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  • ADAM CLARKE'S BIBLE COMMENTARY -
    REVELATION 1

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    THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE

    Chronological Notes relative to this Book.

    - Year of the Constantinopolitan era of the world, or that used by the Byzantine historians, and other eastern writers, 5604.
    - Year of the Alexandrian era of the world, 5598.
    - Year of the Antiochian era of the world, 5588.
    - Year of the world, according to Archbishop Usher, 4100.
    - Year of the world, according to Eusebius, in his Chronicon, 4322.
    - Year of the minor Jewish era of the world, or that in common use, 3856.
    - Year of the Greater Rabbinical era of the world, 4455.
    - Year from the Flood, according to Archbishop Usher, and the English Bible, 2444.
    - Year of the Cali yuga, or Indian era of the Deluge, 3198.
    - Year of the era of Iphitus, or since the first commencement of the Olympic games, 1036.
    - Year of the era of Nabonassar, king of Babylon, 845.
    - Year of the CCXVIIIth Olympiad, 4.
    - Year from the building of Rome, according to Fabius Pictor, 843.
    - Year from the building of Rome, according to Frontinus, 847.
    - Year from the building of Rome, according to the Fasti Capitolini, 848.
    - Year from the building of Rome, according to Varro, which was that most generally used, 849.
    - Year of the era of the Seleucidae, 408.
    - Year of the Caesarean era of Antioch, 144.
    - Year of the Julian era, 141.
    - Year of the Spanish era, 134.
    - Year from the birth of Jesus Christ, according to Archbishop Usher, 100.
    - Year of the vulgar era of Christ's nativity, 96.
    - Year of Pacorus II, king of the Parthians, 6.
    - Year of the Dionysian period, or Easter Cycle, 97.
    - Year of the Grecian Cycle of nineteen gears, or Common Golden Number, 2; or the first embolismic. - Year of the Jewish Cycle of nineteen years, 18; or the year before the seventh embolismic. - Year of the Solar Cycle, 21.
    - Dominical Letters, it being the Bissextile, or Leap Year, CB. - Day of the Jewish Passover, the twenty-fifth of March, which happened in this year on the day before the Jewish Sabbath. - Easter Sunday, the twenty seventh of March. - Epact, or age of the moon on the 22d of March, (the day of the earliest Easter Sunday possible,) 11.
    - Epact, according to the present mode of computation, or the moon's age on New Year's day, or the Calends of January, 19.
    - Monthly Epacts, or age of the moon on the Calends of each month respectively, (beginning with January,) 19, 21, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 26, 27, 29, 29.
    - Number of Direction, or the number of days from the twenty-first of March to the Jewish Passover, 4.
    - Year of the Emperor Flavius Domitianus Caesar, the last of those usually styled The Twelve Caesars, 15: Nerva began his reign in this year. - Roman Consuls, C. Antistius Vetus, and C. Maulius Valens.

    CHAPTER I

    The preface to this book, and the promise to them who read it, 1-3. John's address to the seven Churches of Asia, whose high calling he particularly mentions; and shows the speedy coming of Christ, 4-8. Mentions his exile to Patmos, and the appearance of the Lord Jesus to him, 9-11. Of whom he gives a most glorious description, 12-18. The command to write what he saw, and the explanation of the seven stars and seven golden candlesticks, 19, 20.

    NOTES ON CHAP. I.

    The Revelation of St. John the divine. To this book the inscriptions are various. "The Revelation. - The Revelation of John. - Of John the divine. - Of John the divine and evangelist. - The Revelation of John the apostle and evangelist. - The Revelation of the holy and glorious apostle and evangelist, the beloved virgin John the divine, which he saw in the island of Patmos. - The Revelation of Jesus Christ, given to John the divine." These several inscriptions are worthy of little regard; the first verse contains the title of the book.

    Verse 1. "The Revelation of Jesus Christ" - The word apokaluyiv, from which we have our word Apocalypse, signifies literally, a revelation, or discovery of what was concealed or hidden. It is here said that this revelation, or discovery of hidden things, was given by GOD to Jesus Christ; that Christ gave it to his angel; that this angel showed it to John; and that John sent it to the CHURCHES. Thus we find it came from God to Christ, from Christ to the angel, from the angel to John, and from John to the Church. It is properly, therefore, the Revelation of God, sent by these various agents to his servants at large; and this is the proper title of the book.

