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  • ADAM CLARKE'S BIBLE COMMENTARY -
    PSALMS 88

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    PSALM LXXXVIII

    The earnest prayer of a person in deep distress, abandoned by his friends and neighbours, and apparently forsaken of God, 1-18.

    NOTES ON PSALM LXXXVIII

    Perhaps the title of this Psalm, which is difficult enough, might be thus translated: "A Poem to be sung to the conqueror, by the sons of Korah, responsively, in behalf of a distressed person; to give instruction to Heman the Ezrahite." Kennicott says this Psalm has three titles, but the last only belongs to it; and supposes it to be the prayer of a person shut up in a separate house, because of the leprosy, who seems to have been in the last stages of that distemper; this disease, under the Mosaic dispensation, being supposed to come from the immediate stroke of God.

    Calmet supposes it to refer to the captivity; the Israelitish nation being represented here under the figure of a person greatly afflicted through the whole course of his life. By some Heman is supposed to have been the author; but who he was is not easy to be determined. Heman and Ethan whose names are separately prefixed to this and the following Psalm, are mentioned as the grandsons of Judah by his daughter-in-law Tamar, 1 Chronicles ii. 6, for they were the sons of Zerah, his immediate son by the above. "And Tamar, his daughter-in- law, bare him Pharez and Zerah," 1 Chron. ii. 4. "And the sons of Zerah Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, and Calcol, and Dara, (or Darda,") 1 Chron. ii. 6. If these were the same persons mentioned 1 Kings iv. 31, they were eminent in wisdom; for it is there said that Solomon's wisdom "excelled the wisdom of all the children of the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt. For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol," 1 Kings iv. 30, 31. Probably Zerah was also called Mahol.

    If the Psalms in question were written by these men, they are the oldest poetical compositions extant; and the most ancient part of Divine revelation, as these persons lived at least one hundred and seventy years before Moses. This may be true of the seventy-eighth Psalm; but certainly not of the following, as it speaks of transactions that took place long afterwards, at least as late as the days of David, who is particularly mentioned in it. Were we sure of Heman as the author, there would be no difficulty in applying the whole of the Psalm to the state of the Heb. in Egypt, persecuted and oppressed by Pharaoh. But to seek or labour to reconcile matters contained in the titles to the Psalms, is treating them with too much respect, as many of them are wrongly placed, and none of them Divinely inspired.

    Verse 1. "O Lord God of my salvation " - This is only the continuation of prayers and supplications already often sent up to the throne of grace.

    Verse 2. "Let my prayer come before thee " - It is weak and helpless, though fervent and sincere: take all hinderances out of its way, and let it have a free passage to thy throne. One of the finest thoughts in the Iliad of Homer concerns prayer; I shall transcribe a principal part of this incomparable passage-incomparable when we consider its origin: - kai gar te litai eisi diov kourai megaloio, cwlai te, russai te, parablwpev t ofqalmw Ai ra te kai metopisq athv alegousi kiousai h d ath sqenarh te kai artipov ouneka pasav pollon upekproqeei, fqanei de te pasan ep aian, blaptous anqrwpouv ai d exakeontai poissw os men t aidesetai kourav diov, asson iousav, tonde meg wnhsan, kai t ekluon euxamenoio.

    ov de k anhnhtai, kai te sterewv apoeiph, lissontai d ara taige dia kroniwna kiousai, tw athn am epesqai, ina blafqeiv apotish.

    all, acileu, pore kai su diov kourhsin epesqai timhn, ht allwn per epignamptei frenav esqlwn. Iliad., ix. 498-510.

    Prayers are Jove's daughters; wrinkled, lame, slant-eyed, Which, though far distant, yet with constant pace Follow offense. Offence, robust of limb, And treading firm the ground, outstrips them all, And over all the earth, before them runs Hurtful to man: they, following, heal the hurt.

    Received respectfully when they approach, They yield us aid, and listen when we pray.

    But if we slight, and with obdurate heart Resist them, to Saturnian Jove they cry.

    Against, us supplicating, that offense May cleave to us for vengeance of the wrong.

    Thou, therefore, O Achilles! honour yield To Jove's own daughters, vanquished as the brave Have ofttimes been, by honour paid to thee. COWPER.

