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  • ADAM CLARKE'S BIBLE COMMENTARY -
    PSALMS 89

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    PSALM LXXXIX

    The psalmist shows God's great mercy to the house of David, and the promises which he had given to it of support and perpetuity, 1-37; complains that, notwithstanding these promises, the kingdom of Judah is overthrown, and the royal family nearly ruined, 38-45; and earnestly prays for their restoration, 46-52.

    NOTES ON PSALM LXXXIX

    It is most probable that this Psalm was composed during the captivity. Of Ethan and Heman we have already seen something in the introduction to the preceding Psalm; see also the parallel places in the margin. The title should probably be translated, - To give instruction to Ethan the Ezrahite. The Chaldee has, "A good instruction, delivered by Abraham, who came from the east country." The Septuagint and AEthiopic have Nathan the Israelite; the Arabic has Nathan the Israelite.

    The Psalm divides itself into two grand parts; the first extends, ver. 1-37, in which the psalmist shows God's mercy to the house of David, and the promises which he has given to it of support and perpetuity. The second part begins with verse 38, and ends with the Psalm; and in it the author complains that notwithstanding these promises, the kingdom of Judah is overthrown and the royal family ruined; and he entreats the Lord to remember his covenant made with that family, and restore them from their captivity.

    Verse 1. "I will sing of the mercies of the Lord " - I will celebrate the mercy of God to the house of Jacob; the mercy that has been shown to our fathers from time immemorial.

    "To all generations " - What I say concerning thy mercy and goodness, being inspired by thy Spirit, is not only true, but shall be preserved by the Divine providence for ever.

    Verse 2. "Mercy shall be built up for ever " - God's goodness is the foundation on which his mercy rests; and from that source, and on that foundation, acts of mercy shall flow and be built up for ever and ever.

    "Thy faithfulness shalt thou establish " - What thou hast promised to do to the children of men on earth, thou dost register in heaven, and thy promise shall never fail.

    Verse 3. "I have made a covenant with my chosen " - I have made a covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and renewed it with Moses and Josh. in reference to the Israelites in general: but I have made one with David in especial relation to himself and posterity, of whom, according to the flesh, the Christ is to come. And this is the covenant with David: -

    Verse 4. Thy seed will I establish for ever, and build up thy throne to all generations. - And this covenant had most incontestably Jesus Christ in view. This is the seed, or posterity, that should sit on the throne, and reign for ever and ever. David and his family are long since become extinct; none of his race has sat on the Jewish throne for more than two thousand years: but the Christ has reigned invariably since that time, and will reign till all his enemies are put under his feet; and to this the psalmist says Selah. It will be so, it is so; and it cannot be otherwise; for the Lord hath sworn that he shall have an euerlasting kingdom, as he has an everlasting priesthood.

    Verse 5. "The heavens shall praise thy wonders " - The works that shall be wrought by this descendant of David shall be so plainly miraculous as shall prove their origin to be Divine: and both saints and angels shall join to celebrate his praises.

    "Thy faithfulness also " - All thy promises shall be fulfilled; and particularly and supereminently those which respect the congregation of the saints-the assemblies of Christian believers.

    Verse 6. "For who in the heaven " - qj shachak signifies the ethereal regions, all visible or unbounded space; the universe. Who is like Jesus? given in his human nature none of the sons of the mighty can be compared with him. He atones for the sin of the world, and saves to the uttermost all who come unto God through him.

    This may also be considered a reproof to idolaters. Is there any among the heavenly hosts like to God? Even the most glorious of them were made by his hands. Can the stars, or the more distant planets, or the moon, or the sun, be likened unto God most high? Who among the sons of the mighty - Instead of yla elim, mighty ones, four of Kennicott's and Deuteronomy Rossi's MSS. have lya eil, strength: - sons of strength, strong persons. Several of the Versions seem to have read yhla Elohim, GOD, instead of yla elim, strong ones. So my old Psalter, following the Vulgate. - "For wha in the clowdes sal be evened to Lorde; like sal be to God in sons of God!" which it paraphrases thus: "Emang al haly men nane may be evened to Ihu Crist: and nane may be like to hym in God's sons: for he is God's son be kynde, and thai thrugh grace."