    "Things which must shortly come to pass" - On the mode of interpretation devised by Wetstein, this is plain; for if the book were written before the destruction of Jerusalem, and the prophecies in it relate to that destruction, and the civil wars among the Romans, which lasted but three or four years, then it might be said the Revelation is of things which must shortly come to pass. But if we consider the book as referring to the state of the Church in all ages, the words here, and those in ver. 3, must be understood of the commencement of the events predicted; as if he had said: In a short time the train of these visions will be put in motion:- - et incipient magni procedere menses.

    "And those times, pregnant with the most stupendous events, will begin to roll on."

    Verse 2. "Who bare record of the word of God" - Is there a reference here to the first chapter of John's gospel, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, &c.? Of this Word John did bear record. Or, does the writer mean the fidelity with which he noted and related the word-doctrines or prophecies, which he received at this time by revelation from God? This seems more consistent with the latter part of the verse.

    Verse 3. "Blessed is he that readeth" - This is to be understood of the happiness or security of the persons who, reading and hearing the prophecies of those things which were to come to pass shortly, took proper measures to escape from the impending evils.

    "The time is at hand." - Either in which they shall be all fulfilled, or begin to be fulfilled. See the note on ver. 1.

    These three verses contain the introduction; now the dedication to the seven Churches commences.

    Verse 4. "John to the seven Churches" - The apostle begins this much in the manner of the Jewish prophets. They often name themselves in the messages which they receive from God to deliver to the people; e.g. "The vision of ISAIAH, the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem."The words of JEREMIAH, the son of Hilkiah; to whom the word of the Lord came."The word of the Lord came expressly unto EZEKIEL, the priest."The word of the Lord that came unto HOSEA, the son of Beeri."The word of the Lord that came to Joel."The words of Amos, who was among the herdsmen of Tekoa."The vision of OBADIAH; thus saith the Lord."The word of the Lord came unto Jonah." So, "The revelation of Jesus Christ, which he sent and signified to his servant John."John to the seven Churches," &c.

    The Asia here mentioned was what is called Asia Minor, or the Lydian or Proconsular Asia; the seven Churches were those of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea. Of these as they occur. We are not to suppose that they were the only Christian Churches then in Asia Minor; there were several others then in Phrygia, Pamphylia, Galatia, Pontus, Cappadocia, &c., &c. But these seven were those which lay nearest to the apostle, and were more particularly under his care; though the message was sent to the Churches in general, and perhaps it concerns the whole Christian world. But the number seven may be used here as the number of perfection; as the Hebrews use the seven names of the heavens, the seven names of the earth, the seven patriarchs, seven suns, seven kinds, seven years, seven months, seven days, &c., &c.; in which the rabbins find a great variety of mysteries.

    Grace be unto you] This form of apostolical benediction we have often seen in the preceding epistles.

    "From him which is, and which was, and which is to come" - This phraseology is purely Jewish, and probably taken from the Tetragrammaton, hwhy YEHOVAH; which is supposed to include in itself all time, past, present, and future. But they often use the phrase of which the o wn, kai o hn, kai o ercomenov, of the apostle, is a literal translation. So, in Sohar Chadash, fol. 7, 1: "Rabbi Jose said, By the name Tetragrammaton, (i.e. hwhy Yehovah,) the higher and lower regions, the heavens, the earth, and all they contain, were perfected; and they are all before him reputed as nothing:- hyhy awhw hwh awhw hyh awhw vehu hayah, vehu hoveh, vehu yihyeh; and HE WAS, and HE IS, and HE WILL BE. So, in Shemoth Rabba, sec. 3, fol. 105, 2: "The holy blessed God said to Moses, tell them:- awbl dyt[l awh ynaw wyk[ awh ynaw ytyyh yna ani shehayithi, veani hu achshaiu, veani hu laathid labo; I WAS, I NOW AM, and I WILL BE IN FUTURE." In Chasad Shimuel, Rab. Samuel ben David asks: "Why are we commanded to use three hours of prayer? Answer: These hours point out the holy blessed God:- hyhyw hwh hyh awh shehu hayah, hoveh, veyihyeh; he who WAS, who IS, and who SHALL BE. The MORNING prayer points out him who WAS before the foundation of the world; the NOONDAY prayer points out him who IS; and the EVENING prayer points out him who IS TO COME." This phraseology is exceedingly appropriate, and strongly expresses the eternity of God; for we have no other idea of time than as past, or now existing, or yet to exist; nor have we any idea of eternity but as that duration called by some aeternitas a parte ante, the eternity that was before time, and aeternitas a parte post, the endless duration that shall be when time is no more. That which WAS, is the eternity before time; that which IS, is time itself; and that which IS TO COME, is the eternity which shall be when time is no more.

