly. Rom. xvi. 18. So the Cyclops in Euripides: "My flocks which I sacrifice to no one but myself, and not to the gods, and to this my belly the greatest of the gods: for to eat and drink each day, and to give one's self no trouble, this is the God for wise men" ("Cyclops," 334-338). Glory. That which they esteem glory.
20. Conversation (paliteuma). Only here in the New Testament. Rev., citizenship, commonwealth in margin. The rendering conversation, in the sense of manner of life (see on 1 Pet. i. 15), has no sufficient warrant; and that politeuma commonwealth, is used interchangeably with politeia citizenship, is not beyond question. Commonwealth gives a good and consistent sense. The state of which we are citizens is in heaven. See on ch. i. 27. Compare Plato: "That city of which we are the founders, and which exists in idea only; for I do not believe that there is such an one anywhere on earth. In Heaven, I replied, there is laid up the pattern of it methinks, which he who desires may behold, and beholding may settle himself there" ("Republic," 592).
Is in heaven (uparcei). The use of this word instead of ejsti is is peculiar. See on being, ch. ii. 6. It has a backward look. It exists now in heaven, having been established there of old. Compare Heb. xi. 16; John xiv. 2.
We look for (apekdecomeqa). Rev., wait for. See on 1 Cor. i. 7. Used only by Paul, and in Heb. ix. 28. Compare Rom. viii. 19, 23, 25; Gal. v. 5. It indicates earnest, patient waiting and expectation. As in ajpokaradokia earnest expectation, ch. i. 20, the compounded preposition ajpo denotes the withdrawal of attention from inferior objects. The word is habitually used in the New Testament with reference to a future manifestation of the glory of Christ or of His people.
The Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ (swthra). Savior has no article, and its emphatic position in the sentence indicates that it is to be taken predicatively with Jesus Christ, and not as the direct object of the verb. Hence render: we await as Savior the Lord, etc. Compare Heb. ix. 28, "To them that wait for Him will He appear a second time unto salvation."
21. Shall change (metaschmatisei). See on Matt. xvii. 2; 1 Corinthians iv. 6; xi. 13. Also on from, ch. ii. 6; and fashion, ch. ii. 8. The word thus indicates a change in what is outward and shifting - the body. Rev., correctly, shall fashion anew. Refashion(?).
Our vile body (to swma thv tapeinwsewv hmwn). Wrong. Render, as Rev., the body of our humiliation. See, for the vicious use of hendiadys in A.V., on Eph. i. 19. Lightfoot observes that the A.V. seems to countenance the stoic contempt of the body. Compare Col. i. 22. The biographer of Archbishop Whately relates that, during his last illness, one of his chaplains, watching, during the night at his bedside, in making some remark expressive of sympathy for his sufferings, quoted these words: "Who shall change our vile body." The Archbishop interrupted him with the request "Read the words." The chaplain read them from the English Bible; but he reiterated, "Read his own words." The chaplain gave the literal translation, "this body of our humiliation." "That's right, interrupted the Archbishop, "not vile - nothing that He made is vile." That it may be fashioned like (eiv to genesqai auto summorfon). The words that it may be, or become, are omitted from the correct Greek text, so that the strict rendering is the body of our humiliation conformed, etc. The words are, however, properly inserted in A.V. and Rev. for the sake of perspicuity. Rev., correctly, conformed for fashioned like. Fashion belongs to the preceding verb. See on shall change The adjective conformed is compounded with morfh form (see on ch. ii. 6, and made conformable, ch. iii. 10). As the body of Christ's glory is a spiritual body, this word is appropriate to describe a conformation to what is more essential, permanent, and characteristic. See 1 Cor. xv. 35-53. His glorious body (tw swmati thv doxhv autou). Wrong. Rev., correctly, the body of His glory. The body in which He appears in His present glorified state. See on Col. ii. 9.
The working whereby He is able (thn energeian tou dunasqai). Lit., the energy of His being able. Dunasqai expresses ability, faculty, natural ability, not necessarily manifest. Energeia is power in exercise, used only of superhuman power. See on John i. 12; 2 Pet. ii. 11. Hence, as Calvin remarks, "Paul notes not only the power of God as it resides in Him, but the power as it puts itself into act." See Eph. i. 19, where four of the six words for power are used.
Subdue (upotaxai). Rev., subject. See on Jas. iv. 7. It is more than merely subdue. It is to bring all things within His divine economy; to marshal them all under Himself in the new heaven and the new earth in which shall dwell righteousness. Hence the perfected heavenly state as depicted by John is thrown into the figure of a city, an organized commonwealth. The verb is thus in harmony with ver. 20. The work of God in Christ is therefore not only to transform, but to subject, and that not only the body, but all things. See 1 Cor. xv. 25-27; Romans viii. 19, 20; Eph. i. 10, 21, 22; iv. 10.