    On this allegory the translator makes the following remarks: "Wrinkled, because the countenance of a man, driven to prayer by a consciousness of guilt, is sorrowful and dejected. Lame, because it is a remedy to which men recur late, and with reluctance. Slant-eyed, either because in that state of humiliation they fear to lift up their eyes to heaven, or are employed in taking a retrospect of their past misconduct. The whole allegory, considering when and where it was composed, forms a very striking passage." Prayer to God for mercy must have the qualifications marked above.

    Prayer comes from God. He desires to save us: this desire is impressed on our hearts by his Spirit, and reflected back to himself. Thus says the allegory, "Prayers are the daughters of Jupiter." But they are lame, as reflected light is much less intense and vivid than light direct. The desire of the heart is afraid to go into the presence of God, because the man knows, feels, that he has sinned against goodness and mercy. They are wrinkled-dried up and withered, with incessant longing: even the tears that refresh the soul are dried up and exhausted. They are slant-eyed; look aside through shame and confusion; dare not look God in the face. But transgression is strong, bold, impudent, and destructive: it treads with a firm step over the earth, bringing down curses on mankind. Prayer and repentance follow, but generally at a distance. The heart, being hardened by the deceitfulness of sin does not speedily relent. They, however, follow: and when, with humility and contrition, they approach the throne of grace, they are respectfully received. God acknowledges them as his offspring, and heals the wounds made by transgression. If the heart remain obdurate, and the man will not humble himself before his God, then his transgression cleaves to him, and the heartless, lifeless prayers which he may offer in that state, presuming on God's mercy, will turn against him; and to such a one the sacrificial death and mediation of Christ are in vain.

    And this will be the case especially with the person who, having received an offense from another, refuses to forgive. This latter circumstance is that to which the poet particularly refers. See the whole passage, with its context.

    Verse 4. "I am counted with them, &c. " - I am as good as dead; nearly destitute of life and hope.

    Verse 5. "Free among the dead " - ypc ytmb bammethim chophshi, I rather think, means stripped among the dead. Both the fourth and fifth verses seem to allude to a field of battle: the slain and the wounded, are found scattered over the plain; the spoilers come among them, and strip, not only the dead, but those also who appear to be mortally wounded, and cannot recover, and are so feeble as not to be able to resist. Hence the psalmist says, "I am counted with them that go down into the pit; I am as a man that hath no strength," ver. 4. And I am stripped among the dead, like the mortally wounded ( yllj chalalim) that lie in the grave. "Free among the dead," inter mortuos liber, has been applied by the fathers to our Lord's voluntary death: all others were obliged to die, he alone gave up his life, and could take it again, John x. 18. He went into the grave, and came out when he chose. The dead are bound in the grave; he was free, and not obliged to continue in that state as they were.

    "They are cut off from thy hand. " - An allusion to the roll in which the general has the names of all that compose his army under their respective officers. And when one is killed, he is erased from this register, and remembered no more, as belonging to the army; but his name is entered among those who are dead, in a separate book. This latter is termed the black book, or the book of death; the other is called the book of life, or the book where the living are enrolled. From this circumstance, expressed in different parts of the sacred writings, the doctrine of unconditional reprobation and election has been derived. How wonderful!

    Verse 7. "Thou hast afflicted me with all thy waves. " - The figures in this verse seem to be taken from a tempest at sea. The storm is fierce, and the waves cover the ship.

    Verse 8. "Thou hast made me an abonmination " - This verse has been supposed to express the state of a leper, who, because of the infectious nature of his disease, is separated from his family-is abominable to all, and at last shut up in a separate house, whence he does not come out to mingle with society.

    Verse 10. "Wilt thou show wonders to the dead! " - ytm methim, dead men.

    "Shall the dead " - yapr rephaim, "the manes or departed spirits." Arise and praise thee? - Any more in this life? The interrogations in this and the two following verses imply the strongest negations.

    Verse 11. "Or thy faithfulness in destruction? " - Faithfulness in God refers as well to his fulfilling his threatenings as to his keeping his promises. The wicked are threatened with such punishments as their crimes have deserved; but annihilation is no punishment. God therefore does not intend to annihilate the wicked; their destruction cannot declare the faithfulness of God.

    Verse 12. "The land of forgetfulness? " - The place of separate spirits, or the invisible world. The heathens had some notion of this state. They feigned a river in the invisible world, called Lethe, lhqh, which signifies oblivion, and that those who drank of it remembered no more any thing relative to their former state.- Animae, quibus altera fato Corpora debentur, lethaei ad fluminis undam Securos latices et longa oblivia potant. VIRG. AEn. vi. 713.