    "The seven Spirits-before his throne" - The ancient Jews, who represented the throne of God as the throne of an eastern monarch, supposed that there were seven ministering angels before this throne, as there were seven ministers attendant on the throne of a Persian monarch. We have an ample proof of this, Tobit xii. 15: I am Raphael, one of the SEVEN HOLY ANGELS which present the prayers of the saints, and which go in and out before the glory of the Holy One. And in Jonathan ben Uzziel's Targum, on Gen. xi. 7: God said to the SEVEN ANGELS which stand before him, Come now, &c.

    In Pirkey Eliezer, iv. and vii: "The angels which were first created minister before him without the veil." Sometimes they represent them as seven cohorts or troops of angels, under whom are thirty inferior orders.

    That seven ANGELS are here meant, and not the Holy Spirit, is most evident from the place, the number, and the tradition. Those who imagine the Holy Ghost to be intended suppose the number seven is used to denote his manifold gifts and graces. That these seven spirits are angels, see chap. iii. 1; iv. 5; and particularly chap. v. 6, where they are called the seven spirits of God SENT FORTH INTO ALL THE EARTH.

    Verse 5. "The faithful witness" - The true teacher, whose testimony is infallible, and whose sayings must all come to pass.

    "The first-begotten of the dead" - See the note on Col. i. 18.

    "The prince of the kings" - o arcwn, The chief or head, of all earthly potentates; who has them all under his dominion and control, and can dispose of them as he will.

    "Unto him that loved us" - This should begin a new verse, as it is the commencement of a new subject. Our salvation is attributed to the love of God, who gave his Son; and to the love of Christ, who died for us. See John iii. 16.

    Washed us from our sins] The redemption of the soul, with the remission of sins, and purification from unrighteousness, is here, as in all the New Testament, attributed to the blood of Christ shed on the cross for man.

    Verse 6. "Kings and priests" - See on 1 Pet. ii. 5, 9. But instead of basileiv kai iereiv, kings and priests the most reputable MSS., versions, and fathers have basileian iereiv, a kingdom and priests; i.e. a kingdom of priests, or a royal priesthood. The regal and sacerdotal dignities are the two highest that can possibly exist among men; and these two are here mentioned to show the glorious prerogatives and state of the children of God.

    "To him be glory" - That is, to Christ; for it is of him that the prophet speaks, and of none other.

    "For ever and ever" - eiv touv aiwnav twn aiwnwn? To ages of ages; or rather, through all indefinite periods; through all time, and through eternity.

    Amen.] A word of affirmation and approbation; so it shall be, and so it ought to be.

    Verse 7. "Behold, he cometh with clouds" - This relates to his coming to execute judgment on the enemies of his religion; perhaps to his coming to destroy Jerusalem, as he was to be particularly manifested to them that pierced him, which must mean the incredulous and rebellious Jews.

    "And all kindreds of the earth" - pasai ai fulai thv ghv? All the tribes of the land. By this the Jewish people are most evidently intended, and therefore the whole verse may be understood as predicting the destruction of the Jews; and is a presumptive proof that the Apocalypse was written before the final overthrow of the Jewish state.

    "Even so, Amen." - nai amhn? Yea, Amen. It is true, so be it. Our Lord will come and execute judgment on the Jews and Gentiles. This the Jews and Romans particularly felt.

