Verse 9. "With the rich tn his death "With the rich man was his tomb"" - It may be necessary to introduce Bishop Lowth's translation of this verse before we come to his very satisfactory criticisms:-
And his grave was appointed with the wicked; But with the rich man was his tomb: Although he had done no wrong, Neither was there any guile in his mouth.
Among the various opinions which have been given on this passage, I have no doubt in giving my assent to that which makes the b beth in wytwmb bemothaiv radical, and renders it excelsa sua. This is mentioned by Aben Ezra as received by some in his time; and has been long since approved by Schindler, Drusius, and many other learned Christian interpreters.
The most simple tombs or monuments of old consisted of hillocks of earth heaped up over the grave; of which we have numerous examples in our own country, generally allowed to be of very high antiquity. The Romans called a monument of this sort very properly tumulus; and the Hebrews as properly twmb bamoth, "high place, "for that is the form of' the noun in the singular number; and sixteen MSS. and the two oldest editions express the word fully in this place, wytwmb bamothaiv. Tumulus et collem et sepulchrum fuisse significat. Potest enim tumulus sine sepulchro interpretatione collis interdum accipi. Nam et terrae congestio super ossa tumulus dicitur. "Tumulus signifies a sepulcher with a hillock of earth raised over it. The word is sometimes restrained to the bank of earth; for the heaping up of the earth over the bones is named the tumulus." - Servius, AEn. iii. 22. And to make the tumulus still more elevated and conspicuous, a pillar or some other ornament was often erected upon it:- tumbon ceuantev, kai epi sthlhn erusantev, phxamen akrotatw tumbw euhrev eretmon. Odyss. sii. 14.
"A rising tomb, the silent dead to grace, Fast by the roarings of the main we place; The rising tomb a lofty column bore, And high above it rose the tapering oar." Pope The tomb therefore might with great propriety be called the high place.
The Hebrews might also call such a tomb twmb bamoth, from the situation, for they generally chose to erect them on eminences. The sepulcher of Joseph of Arimathea, in which the body of Christ was laid, was upon a hill, Mount Calvary. See chap. xxii. 16, and the note there.
"It should be observed that the word wytwmb bamothaiv is not formed from twmb bamoth, the plural of hmb bamah, the feminine noun, but from µytwmb bamothim, the plural of a masculine noun, twmb bamoth.
This is noted because these two nouns have been negligently confounded with one another, and absurdly reduced to one by very learned men. So Buxtorf, lex. in voc. hmb bamah, represents ytwmb bamotey, though plainly without any pronoun suffixed, as it governs the word Åra arets following it, as only another form of twmb bamoth; whereas the truth is, that twmb bamoth and µytwmb bamothim are different words, and have through the whole Bible very different significations; hmb bamah, whether occurring in the singular or plural number, always signifying a place or places of worship; and µytwmb bamothim always signifying heights.
Thus in Deut. xxxii. 13; chap. lviii. 14; Amos iv. 13; and Micah i. 3, Åra ytwmb bamothey arets signifies 'the heights of the earth;' chap. xiv. 14, b[ ytwmb bamothey ab, 'the heights of the clouds;' and in Job ix. 8, µy ytwmb bamothey yam, 'the heights of the sea,' i.e., the high waves of the sea, as Virgil calls a wave praeruptus aqua mons, 'a broken mountain of water.' These being all the places where this word occurs without a suffix, the sense of it seems nearly determined by them. It occurs in other instances with a pronoun suffixed, which confirm this signification.
Unluckily, our English Bible has not distinguished the feminine noun hmb bamah from the masculine singular noun twmb bamoth; and has consequently always given the signification of the latter to the former, always rendering it a high place; whereas the true sense of the word appears plainly to be, in the very numerous passages in which it occurs, 'a place of worship,' or 'a sacred court,' or 'a sacred inclosure;' whether appropriated to the worship of idols or to that of the true God, for it is used of both, passive. Now as the Jewish graves are shown, from2 Chronicles xxxii. 33, and chap. xxii. 16, to have been in high situations, to which may be added the custom of another eastern nation from Osbeck's Travels, who says, vol. i. p. 339, 'the Chinese graves are made on the side of hills;' 'his heights' becomes a very easy metaphor to express 'his sepulcher.' "-JUBB.