    Verse 7. "God is greatly to be feared " - In all religious assemblies the deepest reverence for God should rest upon the people. Where this does not prevail, there is no true worship. While some come with a proper Scriptural boldness to the throne of grace, there are others who come into the presence of God with a reprehensible, if not sinful, boldness.

    Verse 8. "O Lord God of hosts " - Thou who hast all armies at thy command, and canst serve thyself by every part of thy creation, whether animate or inanimate.

    "Who is a strong Lord " - See ver. 6.

    "Thy faithfulness round about thee? " - Or, more properly, thy faithfulness is round about thee. Thou still keepest thy promises in view. God's truth leads him to fulfill his promises: they stand round his throne as the faithful servants of an eastern monarch stand round their master, waiting for the moment of their dismission to perform his will.

    Verse 9. "Thou rulest the raging of the sea " - Whoever has seen the sea in a storm, when its waves run what is called mountain high, must acknowledge that nothing but omnipotent power could rule its raging.

    "When the waves thereof arise, thou stillest them. " - Thou governest both its flux and reflux. Thou art the Author of storms and calms. There may be a reference here to the passage of the Red Sea, and the strong wind that agitated its waves at that time; as the next verse seems to indicate.

    Verse 10. "Thou hast broken Rahab " - Thou hast destroyed the power of Egypt, having overthrown the king and its people when they endeavoured to prevent thy people from regaining their liberty.

    "As one that is slain " - The whole clause in the original is, bhr lljk takd hta attah dikkitha kechalal Rahab, "Thou, like a hero, hast broken down Egypt." Dr. Kennicott has largely proved that llj chalal, which we render wounded, slain, &c., means a soldier, warrior, hero; and it is certain that this sense agrees better with it than the other in a great number of places. Mr. Berlin translates, Tu contrivisti ut cadaver AEgyptum; "Thou hast bruised down Egypt like a dead carcass." The whole strength of Egypt could avail nothing against thee. Thou didst trample them down as easily as if they had all been dead carcasses.

    Verse 11. "The heavens are thine " - Thou art the Governor of all things, and the Disposer of all events.

    "The world " - The terraqueous globe.

    "And the fullness " - All the generations of men. Thou hast founded them-thou hast made them, and dost sustain them.

    "After this verse, the Editio Princeps of the Hebrew Bible, printed at Soncino, 1488, adds: " - hlyl l pa wy l lailah lecha aph yom lecha mw rwam twnykh hta vashamesh maor hachinotha attah To thee is the day; also to thee is the night: Thou hast prepared the light and the sun.

    But these same words are found in Psa. lxxiv. 16.

    Verse 12. "The north and the south " - It is generally supposed that by these four terms all the four quarters of the globe are intended. Tabor, a mountain of Galilee, was on the west of Mount Hermon, which was beyond Jordan, to the east of the source of that river.

    Verse 14. "Justice and judgment are the habitation of thy throne " - The throne-the government, of God, is founded in righteousness and judgment.

    He knows what is right; he sees what is right; he does what is right; and his judgments are ever according to righteousness. His decisions are all oracles, no one of them is ever reversed.

    Mercy and truth shall go before thy face. ] These shall be the heralds that shall announce the coming of the Judge. His truth binds him to fulfill all his declarations; and his mercy shall be shown to all those who have fled for refuge to the hope that is set before them in the Gospel. See the notes on Psa. lxxxv. 10, 11.

    Verse 15. "Blessed is the people " - "O the blessednesses of that people ( [h yra ashrey haam) that know the joyful sound;" that are spared to hear the sound of the trumpet on the morning of the jubilee, which proclaims deliverance to the captives, and the restoration of all their forfeited estates. "They shall walk vigorously ( wklhy yehallechun) in the light of thy countenance" ( ynp rwab beor paneycha)-the full persuasion of the approbation of God their Father, Redeemer, and Sanctifier.

    Verse 16. "In thy name shall they rejoice " - Or, "greatly exult," wlygy yegilun; "all that day," wyh haiyom, the jubilee, referred to above.

    "And in thy righteousness " - In the declaration of thy righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, Rom. iii. 25, 26.

