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  • ADAM CLARKE'S BIBLE COMMENTARY -
    JUDE 1

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    THE GENERAL EPISTLE OF Jude

    Chronological Notes relative to this Epistle.

    - Year of the Constantinopolitan era of the world, or that used by the Byzantine historians, and other eastern writers, 5573.
    - Year of the Alexandrian era of the world, 5567.
    - Year of the Antiochian era of the world, 5557.
    - Year of the world, according to Archbishop Usher, 4069.
    - Year of the world, according to Eusebius, in his Chronicon, 4291.
    - Year of the minor Jewish era of the world, or that in common use, 3825.
    - Year of the Greater Rabbinical era of the world, 4424.
    - Year from the Flood, according to Archbishop Usher, and the English Bible, 2413.
    - Year of the Cali yuga, or Indian era of the Deluge, 3167.
    - Year of the era of Iphitus, or since the first commencement of the Olympic games, 1005.
    - Year of the era of Nahonassar, king of Babylon, 814.
    - Year of the CCXIth Olympiad, 1.
    - Year from the building of Rome, according to Fabius Pictor, 812.
    - Year from the building of Rome, according to Frontinus, 816.
    - Year from the building of Rome, according to the Fasti Capitolini, 817.
    - Year from the building of Rome, according to Varro, which was that most generally used, 818.
    - Year of the era of the Seleucidae, 377.
    - Year of the Caesarean era of Antioch, 113.
    - Year of the Julian era, 110.
    - Year of the Spanish era, 103.
    - Year from the birth of Jesus Christ, according to Archbishop Usher, 69.
    - Year of the vulgar era of Christ's nativity, 85.
    - Year of Gessius Florus, governor of the Jews, 1.
    - Year of Domitius Corbulo, governor of Syria, 5.
    - Year of Matthias, high priest of the Jews, 2.
    - Year of Vologesus, king of the Parthians, 16.
    - Year of the Dionysian period, or Easter Cycle, 66.
    - Year of the Grecian Cycle of nineteen years, or Common Golden Number, 9; or the year after the third embolismic.
    - Year of the Jewish Cycle of nineteen years, 6; or the second embolismic.
    - Year of the Solar Cycle, 18.
    - Dominical Letter, it being the first year after the Bissextile, or Leap Year, F.
    - Day of the Jewish Passover, the seventh of April, which happened in this year on the Jewish Sabbath.
    - Easter Sunday, the fourteenth of April.
    - Epact, or age of the moon on the 22d of March, (the day of the earliest Easter Sunday possible,) 28.
    - Epact, according to the present mode of computation, or the moon's age on New Year's day, or the Calends of January, 6.
    - Monthly Epacts, or age of the moon on the Calends of each month respectively, (beginning with January,) 6, 8, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 13, 14, 16, 16.
    - Number of Direction, or the number of days from the twenty-first of March to the Jewish Passover, 17.
    - Year of the Emperor Caius Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar, 12.
    - Roman Consuls, A. Licinius Nerva Silanus, and M. Vestinius Atticus. Vestinius was succeeded by Anicius Cerealis on the first of July. The address and apostolical benediction, 1, 2. The reasons which induced Jude to write this epistle, to excite the Christians to contend for the true faith, and to beware of false teachers, lest, falling from their steadfastness, they should be destroyed after the example of backsliding Israel, the apostate angels, and the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrha, 3-7. Of the false teachers, 8. Of Michael disputing about the body of Moses, 9. The false teachers particularly described: they are like brute beasts, going the way of Cain, run after the error of Balaam, and shall perish, as did Korah in his gainsaying, 10, 11. Are impure, unsteady, fierce, shameless, &c., 12, 13. How Enoch prophesied of such, 14, 15. They are farther described as murmurers and complainers, 16. We should remember the cautions given unto us by the apostles who foretold of these men, 17-19. We should build up ourselves on our most holy faith, 20, 21. How the Church of Christ should treat such, 22, 23. The apostle's farewell, and his doxology to God, 24, 25.

    NOTES ON THE EPISTLE OF Jude.

    Verse 1. "Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ" - Probably Jude the apostle, who was surnamed Thaddeus and Lebbeus, was son to Alpheus, and brother to James the less, Joses, and Simon. See Matt. x. 3, and collate with Luke vi. 16; Matt. xiii. 55. See the preface.