    To all those souls who round the river wait New mortal bodies are decreed by fate; To yon dark stream the gliding ghosts repair, And quaff deep draughts of long oblivion there.

    Verse 13. "Shall my prayer prevent thee. " - It shall get before thee; I will not wait till the accustomed time to offer my morning sacrifice, I shall call on thee long before others come to offer their devotions.

    Verse 14. "Why castest thou off my soul? " - Instead of my soul, several of the ancient Versions have my prayer. Why dost thou refuse to hear me, and thus abandon me to death?

    Verse 15. "From my youth up. " - I have always been a child of sorrow, afflicted in my body, and distressed in my mind. There are still found in the Church of God persons in similar circumstances; persons who are continually mourning for themselves and for the desolations of Zion. A disposition of this kind is sure to produce an unhealthy body; and indeed a weak constitution may often produce an enfeebled mind; but where the terrors of the Lord prevail, there is neither health of body nor peace of mind.

    Verse 16. "Thy fierce wrath goeth over me. " - It is a mighty flood by which I am overwhelmed.

    Verse 17. "They came round about me daily like water " - Besides his spiritual conflicts, he had many enemies to grapple with. The waves of God's displeasure broke over him, and his enemies came around him like water, increasing more and more, rising higher and higher, till he was at last on the point of being submerged in the flood.

    Verse 18. "Lover and friend " - I have no comfort, and neither friend nor neiphbour to sympathize with me.

    "Mine acquaintance into darkness. " - All have forsaken me; or jm y[dym meyuddai machsach, "Darkness is my companion." Perhaps he may refer to the death of his acquaintances; all were gone; there was none left to console him! That man has a dismal lot who has outlived all his old friends and acquaintances; well may such complain. In the removal of their friends they see little else than the triumphs of death. Khosroo, an eminent Persian poet, handles this painful subject with great delicacy and beauty in the following lines: - Ruftem sauee khuteereh bekerestem bezar Az Hijereh Doostan ke aseer fana shudend: Guftem Eeshah Kuja shudend? ve Khatyr Dad az sada jouab Eeshan Kuja! "Weeping, I passed the place where lay my friends Captured by death; in accents wild I cried, Where are they? And stern Fate, by Echoes voice, Returned in solemn sound the sad Where are they?" J. B. C.

    ANALYSIS OF THE EIGHTY-EIGHTH PSALM

    There are four parts in this Psalm: - I. A petition, ver. 1, 2.

    II. The cause of this petition, his misery, which he describes, ver. 3-9.

    III. The effects produced by this miserable condition:

    1. A special prayer, ver. 10-12; 2. An expostulation with God for deliverance, ver. 10-12.

    IV. A grievous complaint, ver. 14-18.

    The psalmist offers his petition; but before he begins, he lays down four arguments why it should be admitted: - 1. His confidence and reliance on God: "O Lord God of my salvation." 2. His earnestness to prevail: "I have cried." 3. His assiduity: "Day and night." 4. His sincerity: "I have cried before thee." And then he tenders his request for audience: "Let my prayer come before thee, incline thine ear unto my cry." II. And then next he sets forth the pitiful condition he was in, that hereby he might move God to take compassion, which he amplifies several ways: - 1. From the weight and variety of his troubles; many they were, and pressed him to death. "For my soul is full of troubles, and my life draweth nigh to the grave." 2. From the danger of death in which he was.

    Which is illustrated by three degrees: - 1. That he was moribundus, dying, no hope of life in him even by the estimate of all men: "I am counted with them that go down to the pit; I am as a man that hath no strength." 2. That he was plane mortuus, nearly dead; but as a dead man, "free among the dead;" freed from all the business of this life; as far separate from them as a dead man.

    3. Yea, dead and buried: "Like the slain that lie in the grave, whom thou rememberedst no more;" i.e., to care for in this life; and "they are cut off from thy hand," i.e., thy providence, thy custody, as touching matter of this life.

    And yet he farther amplifies his sad condition by two similitudes:-

    1. Of a man in some deep dark dungeon: "Thou hast laid me in the lowest pit, in darkness, in the deeps; " as was Jeremiah, Psa. 37.

    2. Of a man in a wreck at sea, that is compassed with the waves, to which he compares God's anger: "Thy wrath lieth hard upon me.

    and thou hast afflicted me with all thy waves." One wave impels another. The recurrence of his troubles was perpetual; one no sooner gone but another succeeded.