    "Shall they be exalted. " - They shall be justified freely from all things, be purified from all unrighteousness, grow in grace, and in the knowledge of Jesus Christ here below, and at last be exalted to his right hand to reign with him for ever. The jubilee was a type of the Gospel, and under that type the psalmist here speaks of the glorious advent of the Lord Jesus, and the great happiness of believers in him. Let it be observed that the letters in the above Hebrew words called paragogic, as nun in wklhy yehallechuN, and wlygy yegiluN, always increase and deepen the meaning of the words to which they are attached.

    Verse 17. "For thou art the glory of their strength " - They are strong in faith, and give glory to thee, because they know that their strength cometh from the Lord of hosts.

    "And in thy favour our horn shall be exalted. " - Instead of wrt tarum, "shall be exalted," yrt tarim, "thou shalt exalt," is the reading of several MSS.: but wrt tarum, "shall be exalted," is supported by forty-four of Kennicott's MSS., and sixty of Deuteronomy Rossi's, as well as by several ancient editions, with the Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, and Arabic Versions. In the enjoyment of the Divine favour they shall grow more wise, more holy, more powerful, and, consequently, more happy.

    Verse 19. "Then thou spakest in vision to thy holy one " - Instead of dysj chasidecha, "thy holy one," ydysj chasideycha, "thy holy ones," is the reading of sisty-three of Kennicott's and seventy-one of Deuteronomy Rossi's MSS., and a great number of editions besides.

    If we take it in the singular, it most probably means Samuel, and refers to the revelation God gave to him relative to his appointment of David to be king in the stead of Saul. If we take it in the plural, it may mean not only Samuel, but also Nathan and Gad.

    For what God revealed to Samuel relative to David, see 2 Samuel vii. 5, &c.; 1 Chron. xi. 2, 3; and for what he said to Nathan on the same subject, see 1 Chron. xvii. 3, 7-15. All the Versions have the word in the plural.

    Verse 20. "I have found David my servant " - This is the sum of what God had said in prophetic visions to his saints or holy persons, Samuel, Nathan, and Gad; see the parallel places in the margin. Here the psalmist begins to reason with God relative to David, his posterity, and the perpetuity of his kingdom; which promises appear now to have utterly failed, as the throne had been overturned, and all the people carried into captivity. But all these things may have reference to Christ and his kingdom; for we are assured that David was a type of the Messiah.

    Verse 22. "The enemy shall not exact upon him " - None of his enemies shall be able to prevail against him. It is worthy of remark that David was never overthrown; he finally conquered every foe that rose up against him.

    Saul's persecution, Absalom's revolt, Sheba's conspiracy, and the struggle made by the partisans of the house of Saul after his death, only tended to call forth David's skill, courage, and prowess, and to seat him more firmly on his throne. The Philistines, the Ammonites, the Syrians, &c., united all their forces to crush him, but in vain: "God beat down all his foes before his face," and variously plagued those who opposed him, ver. 23.

    Verse 25. "I will set his hand also in the sea " - This was literally fulfilled in David. Hand signifies power or authority; he set his hand on the sea in conquering the Philistines, and extending his empire along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, from Tyre to Pelusium. All the coasts of the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabic Ocean, might be said to have been under his government, for they all paid tribute to him or his son Solomon.

    "His right hand in the rivers " - First, the Euphrates: he subjected all Syria, and even a part of Mesopotamia; 2 Sam. viii. 3; 1 Chron. xviii. 3. He also took Damascus, and consequently had his hand or authority over the river Chrysorrhoes, or Baraddi; and in his conquest of all Syria his hand must have been on the Orontes and other rivers in that region. But if this be considered as referring to the typical David, we see that He was never conquered; he never lost a battle; the hosts of hell pursued him in vain.

    Satan was discomfited, and all his enemies bruised under his feet. Even over death he triumphed; and as to his dominion, it has spread and is spreading over all the isles of the sea, and the continents of the world.

    Verse 27. "I will make him my first-born " - I will deal with him as a father by his first-born son, to whom a double portion of possessions and honours belong. First-born. is not always to be understood literally in Scripture. It often signifies simply a well-beloved, or best-beloved son; one preferred to all the rest, and distinguished by some eminent prerogative. Thus God calls Israel his son, his first-born, Exod. iv. 22. See also Ecclus. xxxvi. 12. And even Ephraim is called God's first-born, Jer. xxxi. 9. In the same sense it is sometimes applied even to Jesus Christ himself, to signify his supereminent dignity; not the eternal Sonship of his Divine nature, as inveterate prejudice and superficial thinking have supposed.