    Brother of James] Supposed to be James the less, bishop of Jerusalem, mentioned here, because he was an eminent person in the Church. See the preface to St. James.

    "To them that are sanctified by God" - Instead of hgiasmenoiv, to the sanctified, AB, several others, both the Syriac, Erpen's Arabic, Coptic, Sahidic, Armenian, AEthiopic, and Vulgate, with several of the fathers, have hgaphmenoiv, to them that are beloved; and before en tw qew, in God, some MSS., with the Syriac and Armenian, have eqnesin, to the Gentiles, in God the Father: but although the first is only a probable reading, this is much less so. St. Jude writes to all believers everywhere, and not to any particular Church; hence this epistle has been called a general epistle.

    Sanctified signifies here consecrated to God through faith in Christ.

    Preserved in (or by) Jesus Christ] Signifies those who continued unshaken in the Christian faith; and implies also, that none can be preserved in the faith that do not continue in union with Christ, by whose grace alone they can be preserved and called. This should be read consecutively with the other epithets, and should be rather, in a translation, read first than last, to the saints in God the Father, called and preserved by Christ Jesus. Saints is the same as Christians; to become such they were called to believe in Christ by the preaching of the Gospel, and having believed, were preserved by the grace of Christ in the life and practice of piety.

    Verse 2. "Mercy unto you" - For even the best have no merit, and must receive every blessing and grace in the way of mercy.

    "Peace" - With God and your consciences, love both to God and man, be multiplied - be unboundedly increased.

    Verse 3. "When I gave all diligence" - This phrase, pasan spoudhn poioumenov, is a Grecism for being exceedingly intent upon a subject; taking it up seriously with determination to bring it to good effect. The meaning of the apostle seems to be this: "Beloved brethren, when I saw it necessary to write to you concerning the common salvation, my mind being deeply affected with the dangers to which the Church is exposed from the false teachers that are gone out into the world, I found it extremely necessary to write and exhort you to hold fast the truth which you had received, and strenuously to contend for that only faith which, by our Lord and his apostles, has been delivered to the Christians." Some think that St. Jude intimates that he had at first purposed to write to the Church at large, on the nature and design of the Gospel; but seeing the dangers to which the Churches were exposed, because of the false teachers, he changed his mind, and wrote pointedly against those false doctrines, exhorting them strenuously to contend for the faith.

    "The common salvation" - The Christian religion, and the salvation which it brings. This is called common because it equally belongs to Jews and Gentiles; it is the saving grace of God which has appeared to every man, and equally offers to every human being that redemption which is provided for the whole world.

    Verse 4. "For there are certain men crept in unawares" - pareisedusan? They had got into the Church under specious pretences; and, when in, began to sow their bad seed.

    "Before of old ordained" - oi palai progegrammenoi Such as were long ago proscribed, and condemned in the most public manner; this is the import of the word prografein in this place, and there are many examples of this use of it in the Greek writers. See Kypke.

    "To this condemnation" - To a similar punishment to that immediately about to be mentioned.

    In the sacred writings all such persons, false doctrines, and impure practices, have been most openly proscribed and condemned; and the apostle immediately produces several examples, viz., the disobedient Israelites, the unfaithful angels, and the impure inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrha. This is most obviously the apostle's meaning, and it is as ridiculous as it is absurd to look into such words for a decree of eternal reprobation, &c., such a doctrine being as far from the apostle's mind as from that of Him in whose name he wrote.

    "Turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness" - Making the grace and mercy of God a covering for crimes; intimating that men might sin safely who believe the Gospel, because in that Gospel grace abounds. But perhaps the goodness of God is here meant, for I cannot see how they could believe the Gospel in any way who denied the Lord Jesus Christ; unless, which is likely, their denial refers to this, that while they acknowledged Jesus as the promised Messiah, they denied him to be the only Lord, Sovereign, and Ruler of the Church and of the world. There are many in the present day who hold the same opinion.

    "The only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ." - monon despothn qeon kai kurion hmwn ihsouv criston aruoumenoi. These words may be translated, Denying the only sovereign God, even our Lord Jesus Christ.

    But qeon GOD, is omitted by ABC, sixteen others, with Erpen's Arabic, the Coptic, AEthiopic, Armenian, and Vulgate, and by many of the fathers. It is very likely that it was originally inserted as a gloss, to ascertain to whom the title of ton monon despothn, the only Sovereign, belonged; and thus make two persons where only one seems to be intended. The passage I believe belongs solely to Jesus Christ, and may be read thus: Denying the only sovereign Ruler, even our Lord Jesus Christ.