The exact completion of this prophecy will be fully shown by adding here the several circumstances of the burial of Jesus, collected from the accounts of the evangelists:- "There was a rich man of Arimathea, named Joseph, a member of the sanhedrin, and of a respectable character, who had not consented to their counsel and act; he went to Pilate and begged the body of Jesus: and he laid it in his own new tomb, which had been hewn out of the rock, near to the place where Jesus was crucified; having first wound it in fine linen with spices, as the manner of the Jews was to bury the rich and great." It has been supposed that wrbq kibro, his grave, and wytmb bemothaiv, in his death, may have been transposed, as also the prefix b be originally placed before µy[r reshaim, the wicked. Thus:- wytm ta µy[rb tyw mothaiv eth bireshayim vaiyitten wrbq ry[ taw kibro ashir veeth Yea, his death was appointed among the wicked, And with a rich man, his tomb.
By these alterations it is supposed the text would be freed from all embarrassment. But see the preceding notes of Bishop Lowth, and the various readings of De Rossi, in loc.
Verse 10. "To grief "With affliction"" - For yljh hecheli, the verb, the construction of which seems to be hard and inelegant in this place, the Vulgate reads yljb bocholi, in infirmitate, "with infirmity." When thou shalt make his soul "If his soul shall make"] For µyt tasim, a MS. has µt tasem, which may be taken passively, "If his soul shall be made " agreeably to some copies of the Septuagint, which have dwtai. See likewise the Syriac.
"When thou shalt make his soul an offering" - The word pn nephesh, soul, is frequently used in Hebrew to signify life. Throughout the New Testament the salvation of men is uniformly attributed to the death of Christ.
"He shall see his seed" - True converts, genuine Christians.
"He shall prolong his days" - Or this spiritual progeny shall prolong their days, i.e., Christianity shall endure to the end of time.
"And the pleasure of the Lord" - To have all men saved and brought to the knowledge of the truth.
"Shall prosper in his hand." - Shall go on in a state of progressive prosperity; and so completely has this been thus far accomplished, that every succeeding century has witnessed more Christianity in the world than the preceding, or any former one.
Verse 11. "Shall be satisfied "And be satisfied"" - The Septuagint, Vulgate, Sryiac, and a MS. add the conjunction to the verb, [byw vaigisba.
"Shall my righteous servant justify "Shall my servant justify"" - Three MSS., (two of them ancient,) omit the word qydx tsaddik; it seems to be only an imperfect repetition, by mistake, of the preceding word. It makes a solecism in this place; for according to the constant usage of the Hebrew language, the adjective, in a phrase of this kind, ought to follow the substantive; and ydb[ qydx tsaddik abdi, in Hebrew, would be as absurd as "shall my servant righteous justify, "in English. Add to this, that it makes the hemistich too long.
Verse 12. "He bare the sin of many" - µybr rabbim, the multitudes, the many that were made sinners by the offenses of one; i.e., the whole human race; for all have sinned-all have fallen; and for all that have sinned, and for all that have fallen, Jesus Christ died. The µybr rabbim of the prophet answers to the oi polloi, of the apostle, Rom. v. 15, 19. As the polloi of the apostle means all that have sinned; so the µybr rabbim of the prophet means those for whom Christ died; i.e., all that have sinned.
"And made intercession for the transgressors." - For [ygpy yaphgia, in the future, a MS. has [ygph hiphgia, preterite, rather better, as agreeable with the other verbs immediately preceding in the sentence.
He made intercession for the transgressors. - This was literally fulfilled at his death, "Father, forgive them; they know not what they do! " Luke xxiii. 34. And to make intercession for transgressors is one part of his mediatorial offlce. Heb. vii. 25, and ix. 24.
IN this chapter the incarnation, preaching, humiliation, rejection, sufferings, death, atonement, resurrection, and mediation of Jesus Christ are all predicted, together with the prevalence of his Gospel, and the extension of his kingdom through all ages.