    Verse 8. "I am Alpha and Omega" - I am from eternity to eternity. This mode of speech is borrowed from the Jews, who express the whole compass of things by a aleph and t tau, the first and last letters of the Hebrew alphabet; but as St. John was writing in Greek, he accommodates the whole to the Greek alphabet, of which a alpha and w omega are the first and last letters. With the rabbins t d[w am meeleph vead tau, "from aleph to tau," expressed the whole of a matter, from the beginning to the end. So in Yalcut Rubeni, fol. 17, i5: Adam transgressed the whole law from aleph to tau; i.e., from the beginning to the end. Ibid., fol. 48, i5: Abraham observed the law, from aleph to tau; i.e., he kept it entirely, from beginning to end. Ibid., fol. 128, 3: When the holy blessed God pronounced a blessing on the Israelites, he did it from aleph to tau; i.e., he did it perfectly.

    "The beginning and the ending" - That is, as aleph or alpha is the beginning of the alphabet, so am I the author and cause of all things; as tau or omega is the end or last letter of the alphabet, so am I the end of all thinks, the destroyer as well as the establisher of all things. This clause is wanting in almost every MS. and version of importance. It appears to have been added first as an explanatory note, and in process of time crept into the text. Griesbach has left it out of the text. It is worthy of remark, that as the union of a aleph and t tau in Hebrew make ta eth, which the rabbins interpret of the first matter out of which all things were formed, (see on Gen. i. 1;) so the union of a alpha and w omega, in Greek, makes the verb aw, I breathe, and may very properly, in such a symbolical book, point out Him in whom we live, and move, and have our being; for, having formed man out of the dust of the earth, he breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and he became a living soul; and it is by the inspiration or inbreathing of his Spirit that the souls of men are quickened, made alive from the dead, and fitted for life eternal. He adds also that he is the Almighty, the all- powerful framer of the universe, and the inspirer of men.

    Verse 9. "Your brother" - A Christian, begotten of God, and incorporated in the heavenly family.

    "Companion in tribulation" - Suffering under the persecution in which you also suffer.

    "In the kingdom" - For we are a kingdom of priests unto God.

    "And patience of Jesus" - Meekly bearing all indignities, privations, and sufferings, for the sake and after the example of our Lord and Master.

    "The isle that is called Patmos" - This island is one of the Sporades, and lies in the AEgean Sea, between the island of Icaria, and the promontory of Miletus. It is now called Pactino, Patmol, or Palmosa. It has derived all its celebrity from being the place to which St. John was banished by one of the Roman emperors; whether Domitian, Claudius, or Nero, is not agreed on, but it was most probably the latter. The island has a convent on a well fortified hill, dedicated to John the apostle; the inhabitants are said to amount to about three hundred men, and about twenty women to one man.

    It is very barren, producing very little grain, but abounding in partridges, quails, turtles, pigeons, snipes, and rabbits. It has many good harbours, and is much infested by pirates. Patmos, its capital and chief harbour, lies in east LONG. 26 24', north LAT. 37 24'. The whole island is about thirty miles in circumference.

    "For the testimony of Jesus Christ." - For preaching Christianity, and converting heathens to the Lord Jesus.

    Verse 10. "I was in the Spirit" - That is, I received the Spirit of prophecy, and was under its influence when the first vision was exhibited.

    "The Lord's day" - The first day of the week, observed as the Christian Sabbath, because on it Jesus Christ rose from the dead; therefore it was called the Lord's day, and has taken place of the Jewish Sabbath throughout the Christian world.

    "And heard behind me a great voice" - This voice came unexpectedly and suddenly. He felt himself under the Divine afflatus; but did not know what scenes were to be represented.

    "As of a trumpet" - This was calculated to call in every wandering thought, to fix his attention, and solemnize his whole frame. Thus God prepared Moses to receive the law. See Exod. xix. 16, 19, &c.

    Verse 11. "I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and" - This whole clause is wanting in ABC, thirty-one others; some editions; the Syriac, Coptic, AEthiopic, Armenian, Slavonic, Vulgate, Arethas, Andreas, and Primasius. Griesbach has left it out of the text.

    "Saying-What thou seest, write in a book" - Carefully note down every thing that is represented to thee. John had the visions from heaven; but he described them in his own language and manner.

    "Send it unto the seven Churches" - The names of which immediately follow. In Asia. This is wanting in the principal MSS. and versions.