    The text is differently arranged in the Complutensian Polyglot, which contains the first edition of the Greek Testament: kai ton monon qeon kai despothn, ton kurion hmwn ihsoun criston arnoumenoi? Denying the only God and Sovereign, our Lord Jesus Christ. This is a very remarkable position of the words, and doubtless existed in some of the MSS. from which these editors copied. The Simonians, Nicolaitans, and Gnostics, denied God to be the creator of the world; and Simon is said to have proclaimed himself as FATHER to the Samaritans, as SON to the Jews, and as the HOLY GHOST to all other nations. All such most obviously denied both Father, Son, and Spirit.

    Verse 5. "I will therefore put you in remembrance" - That is, how such persons were proscribed, and condemned to bear the punishment due to such crimes.

    "Though ye once knew this" - The word apax, here translated once, has greatly puzzled many interpreters. It has two meanings in the sacred writings, and indeed in the Greek writers also. 1. It signifies once, one time, as opposed to twice, or several times. 2. Altogether, entirely, perfectly, interpreted by Suidas anti ton diolou, oloscerwv? and of this meaning he produces a proof from Josephus; This appears to be the sense of the word in Hebrews vi. i5: touv apax fwtisqentav? those who were FULLY enlightened. Heb. x. 2: apax kekaqarmenouv? THOROUGHLY cleansed. See also Heb. x. 3 of this epistle. Psa. lxii. 11: apax elalhsen o qeov? God spoke FULLY, completely, on the subject. St. Jude is to be understood as saying, I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye are THOROUGHLY instructed in this.

    Saved the people] Delivered them from the Egyptian bondage.

    "Afterward destroyed them" - Because they neither believed his word, nor were obedient to his commands. This is the first example of what was mentioned Jude 4.

    Verse 6. "The angels which kept not their first estate" - thn eautwn archn Their own principality. The words may be understood of their having invaded the office or dignity of some others, or of their having by some means forfeited their own. This is spoken of those generally termed the fallen angels; but from what they fell, or from what cause or for what crime, we know not. It is generally thought to have been pride; but this is mere conjecture. One thing is certain; the angels who fell must have been in a state of probation, capable of either standing or falling, as Adam was in paradise. They did not continue faithful, though they knew the law on which they stood; they are therefore produced as the second example.

    "But left their own habitation" - This seems to intimate that they had invaded the office and prerogatives of others, and attempted to seize on their place of residence and felicity.

    "He hath reserved in everlasting chains" - That is, in a state of confinement from which they cannot escape.

    "Under darkness" - Alluding probably to those dungeons or dark cells in prisons where the most flagitious culprits were confined.

    "The judgment of the great day," - The final judgment, when both angels and men shall receive their eternal doom. See on 2 Peter ii. 4. In Sohar Exod., fol. 8, c. x22: "Rabbi Isaac asked: Suppose God should punish any of his heavenly family, how would he act? R. Abba answered: He would send them into the flaming river, take away their dominion, and put others in their place." Some suppose that the saints are to occupy the places from which these angels, by transgression, fell.

    Verse 7. "Even as Sodom and Gomorrha" - What their sin and punishment were may be seen in Genesis 19, and the notes there. This is the third example to illustrate what is laid down Jude 4.

    "Are set forth for an example" - Both of what God will do to such transgressors, and of the position laid down in Jude 4, viz., that God has in the most open and positive manner declared that such and such sinners shall meet with the punishment due to their crimes.

    "Suffering the vengeance of eternal fire." - Subjected to such a punishment as an endless fire can inflict. Some apply this to the utter subversion of these cities, so that by the action of that fire which descended from heaven they were totally and eternally destroyed; for as to their being rebuilt, that is impossible, seeing the very ground on which they stood is burned up, and the whole plain is now the immense lake Asphaltites. See my notes on Genesis 19.

    The first sense applies to the inhabitants of those wicked cities; the second, to the cities themselves: in either case the word pur aiwnion signifies an eternally destructive fire; it has no end in the punishment of the wicked Sodomites, &c.; it has no end in the destruction of the cities; they were totally burnt up, and never were and never can be rebuilt. ln either of these senses the word aiwniov, eternal, has its grammatical and proper meaning.

