Verse 20. "I am thy part and thine inheritance" - The principal part of what was offered to God was the portion of the priests, therefore they had no inheritance of land in Israel; independently of that they had a very ample provision for their support. The rabbins say twenty-four gifts were given to the priests, and they are all expressed in the law. Eight of those gifts the priests ate nowhere but in the sanctuary: these eight are the following:-
1. The flesh of the SIN- OFFERING, whether of beasts or fowls, Lev. vi. 25, 26.
2. The flesh of the TRESPASS-OFFERING, Lev. vii. 1, 6.
3. The PEACE-OFFERINGS of the congregation, Leviticus xxiii. 19, 20.
4. The remainder of the OMER or SHEAF, Lev. xxiii. 10, &c.
5. The remnants of the MEAT-OFFERINGS of the Israelites, Lev. vi. 16.
6. The two LOAVES, Lev. xxiii. 17.
7. The SHEW-BREAD, Lev. xxiv. 9.
8. The LOG of OIL offered by the leper, Lev. xiv. 10, &c.
Five of those gifts they ate only in Jerusalem:-
1. The breast and shoulder of the PEACE-OFFERINGS, Lev. vii. 31, 34.
2. The HEAVE-OFFERING of the sacrifice of confession, Lev. vii. 12-14.
3. The HEAVE-OFFERING of the Nazarite's ram, Lev. vi. 17-20.
4. The FIRSTLING of the clean beast, ver. 15; Deut. xv. 19, 20.
5. The FIRST-FRUITS, ver. 13.
FIVE gifts were not due unto them by the law, but in the land of Israel only:-
1. The heave-offering or FIRST-FRUITS, Numbers xviii. 12.
2. The heave-offering of the TITHE, ver. 28.
3. The CAKE, chap. xv. 20.
These three were holy.
4. The first-fruits of the FLEECE, Deut. xviii. 4.
5. The FIELD of POSSESSION, Numbers 35.
These two were common.
FIVE gifts were due unto them both within and without the land:-
1. The gifts of the BEASTS SLAIN, Deut. xviii. 3.
2. The redemption of the FIRST-BORN SON, ver. 15.
3. The LAMB for the firstling of an ass, Exod. iv. 20; Numbers 18.
4. The restitution of that taken by violence from a stranger, chap. v. 8.
5. All DEVOTED things, ver. 14.
ONE gift was due unto them from the sanctuary:-
1. The skins of the burnt-offering, and all the skins of the other most holy things, Lev. vii. 8.
In all 24. See Ainsworth.
The gifts which the females of the priests' families had a part in were these:-
1. The heave-offering, or first-fruits.
2. The heave-offering of the tithe.
3. The cake.
4. The gifts of the beast, Deut. xviii. 3.
5. The first of the fleece.- See Mishna, Tract. Biccurim, and Ainsworth on the Pentateuch.
Besides all this the priests had the tribute money mentioned chap. xxxi. 28, 29.
Verse 21. "Behold, I have given the children of Levi all the tenth" - First, the Levites had the tenth of all the productions of the land.
2. They had forty-eight cities, each forming a square of 4, 000 cubits.
3. They had 2, 000 cubits of ground round each city.
Total of the land they possessed, 53, 000 acres.
4. They had the first-fruits and certain parts of all the animals killed in the land.
Canaan contained about 11, 264, 000 acres; therefore the portion possessed by the Levites was rather less than as one to two hundred and twelve; for 11, 264, 000 divided by 53, 000, quotes only 212 28/53. - See Lowman, Dodd, &c. But though this was a very small proportion for a whole tribe that had consented to annihilate its political existence, that it might wait upon the service of God, and labour for the people's souls; yet let it be considered that what they possessed was the best of the land: and while it was a slender remuneration for their services, yet their portion was such as rendered them independent, and kept them comfortable; so that they could wait on the Lord's work without distraction. This is a proper pattern for the maintenance of the ministers of God: let them have a sufficiency for themselves and families, that there may be no distracting cares; and let them not be encumbered with riches or worldly possessions, that they may not be prevented from taking care of souls.
Verse 28. "Thus ye also shall offer a heave-offering" - As the Levites had the tithe of the whole land, they themselves were obliged to give the tithe of this tithe to the priests, so that this considerably lessened their revenue.
And this tithe or tenth they were obliged to select from the best part of the substance they had received, ver. 29, &c. A portion of all must be given to God, as an evidence of his goodness, and their dependence on him. See the end of chap. 20.