    Griesbach has left it out of the text.

    "Ephesus" - This was a city of Ionia, in Asia Minor, situated at the mouth of the river Cayster, on the shore of the AEgean Sea, about fifty miles south of Smyrna. See preface to the Epistle to the Ephesians.

    "Smyrna" - Now called also Ismir, is the largest and richest city of Asia Minor. It is situated about one hundred and eighty-three miles west by south of Constantinople, on the shore of the AEgean Sea. It is supposed to contain about one hundred and forty thousand inhabitants, of whom there are from fifteen to twenty thousand Greeks, six thousand Armenians, five thousand Roman Catholics, one hundred and forty Protestants, eleven thousand Jews, and fifteen thousand Turks. It is a beautiful city, but often ravaged by the plague, and seldom two years together free from earthquakes. In 1758 the city was nearly desolated by the plague; scarcely a sufficient number of the inhabitants survived to gather in the fruits of the earth. In 1688 there was a terrible earthquake here, which overthrew a great number of houses; in one of the shocks, the rock on which the castle stood opened, swallowed up the castle and five thousand persons! On these accounts, nothing but the love of gain, so natural to man, could induce any person to make it his residence; though, in other respects, it can boast of many advantages. In this city the Turks have nineteen mosques; the Greeks, two churches; the Armenians, one; and the Jews, eight synagogues; and the English and Dutch factories have each a chaplain.

    Smyrna is one hundred miles north of the island of Rhodes, long. 27 25' E., lat. 38 28' N.

    "Pergamos" - A town of Mysia, situated on the river Caicus. It was the royal residence of Eumenes, and the kings of the race of the Attali. It was anciently famous for its library, which contained, according to Plutarch, two hundred thousand volumes. It was here that the membranae Pergameniae, Pergamenian skins, were invented; from which we derive our word parchment. Pergamos was the birthplace of Galen; and in it P. Scipio died. It is now called Pergamo and Bergamo, and is situated in long. 27 0' E., lat. 39 13' N.

    "Thyatira" - Now called Akissat and Ak-kissar, a city of Natolia, in Asia Minor, seated on the river Hermus, in a plain eighteen miles broad, and is about fifty miles from Pergamos; long. 27 49' E., lat. 38 16' N. The houses are chiefly built of earth, but the mosques are all of marble. Many remarkable ancient inscriptions have been discovered in this place.

    "Sardis" - Now called Sardo and Sart, a town of Asia, in Natolia, about forty miles east from Smyrna. It is seated on the side of mount Tmolus, and was once the capital of the Lydian kings, and here Croesus reigned. It is now a poor, inconsiderable village. Long. 28 5' E., lat. 37 51' N.

    "Philadelphia" - A city of Natolia, seated at the foot of mount Tmolus, by the river Cogamus. It was founded by Attalus Philadelphus, brother of Eumenes, from whom it derived its name. It is now called Alah-sheker, and is about forty miles ESE. of Smyrna. Long. 28 15' E., lat. 38 28' N.

    "Laodicea" - A town of Phrygia, on the river Lycus; first called Diospolis, or the city of Jupiter. It was built by Antiochus Theos, and named after his consort Laodice. See the note on Colossians ii. 1. And, for a very recent account of these seven Churches, see a letter from the chap. Henry Lindsay, inserted at the end of chap. 3.

    Verse 12. And I turned For he had heard the voice behind him. To see the voice; i.e., the person from whom the voice came.

    "Seven golden candlesticks" - epta lucniav crusav? Seven golden lamps.

    It is absurd to say, a golden silver, or brazen candlestick. These seven lamps represented the seven Churches, in which the light of God was continually shining, and the love of God continually burning. And they are here represented as golden, to show how precious they were in the sight of God. This is a reference to the temple at Jerusalem, where there was a candlestick or chandelier of seven branches; or rather six branches; three springing out on either side, and one in the center. See Exod. xxv. 31-37.

    This reference to the temple seems to intimate that the temple of Jerusalem was a type of the whole Christian Church.

    Verse 13. "Like unto the Son of man" - This seems a reference to Dan. vii. 13. This was our blessed Lord himself, ver. 18.