    Verse 8. "Likewise also these filthy dreamers" - He means to say that these false teachers and their followers were as unbelieving and disobedient as the Israelites in the wilderness, as rebellious against the authority of God as the fallen angels, and as impure and unholy as the Sodomites; and that consequently they must expect similar punishment.

    Our translators, by rendering enupniazomenoi filthy dreamers, seem to have understood St. Jude to mean les pollutions nocturnes et voluntaires de ces hommes impurs, qui se livrent sans scrupule a toutes sortes des pensees; et salissant leur imagination pas la vue de toutes sortes d' objets, tombent ensuite dans les corsuptions honteuses et criminelles. See Calmet.

    In plain English, self-pollution, with all its train of curses and cursed effects on body, soul, and spirit. The idea of our translators seems to be confirmed by the words sarka men miainousi, they indeed pollute the flesh. See what is said at the conclusion of the thirty-eighth chapter of Genesis.

    Despise dominion] kuriothta de aqetousi? They set all government at nought - they will come under no restraints; they despise all law, and wish to live as they list.

    "Speak evil of dignities." - doxav de blasfhmousin? They blaspheme or speak injuriously of supreme authority. (See 2 Peter ii. 10, 11.) They treat governors and government with contempt, and calumniate and misrepresent all Divine and civil institutions.

    Verse 9. "Yet Michael the archangel" - Of this personage many things are spoken in the Jewish writings "Rabbi Judah Hakkodesh says: Wherever Michael is said to appear, the glory of the Divine Majesty is always to be understood." Shemoth Rabba, sec. ii., fol. 104, 3. So that it seems as if they considered Michael in some sort as we do the Messiah manifested in the flesh.

    Let it be observed that the word archangel is never found in the plural number in the sacred writings. There can be properly only one archangel, one chief or head of all the angelic host. Nor is the word devil, as applied to the great enemy of mankind, ever found in the plural; there can be but one monarch of all fallen spirits. Michael is this archangel, and head of all the angelic orders; the devil, great dragon, or Satan, is head of all the diabolic orders. When these two hosts are opposed to each other they are said to act under these two chiefs, as leaders; hence in Rev. xii. 7, it is said: MICHAEL and his angels fought against the DRAGON and his angels.

    The word Michael lakym , seems to be compounded of ym mi, who, k ke, like, and la El, God; he who is like God; hence by this personage, in the Apocalypse, many understand the Lord Jesus.

    "Disputed about the body of Moses" - What this means I cannot tell; or from what source St. Jude drew it, unless from some tradition among his countrymen. There is something very like it in Debarim Rabba, sec. ii., fol.

    263, 1: "Samael, that wicked one, the prince of the satans, carefully kept the soul of Moses, saying: When the time comes in which Michael shall lament, I shall have my mouth filled with laughter. Michael said to him: Wretch, I weep, and thou laughest. Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy, because I have fallen; for I shall rise again: when I sit in darkness, the Lord is my light; Micah vii. 8. By the words, because I have fallen, we must understand the death of Moses; by the words, I shall rise again, the government of Joshua, &c." See the preface.

    Another contention of Michael with Satan is mentioned in Yalcut Rubeni, fol. 43, 3: "At the time in which Isaac was bound there was a contention between Michael and Satan. Michael brought a ram, that Isaac might be liberated; but Satan endeavoured to carry off the ram, that Isaac might be slain." The contention mentioned by Jude is not about the sacrifice of Isaac, nor the soul of Moses, but about the BODY of Moses; but why or wherefore we know not. Some think the devil wished to show the Israelites where Moses was buried, knowing that they would then adore his body; and that Michael was sent to resist this discovery.

    "Durst not bring against him a railing accusation" - It was a Jewish maxim, as may be seen in Synopsis Sohar, page 92, note 6: "It is not lawful for man to prefer ignominious reproaches, even against wicked spirits." See Schoettgen.

    Dr. Macknight says: "In Dan. x. 13, 21; xii. 1, Michael is spoken of as one of the chief angels who took care of the Israelites as a nation; he may therefore have been the angel of the Lord before whom Joshua the high priest is said, Zech. iii. 1, to have stood, Satan being at his right hand to resist him, namely, in his design of restoring the Jewish Church and state, called by Jude the body of Moses, just as the Christian Church is called by Paul the body of Christ. Zechariah adds, And the Lord, that is, the angel of the Lord, as is plain from Zech. iii. 1, 2, said unto Satan, The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan! even the Lord that hath chosen Jerusalem, rebuke thee!" This is the most likely interpretation which I have seen; and it will appear the more probable when it is considered that, among the Hebrews, Pwg guph, BODY, is often used for a thing itself. So, in Rom. vii. 24, swma thv amartiav, the body of sin, signifies sin itself; so the body of Moses, hm l Pwg guph shel Mosheh, may signify Moses himself; or that in which he was particularly concerned, viz., his institutes, religion, &c.

