X Observations on wisdom and folly, ver. 1-3. On rulers, ver. 4-7. Miscellany observations, ver. 8-11. On governing the tongue, ver. 12-14. More miscellany observations, ver. 15-20.
Verse 2. Heart - His understanding is always present with him and ready to direct him. He mentions the right hand, because that is the common instrument of action. A fool's - His understanding is not effectual to govern his affections and actions.
Verse 3. Walketh - In his daily conversation. He saith - He discovers his folly to all that meet him.
Verse 4. The spirit - The passion. Leave not - In anger or discontent. Continue in a diligent and faithful discharge of thy duty, and modestly and humbly submit to him. Yielding - A gentle and submissive carriage.
Verse 6. The rich - Wise and worthy men, rich in endowments of mind.
Verse 8. An hedge - Whereby another man's fields or vineyards are distinguished, that he may either take away their fruits, or enlarge his own fields.
Verse 9. Whoso removeth - Stones too heavy for them: who rashly attempts things too high and hard for them.
Verse 10. Wisdom - As wisdom instructs a man in the smallest matters, so it is useful for a man's direction in all weighty affairs.
Verse 11. Without - If not prevented by the art and care of the charmer; which practice he does not justify, but only mentions by way of resemblance.
Verse 12. Gracious - Procure him favour with those who hear him.
Verse 14. Full of words - Forward to promise and boast what he will do, whereas none can be sure of future events, even during his own life, much more after his death.
Verse 15. Wearieth - Fools discover their folly by their wearisome and fruitless endeavours after things which are too high for them. Because - He is ignorant of those things which are most easy, as of the way to the great city whither he is going.
Verse 16. A child - Either in age, or childish qualities. Eat - Give up themselves to eating and drinking. Morning - The fittest time for God's service, for the dispatch of weighty affairs, and for sitting in judgment.
Verse 17. Nobles - Not so much by birth, as by their noble dispositions.
Verse 20. Thy thought - In the most secret manner. The rich - Princes or governors. A bird - The king will hear of it by unknown and unsuspected hands, as if a bird had heard and carried the report of it.