    Clothed with a garment down to the foot] This is a description of the high priest, in his sacerdotal robes. See these described at large in the notes on Exod. xxviii. 4, &c., Jesus is our high priest, even in heaven. He is still discharging the sacerdotal functions before the throne of God.

    "Golden girdle." - The emblem both of regal and sacerdotal dignity.

    Verse 14. "His head and his hairs were white like wool" - This was not only an emblem of his antiquity, but it was the evidence of his glory; for the whiteness or splendour of his head and hair doubtless proceeded from the rays of light and glory which encircled his head, and darted from it in all directions. The splendour around the head was termed by the Romans nimbus, and by us a glory; and was represented round the heads of gods, deified persons, and saints. It is used in the same way through almost all the nations of the earth.

    "His eyes were as a flame of fire" - To denote his omniscience, and the all-penetrating nature of the Divine knowledge.

    Verse 15. "His feet like unto fine brass" - An emblem of his stability and permanence, brass being considered the most durable of all metallic substances or compounds.

    The original word, calkolibanon, means the famous aurichalcum, or factitious metal, which, according to Suidas, was eidov hlektrou, timwteron crusou, "a kind of amber, more precious than gold." It seems to have been a composition of gold, silver, and brass, and the same with the Corinthian brass, so highly famed and valued; for when Lucius Mummius took and burnt the city of Corinth, many statues of these three metals, being melted, had run together, and formed the composition already mentioned, and which was held in as high estimation as gold. See Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. 34, c. 2; Florus, lib. 2, c. 16. It may however mean no more than copper melted with lapis calaminaris, which converts it into brass; and the flame that proceeds from the metal during this operation is one of the most intensely and unsufferably vivid that can be imagined. I have often seen several furnaces employed in this operation, and the flames bursting up through the earth (for these furnaces are under ground) always called to remembrance this description given by St. John: His feet of fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; the propriety and accuracy of which none could doubt, and every one must feel who has viewed this most dazzling operation.

    "His voice as the sound of many waters." - The same description we find in Ezek. xliii. 2: The glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east; and his voice was like the noise of many waters: and the earth shined with his glory.

    Verse 16. "In his right hand seven stars" - The stars are afterwards interpreted as representing the seven angels, messengers, or bishops of the seven Churches. Their being in the right hand of Christ shows that they are under his special care and most powerful protection. See below.

    "Out of his mouth went a sharp two-edged sword" - This is no doubt intended to point out the judgments about to be pronounced by Christ against the rebellious Jews and persecuting Romans; God's judgments were just now going to fall upon both. The sharp two-edged sword may represent the word of God in general, according to that saying of the apostle, Heb. iv. 12: The word of God is quick and powerful, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, &c. And the word of God is termed the sword of the Spirit, Eph. vi. 17.

    "And his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength." - His face was like the disk of the sun in the brightest summer's day, when there were no clouds to abate the splendour of his rays. A similar form of expression is found in Judg. v. x21: Let them that love him be as the sun when he GOETH FORTH IN HIS MIGHT. And a similar description may be found, Midrash in Yalcut Simeoni, part I., fol. 55, i5: "When Moses and Aaron came and stood before Pharaoh, they appeared like the ministering angels; and their stature, like the cedars of Lebanon:- hmj ylglgl ymwd hyny[ ylglgw vegalgilley eyneyhem domim legalgilley chammah, and the pupils of their eyes were like the wheels of the sun; and their beards were as the grape of the palm trees:- hmj wyzk hynp wyzw veziv peneyhem keziv chammah, and the splendour of THEIR FACES was as the splendour of the SUN."

    Verse 17. "I fell at his feet as dead." - The appearance of the glory of the Lord had then same effect upon Ezekiel, Ezekiel i. x18: and the appearance of Gabriel had the same effect on Daniel, Dan. viii. 17. The terrible splendour of such majesty was more than the apostle could bear, and he fell down deprived of his senses, but was soon enabled to behold the vision by a communication of strength from our Lord's right hand.