    Verse 29. "His seed also will I make to endure for ever " - This ean apply only to the spiritual David. The posterity of David are long since extinct, or so blended with the remaining Jews as to be utterly indiscernible; but Jesus ever liveth, and his seed (Christians) are spread, and are spreading over all nations; and his throne is eternal. As to his manhood, he is of the house and lineage of David; the government is upon his shoulders, and of its increase there shall be no end, upon the throne of David and on his kingdom to order it and to establish it with judgment and justice, from henceforth even for ever. Isa. ix. 7.

    Verse 30. "If his children forsake my law " - See the notes on 2 Sam. vii. 13, where this and some of the following verses are explained.

    Verse 34. "My covenant will I not break " - My determination to establish a spiritual kingdom, the head of which shall be Jesus, the son of David, shall never fail. My prophets have declared this, and I will not alter the thing that is gone out of my mouth.

    Verse 35. "Once have I sworn " - I have made one determination on this head, and have bound myself by my holiness; it is impossible that I should change, and there needs no second oath, the one already made is of endless obligation.

    Verse 36. "His throne as the son " - Splendid and glorious! dispensing light, heat, life, and salvation to all mankind.

    Verse 37. "As the moon, and as a faithful witness in heaven. " - That is, as long as the sun and moon shall endure, as long as time shall last, his kingdom shall last among men. The moon appears to be termed a faithful witness here, because by her particularly time is measured. Her decrease and increase are especially observed by every nation, and by these time is generally estimated, especially among the eastern nations. So many moons is a man old; so many moons since such an event happened; and even their years are reckoned by lunations. This is the case with the Mohammedans to the present day. Or the rainbow may be intended; that sign which God has established in the cloud; that faithful witness of his that the earth shall no more be destroyed by water. As long therefore as the sun, the moon, and the rainbow appear in the heavens, so long shall the spiritual David reign, and his seed prosper and increase.

    Selah. ] It is confirmed; it shall not fail.

    Verse 38. "But thou hast cast off " - Hitherto the psalmist has spoken of the covenant of God with David and his family, which led them to expect all manner of prosperity, and a perpetuity of the Jewish throne; now he shews what appears to him a failure of the promise, and what he calls in the next verse the making void the covenant of his servant. God cannot lie to David; how is it then that his crown is profaned, that it is cast down to the ground; the land being possessed by strangers, and the twelve tribes in the most disgraceful and oppressive captivity?

    Verse 40. "Thou hast broken down all his hedges " - Thou hart permitted the land to be stripped of all defense; there is not even one strong place in the hands of thy people.

    Verse 41. "All that pass bay the way spoil him. " - The land is in the condition of a vineyard, the hedge of which is broken down, so that they who pass by may pull the grapes, and dismantle or tear down the vines.

    The Chaldeans and the Assyrians began the ravage; the Samaritans on the one hand, and the Idumeans on the other, have completed it.

    Verse 42. Thou hast set up the right hand of his adversaries - Thou hast given them that strength which thou didst formerly give to thy own people; therefore these are depressed, those exalted.

    Verse 43. "Thou hast also turned the edge of his sword. " - The arms and military prowess of thy people are no longer of any use to them; THOU art against them, and therefore they are fallen. In what a perilous and hopeless situation must that soldier be who, while defending his life against his mortal foe, has his sword broken, or its edge turned; or, in modern warfare, whose gun misses fire! The Gauls, when invaded by the Romans, had no method of hardening iron; at every blow their swords bended, so that they were obliged, before they could strike again, to put them under their foot or over their knee, to straighten them; and in most cases, before this could be done, their better armed foe had taken away their life! The edge of their sword was turned, so that they could not stand in battle; and hence the Gauls were conquered by the Romans.

    Verse 44. "Thou hast made his glory to cease " - The kingly dignity is destroyed, and there is neither king nor throne remaining.

    Verse 45. "The days of his youth hast thou shortened " - Our kings have not reigned half their days, nor lived out half their lives. The four last kings of Judea reigned but a short time, and either died by the sword or in captivity.