    And, to add to this his sorrow, his friends, whose visits in extremity used to alleviate the grief of a troubled soul, even these proved perfidious, and came not to him; he had no comfort with them; which was also God's doing, and thus augmented his grief.

    The auxesis or augmentation is here very elegant:

    1. "Thou hast put away mine acqllaintance from me." THOU.

    2. "Thou hast made me an abomination to them." No less; an abomination.

    3. "I am shut up, I cannot come forth." As a man in prison, I cannot come at them, and they will not come to me.

    III. The effect of which grievous affliction was threefold: 1. An internal grief and wasting of the body; 2. An ardent affection in God; and 3. An expostulation with God.

    1. "My eye mourns by reason of afflietion." An evidence that I am troubled and grieved to the heart, that my eye droops and fails; for when the animal and vital spirits suffer a decay, the eye will quickly, by her dimness, deadness, and dulness, discover it.

    2. It produced an ardent affection, a continuance and assiduity in prayer, which is here made evident by the adjuncts.

    1. His voice: "I have called daily upon thee." It was, 1. A cry; 2. It was continual.

    2. By the extension of his hands: "I have stretched out my hands to thee." Men used to do so when they expected help; when they looked to receive; whence we sometimes say Lend me thy hand.

    3. The third effect was, an expostulation with God, in which he presseth to spare his life from the inconvenience that might thereby happen viz., that he should be disabled to praise God and celebrate his name, as he was bound and desired to do, among the living: an argument used before, Psa. vi. 3. This argument, though it savours too much of human frailty, yet he thought by it to move God, who above all things is jealous of his own glory, which by his death he imagines will suffer loss; and therefore he asks: - 1. "Wilt thou show wonders among the dead?" That is, thy desire is to set forth thy honour, which cannot be done if I go to the grave, except by some miracle I should be raised from thence.

    2. "Shall the dead arise again and praise thee?" It is the living that shall show forth thy praise, thy power, and goodness; thy fidelity in keeping thy promises to the sons of men. The dead, as dead, cannot do this; and they return not from the grave, except by miracle.

    3. "Shall thy lovingkindness be declared in the grave, or thy faithfulness in destruction? shall thy wonders be known in the dark, or thy righteousness in the land of forgetfulness?' Such is the grave, a place of oblivion; for Abraham is ignorant of us. The goodness and faithfulness of God, which he makes known to us in this life, are not known nor can be declared by the dead: the living see them; they have experience of them; and therefore he desires that his life may be spared to that end, lest if he die now that faculty should be taken from him; he should no longer be able to resound the praise of God, which is the end for which men ought to desire life.

    IV. He returns to his complaint; and again repeats what he had said before, and almost in the same words, and gives three instances: - 1. In his prayer: "But unto thee have I cried, O Lord; and in the morning shall my prayer prevent thee." He prayed earnestly, early, not drowsily; for he did prevent God: he prayed, and would continue in prayer; and yet all in vain.

    2. For God seems to be inexorable, of which he complains: "Lord, why castest thou off my soul? why hidest thou thy face from me?" Even the best of God's servants have sometimes been brought to that strait, that they have not had a clear sense of God's favour, but conceived themselves neglected and deserted by him, and discountenanced.

    His second instance is, his present affliction, mentioned before, ver. 4-7: "I am afflicted and ready to die," which he here exaggerates: - 1. From the time and continuance of it; for he had borne it "even from his youth up." 2. From the cause. It did not proceed from any outward or human cause; that might have been borne and helped: but it was an affliction sent from God: "Thy terrors have I suffered;" it came from a sense of God's wrath.

    3. From an uncomfortable effect. It wrought in this soul amazement, unrest, a perpetual trouble and astonishment: "Thy terrors have I suffered with a troubled mind: "I am distracted with them." He amplifies this wrath by the former similes, ver. 7; waves and water.

    1. "Thy fierce wrath goes over me;" as waves over a man's head at sea.

    "Thy terrors have cut me off," as a weaver's thrum.

    2. "They came round about me like water; daily like water." 3. "They compassed me about together," as if they conspired my ruin: "all thy waves," ver. 7.

    His third instance, which is the same, ver. 8. The perfidiousness and desertion of friends: a loving friend is some comfort in distress; but this he found not: "Lover and friend hast thou put far from me, and mine acquaintance into darkness." They appear no more to me to give me any counsel, help, or comfort, than if they were hidden in perpetual darkness.

    His case, therefore, was most deplorable.

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