    Verse 18. "I am he that liveth, and was dead" - I am Jesus the saviour, who, though the fountain of life, have died for mankind; and being raised from the dead I shall die no more, the great sacrifice being consummated. And have the keys of death and the grave, so that I can destroy the living and raise the dead. The key here signifies the power and authority over life, death, and the grave. This is also a rabbinical form of speech. In the Jerusalem Targum, on Gen. xxx. 22, are these words: "There are four KEYS in the hand of God which he never trusts to angel or seraph. 1. The key of the rain; 2. The key of provision; 3. The key of the grave; and 4.

    The key of the barren womb." In Sanhedrin, fol. 113, 1, it is said: "When the son of the woman of Sarepta died, Elijah requested that to him might be given the key of the resurrection of the dead. They said to him, there are three KEYS which are not given into the hand of the apostle, the key of life, the key of the rain, and the key of the resurrection of the dead." From these examples it is evident that we should understand adhv, hades, here, not as hell, nor the place of separate spirits, but merely as the grave; and the key we find to be merely the emblem of power and authority. Christ can both save and destroy, can kill and make alive. Death is still under his dominion, and he can recall the dead whensoever he pleases. He is the resurrection and the life.

    Verse 19. "Write the things which thou hast seen" - These visions and prophecies are for general instruction, and therefore every circumstance must be faithfully recorded. What he had seen was to be written; what he was about to see, relative to the seven Churches, must be also written; and what he was to see afterwards, concerning other Churches and states, to be recorded likewise.

    Verse 20. "The mystery" - That is, the allegorical explanation of the seven stars is the seven angels or ministers of the Churches; and the allegorical meaning of the seven golden lamps is the seven Churches themselves.

    1. IN the seven stars there may be an allusion to the seals of different offices under potentates, each of which had its own particular seal, which verified all instruments from that office; and as these seals were frequently set in rings which were worn on the fingers, there may be an allusion to those brilliants set in rings, and worn epi thv dexiav, UPON the right hand. In Jeremiah xxii. 24, Coniah is represented as a signet on the right hand of the Lord; and that such signets were in rings see Gen. xxxviii. 18, 25; Exod. xviii. 11; Dan. vi. 17, Haggai ii. 23. On close examination we shall find that all the symbols in this book have their foundation either in nature, fact, custom, or general opinion. One of the cutchery seals of the late Tippoo Saib, with which he stamped all the commissions of that office, lies now before me; it is cut on silver, in the Taaleck character, and the piece of silver is set in a large gold ring, heavy, but roughly manufactured.

    2. The Churches are represented by these lamps; they hold the oil and the fire, and dispense the light. A lamp is not light in itself, it is only the instrument of dispensing light, and it must receive both oil and fire before it can dispense any; so no Church has in itself either grace or glory, it must receive all from Christ its head, else it can dispense neither light nor life.

    3. The ministers of the Gospel are signets or seals of Jesus Christ; he uses them to stamp his truth, to accredit it, and give it currency. But as a seal can mark nothing of itself unless applied by a proper hand, so the ministers of Christ can do no good, seal no truth, impress no soul, unless the great owner condescend to use them.

    4. How careful should the Church be that it have the oil and the light, that it continue to burn and send forth Divine knowledge! In vain does any Church pretend to be a Church of Christ if it dispense no light; if souls are not enlightened, quickened, and converted in it. If Jesus walk in it, its light will shine both clearly and strongly, and sinners will be converted unto him; and the members of that Church will be children of the light, and walk as children of the light and of the day, and there will be no occasion of stumbling in them.

    5. How careful should the ministers of Christ be that they proclaim nothing as truth, and accredit nothing as truth, but what comes from their master! They should also take heed lest, after having preached to others, themselves should be cast-aways; lest God should say unto them as he said of Coniah, As I live, saith the Lord, though Coniah, the son of Jehoiakim, were the SIGNET UPON MY RIGHT HAND, yet would I pluck thee thence.

    On the other hand, if they be faithful, their labour shall not be in vain, and their safety shall be great. He that toucheth them toucheth the apple of God's eye, and none shall be able to pluck them out of his hand. they are the angels and ambassadors of the Lord; their persons are sacred; they are the messengers of the Churches, and the glory of Christ. Should they lose their lives in the work, it will be only a speedier entrance into an eternal glory.

    The rougher the way, the shorter their stay, The troubles that rise Shall gloriously hurry their souls to the skies.

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