    Jehoahaz reigned only three months, and was led captive to Egypt, where he died. Jehoiakim reigned only eleven years, and was tributary to the Chaldeans, who pat him to death, and cast his body into the common sewer. Jehoiachin reigned three months and ten days, and was led captive to Babylon, where he continued in prison to the time of Evilmerodach, who, though he loosed him from prison, never invested him with any power. Zedekiah, the last of all, had reigned only eleven years when he was taken, his eyes put out, was loaded with chains, and thus carried to Babylon. Most of these kings died a violent and premature death. Thus the days of their youth-of their power, dignity, and iife, were shortened, and they themselves covered with shame. Selah; so it most incontestably is.

    Verse 46. "How long, Lord? " - The promise cannot utterly fail. When then, O Lord, wilt thou restore the kingdom to Israel?

    Verse 47. How short my time isl If thou deliver not speedily, none of the present generations shall see thy salvation. Are all the remnants of our tribes created in vain? shall they never see happiness?

    Verse 48. "What man is he that liveth " - All men are mortal, and death is uncertain and no man, by wisdom, might, or riches, can deliver his life from the hand-the power, of death and the grave.

    Verse 49. "Lord, where are thy former lovingkindnesses " - Wilt thou not deal with us as thou didst with our fathers? Didst thou not swear unto David that thou wouldst distinguish him as thou didst them?

    Verse 50. "I do bear in my bosom " - Our enemies, knowing our confidence, having often heard our boast in thee, and now seeing our low and hopeless estate, mock us for our confidence, and blaspheme thee. This wounds my soul; I cannot bear to hear thy name blasphemed among the heathen. All these mighty people blaspheme the God of Jacob.

    Verse 51. "They have reproached the footsteps of thine anointed. " - They search into the whole history of thy people; they trace it up to the earliest times; and they find we have been disobedient and rebellious; and on this account we suffer much, alas, deserved reproach. The Chaldee gives this clause a singular turn: "Thy enemies have reproached the slowness of the footsteps of the feet of thy Messiah, O Lord. We have trusted in him as our great Deliverer, and have been daily in expectation of his coming: but there is no deliverer, and our enemies mock our confidence." This expectation seems now wholly abandoned by the Jews: they have rejected the true Messiah, and the ground of their expectation of another is now cut off. When will they turn unto the Lord? When shall the veil be taken away from their hearts? "Bend by thy grace, O bend or break The iron sinew in their neck!"

    Verse 52. "Blessed be the Lord for evermore. " - Let him treat us as he will, his name deserves eternal praises: our affliction, though great, is less than we have deserved.

    This verse concludes the THIRD BOOK of the PSALTER; and, I think, has been added by a later hand, in order to make this distinction, as every Masoretic Bible has something of this kind at the end of each book. The verse is wanting in one of Kennicott's and one of Deuteronomy Rossi's MSS.; in another it is written without points, to show that it does not belong to the text, and in three others it is written separately from the text.

    It is found, however, in all the ancient Versions. The Chaldee finishes thus: "Blessed be the name of the Lord in this world. Amen and Amen. Blessed be the name of the Lord in the world to come. Amen and Amen." And the reader will find no difficulty to subscribe his Amen, so be it.

    ANALYSIS OF THE EIGHTY-NINTH PSALM

    In this Psalm the stability and perpetuity of Christ's kingdom, of which the kingdom of David was but a type, are excellently described and foretold.

    "The parts of this Psalm are these: " - I. The argument and sum of the whole; the loving-kindness and the truth of God, ver. 1, 2.

    II. The particular instance of God's goodness and truth in making a covenant with David, ver. 3, 4.

    III. A doxology in which God is praised for his wonders, faithfulness, power, providence, justice, judgment, mercy, and truth, ver. 3-15.

    IV. The happy state of God's people, ver. 15-19.

    V. A special example of God's goodness towards his Church, exemplified in David, but verified in Christ, ver. 20-28.

    VI. How David's posterity should be dealt with, on their disobedience, ver. 29-38.

    VII. An expostulation on the contrary events, where the psalmist deplores the ruined state of the Jewish kingdom, ver. 38-47.

    VIII. A petition for mercy and restoration, ver. 48-51.

    IX. The conclusion, in which the psalmist blesseth God for the hope he has in his favour, in all states, ver. 52.

    I. The argument or sum of the Psalm set down in the first verse, and amplified by the reason in the second.

    1. "I will sing." I will set this forth in a song; because, 1. It is the fittest way to express joy for any thing. 2. It will be best inculcated in this way. 3. It will be more easily remembered; and, 4. More easily delivered to others, in order to be remembered. Many ancient histories had not been preserved at all, had they not been delivered in poetry.

    2. "Of thy mercies." Plurally, for they are many; and a song of this kind should be of all.

    3. "For ever." Intentionally, not in himself, not actually; for as a wicked man, could he live always, would sin always; so a good man, could he live here for ever, would sing for ever of the mercies of the Lord.

    4. "With my mouth will I make known," &c. While I live I will make them known, and when I am dead they shall be known by the record which I leave behind. His reason for it is, because God's mercy is everlasting; it is therefore proper to be the subject of everlasting song.

    1. "For I have said." This is an indubitable truth.

    2. "Mercy shall be built up for ever." It is not exhausted in one age, but, as a house built on a strong foundation, it shall be firm, and last from age to age.

    3. "Thy faithfulness shalt thou establish." As is thy mercy, so is thy faithfulness, perpetual as the heavens.

    II. For the proof of God's goodness and truth he produces the instance of the covenant made with David, where he brings in God speaking: - 1. "I have made a covenant with my chosen." I have made this covenant through my mere mercy, not on account of their merits. I have chosen David, not because he deserved it, but because he is fit for it.

    2. "I have sworn." In compassion to the weakness of men, I have condescended to bind myself by an oath; and the covenant and the oath are extant. 2 Sam. vii. 11.

    3. The tenor of the covenant is, "Thy seed will I establish for ever, and build up thy throne to all generations." Thy seed-this is true of Christ only, who was of the seed of David, and of whose kingdom there shall be no end. The words are not to be understood of David's earthly kingdom, but of Christ's spiritual kingdom, for that alone will be established for ever.

    III. A Doxology. What the psalmist undertook in the first part he now performs, and thus he begins: "The heavens shall praise." By these some understand the Church, and the preachers in the Church; others, the angels: both are true. GOD'S followers and his angels praise him; and the subject of their praise is: - 1. God's wondrous works, and his truth. 2. the manner in which he showed his works and his truth, in promising the Messiah, and in so faithfully keeping that promise.

    And now he sings praise to his majesty, setting forth his power in three respects: - 1. By way of comparison; there is nothing in heaven or earth equal to it, ver. 6-8.

    2. By his agency in governing the world: as, for example, the sea, Thou stillest the raging of it, &c.

    3. The creation of all things; the world and its fullness.

    The other part of the praise, sung both by the prophets and the angels, is taken from his attributes, summed up in ver. 14: "Justice and judgment are the habitation of thy throne; mercy and truth shall go before thy face." He represents God as a great King sitting in his throne; the basis of which is, 1. Justice and Judgment. 2. The attendants are mercy and truth.

    1. Justice, which defends his subjects, and does every one right.

    2. Judgment, which restrains rebels, and keeps off injuries.

    3. Mercy, which shows compassion, pardons, supports the weak.

    4. Truth, that performs whatsoever he promiseth.

    IV. And in regard that God is powerful, just, merciful, faithful, he takes an occasion to set out the happy condition of God's people, who live under this King.

    "Blessed are the people that know the joyful sound: " that is, do know that God is present with them, and his kingly Majesty is at hand to protect them. The phrase is taken from Moses. For the law was given by sound of trumpet. The calling of the feasts was by sound of trumpet: at that sound they removed; at that sound they assembled. Balaam said, "The sound of a king is among them." Happy, then, are the people that know the joyful sound. God presents their King speaking, ruling, defending, pardoning therm. Or it may refer to the year of jubilee, (see the notes.) That they are happy, the effects do evince; which are: - 1. "They shall walk in the light of thy countenance," i.e., though beset with troubles, yet they shall walk confidently, being assured of God's favour.

    2. "In thy name shall they rejoice all the day long." Their joy is firm.

    3. "In thy righteousness shall they be exalted." They shall get a name, strength. In their union and communion with God they shall be happy.

    Confident, yea, joyful and strong they are in all temptations; which yet they have not from themselves. All is from God. For "thou art the glory of their strength, and in thy favour our horn shall be exalted. For the Lord is our defense, the Holy One of Israel is our King." V. The doxology being now ended, and the happiness of God's people expressed and proved, the prophet now enlarges himself upon the covenant formerly mentioned. ver. 4, 5, exemplified in David, but truly verified in Christ. Which he continues to verse 30.

    1. "Then," i.e., when David was chosen to be king, and invested with the regal robe.

    2. "Thou spakest in vision to thy Holy One." To Samuel for his anointing; and saidst, 3. "I have laid help upon one that is mighty; I have exalted one chosen out of the people." That is, David in type, but Christ in the antitype. So explained, "I have found David my servant; with my holy oil have I anointed him." To which there follow the promises made to him: - 1. For his establishment and confirmation in the throne: "With whom my hand shall be established; mine arm also shall strengthen him." 2. For protection against his enemies: "The enemy shall not exact upon him, nor the son of wickedness afflict him." 3. A conquest over his enemies: "And will beat down his foes before his face, and plague them that hate him." 4. And that there be no doubt of the performance of these ample promises, nor yet those that follow, the prophet interposes the cause, viz., the faithfulness and mercy of God. In mercy he said it, and it should so come to pass: "But my faithfulness and mercy shall be with him." And now he goes on: - 5. "His horn shall be exalted." His power shall be greatly increased.

    And this his exaltation appears: - 1. In the dilatation of his empire: "I will set his hand also in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers," i.e., from the sea to Euphrates, 2 Sam. viii.

    2. In the honour done him, to call GOD Father, his God, his Rock: "He shall call to me, Thou art my Father, my God, and the Rock of my salvation." 3. Then that God asserts and fixes this prerogative upon him, acknowledging him to be his Son; his flrst-born Son: "Also I will make him my first-born, higher than the kings of the earth." 4. In the perpetuity of his kingdom, which is rightly attributed to God's mercy; as ver. 25: "My mercy will I keep for him for evermore, and my covenant shall stand fast with him." 5. In the promise made to his seed: "His seed also will I make to endure for ever, and his throne as the days of heaven." VI. And next the prophet puts a case, and answers it: But what, if David's seed transgress God's covenant, break his laws, violate his statutes, become rebels and disobedient; will God then keep covenant with them! shall his seed endure for ever? and his throne as the days of heaven? To this doubt God answers, ver. 30-38; showing us how David's seed, if they transgress, shall be dealt with.

    1. "If his children forsake my law;" that is, my whole doctrine of worship, religion, faith, &c.

    2. "And walk not in my judgments;" i.e., in those laws which set out rewards and punishments.

    3. "If they break my statutes." Those statutes I have set down for my service, the rites, ceremonies, new moons, Sabbaths, sacrifices, circumcision, passover, &c.

    4. "And keep not my commandments;" that is, the decalogue and moral law. In a word, if they become vicious in their morals, and profane, and rebels in my worship and religion.

    This then shall happen unto them, - escape they shall not, but shall soundly smart for it. They shall feel, - 1. The rod; and, 2. The scourge.

    Then, 1. "I will visit (that is, punish) their transgression with the rod." 2. "And their iniquity with stripes." Which was often done by the Babylonians, Antiochus, &c. And yet in judgment I will remember mercy. I will remember my covenant, my promise, my word, my oath, and will make that good. I will not totally cast off David's seed; which I mean not after the flesh, for that is long since cast off, but after the Spirit Christ, which was of the seed of David, and those which are his seed, viz., the Church, shall enjoy the benefit of my covenant and oath for ever: "Nevertheless, my loving-kindness will I not utterly take from him, nor suffer my faithfulness to fail.

    My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing gone out of my lips." And that there be no doubt of this, he brings in God repeating his oath and covenant.

    1. His oath: "Once have I sworn by my holiness;" that is, by myself, who am holy.

    2. His covenant: "That I will not lie unto David; for his seed shall endure for ever, and his throne as the sun before me. It shall be established for ever as the moon, and as a faithful witness in heaven." As the sun and moon are not liable to any ruinous mutations no more is this covenant: they must endure to the end of the world; and so must this covenant. They are faithful witnesses in heaven; and so we are to seek for the performance of this covenant in heaven; not in the earth the covenant being about a heavenly kingdom not an earthly; it being evident that the kingdom of David on earth has failed many ages since: but that of Christ shall never fail.

    VII. Now that David's kingdom did fail, or at least was brought to a low ebb, is the complaint in the following words, which flesh and blood considering, gave a wrong judgment upon it, as if God did nothing less than perform his oath and covenant. This is what the prophet lays to God's charge: "But thou hast cut off and abhorred, thou hast been wroth with thine anointed." Both king and people are cast aside, than which nothing seems more contrary to thy covenant.

    Thou hast made void the covenant of the servant, of which there are many lamentable consequences: - 1. "His crown is cast to the ground." The glory of his kingdom trampled upon.

    2. "His hedges broken down." His strong holds brought to ruin.

    3. "All that pass by the way spoil him." He is exposed to all rapine and plunder.

    4. "He is a reproach to his neighbour." Exposed to all contumely and disgrace.

    5. "Thou hast set up the right hand of his enemies, and made all his adversaries to rejoice." Thou seemest to take part with the enemy against him, and makest him to exult and rejoice in oppressing him.

    6. "Thou hast also turned the edge of his sword, (blunted his sword that was wont to slay,) and hast not made him to stand in the battle," but to fly and turn his back.

    7. "Thou hast made his glory (the glory dignity, authority of his kingdom) to cease, and cast his crown to the ground." 8. "The days of his youth hast thou shortened;" cut him off in the prime and strength of his years. "Thou hast covered him with shame;" made his opulent, glorious kingdom ignominious; which was true in divers of David's posterity, especially Jehoiakim.

    These were the sad complaints which the prophet pours out; but he quickly recovers and recalls his thoughts; and that he may move God to help, he falls to prayer, which is very pathetic.

    VIII. He considers the nature of God as kind, loving, merciful, slow to anger; and asks: - 1. "How long, Lord? wilt thou hide thyself for ever?" Hide thy favour? 2. "Shall thy wrath burn like fire?" An element that hath no mercy.

    He then uses other arguments, pathetically expressed, to move God to pity: - 1. Drawn from the brevity of man's life: "Remember how short my time is." 2. From the end for which man was created; not in vain, but to be an object of God's goodness and favour.

    3. From the weakness and disability of man. His life is short; and can he lengthen it? "What man is he that liveth, and shall not see death?" Yea, though he live long, yet he is a mortal creature: "Shall he deliver his soul from the grave?" 4. From the covenant, of which he puts God in mind: "Lord, where are thy former lovingkindnesses, which thou swarest to David in thy truth?" 5. From the ignominy, scorns, sarcasms, by enemies cast upon them, which he desires God to look upon. 1. "Remember, Lord, the reproach of thy servant." 2. "And how I do bear in my bosom." Not spoken afar off, but in my hearing, and to my face, as if poured and emptied into my bosom; the rebukes not of this or that man, but of many people.

    6. And lastly, that these reproaches, in effect, fall upon God. For they who reproach God's servants are his enemies: "Remember the reproaches" - 1. "Wherewith thine enemies have reproached, O Lord." 2. "Wherewith they have reproached the footsteps of thine anointed," i.e., either whatsoever he says or does; or else by footsteps is to be understood the latter end of David's kingdom, which was indeed subject to reproach. 3. But the Chaldee paraphrast by footsteps understands the coming of the Messiah in the flesh; which, because it was long promised and men saw not performed, many derided, mocked, and reproached, as vain.

    IX. The close of this long Psalms is a benediction, by which the prophet, after his combat with flesh and blood about the performance of the covenant, composes his troubled soul, and acquiesces in God; blessing him for whatever falls out, breaking forth into: - 1. "Blessed be the Lord for evermore:" Blessed be his name, who does and orders all things for the best of his people, although in the midst of calamities and troubles he seems to desert them.

    2. And that we may know that he did this from his heart, he seals it with a double Amen. "Amen, Amen." So I wish it; so be it.

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