    It may be added, that the Jews consider Michael and Samael, one as the friend, the other as the enemy, of Israel. Samael is their accuser, Michael their advocate. "Michael and Samael stand before the Lord; Satan accuses, but Michael shows the merits of Israel. Satan endeavours to speak, but Michael silences him: Hold thy tongue, says he, and let us hear what the Judge determines; for it is written, He will speak peace to his people, and to his saints; Psa. lxxxv. 8." Shemoth Rabba, sec. xviii. fol. 117, 3.

    Verse 10. "Speak evil of those things which they know not" - They do not understand the origin and utility of civil government; they revile that which ever protects their own persons and their property. This is true in most insurrections and seditions.

    "But what they know naturally" - They are destitute of reflection; their minds are uncultivated; they follow mere natural instinct, and are slaves to their animal propensities.

    "As brute beasts" - wv ta aloga zwa? Like the irrational animals; but, in the indulgence of their animal propensities, they corrupt themselves, beyond the example of the brute beasts. A fearful description; and true of many in the present day.

    Verse 11. "They have gone in the way of Cain" - They are haters of their brethren, and they that are such are murderers; and by their false doctrine they corrupt and destroy the souls of the people.

    "The error of Balaam" - For the sake of gain they corrupt the word of God and refine away its meaning, and let it down so as to suit the passions of the profligate. This was literally true of the Nicolaitans, who taught most impure doctrines, and followed the most lascivious practices.

    "Gainsaying of Core." - See the account of the rebellion of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, and their company, in Num. 22. It appears that these persons opposed the authority of the apostles of our Lord, as Korah and his associates did that of Moses and Aaron; and St. Jude predicts them a similar punishment. In this verse he accuses them of murder, covetousness, and rebellion against the authority of God.

    Verse 12. "Spots in your feasts of charity" - It appears that these persons, unholy and impure as they were, still continued to have outward fellowship with the Church! This is strange: but it is very likely that their power and influence in that place had swallowed up, or set aside, the power and authority of the real ministers of Christ; a very common case when worldly, time-serving men get into the Church.

    The feasts of charity, the agapai or love feasts, of which the apostle speaks, were in use in the primitive Church till the middle of the fourth century, when, by the council of Laodicea, they were prohibited to be held in the Churches; and, having been abused, fell into disuse. In later days they have been revived, in all the purity and simplicity of the primitive institution, among the Moravians or Unitas Fratrum, and the people called Methodists.

    Among the ancients, the richer members of the Church made an occasional general feast, at which all the members attended, and the poor and the rich ate together. The fatherless, the widows, and the strangers were invited to these feasts, and their eating together was a proof of their love to each other; whence such entertainments were called love feasts. The love feasts were at first celebrated before the Lord's Supper; in process of time they appear to have been celebrated after it. But they were never considered as the Lord's Supper, nor any substitute for it. See, for farther information, Suicer, in his Thesaurus, under the word agaph.

    "Feeding themselves without fear" - Eating, not to suffice nature, but to pamper appetite. It seems the provision was abundant, and they ate to gluttony and riot. It was this which brought the love feasts into disrepute in the Church, and was the means of their being at last wholly laid aside.

    This abuse is never likely to take place among the Methodists, as they only use bread and water; and of this the provision is not sufficient to afford the tenth part of a meal.

    Instead of agapaiv, love feasts, apataiv, deceits, is the reading of the Codex Alexandrinus, and the Codex Ephrem, two MSS. of the highest antiquity; as also of those MSS. collated by Laurentius Valla, and of some of those in the Medicean library. This reading appears to have been introduced in order to avoid the conclusion that some might be led to draw concerning the state of the Church; it must be very corrupt, to have in its communion such corrupt men.

    Clouds-without water] The doctrine of God is compared to the rain, Deut. xxxii. 2, and clouds are the instruments by which the rain is distilled upon the earth. In arid or parched countries the very appearance of a cloud is delightful, because it is a token of refreshing showers; but when sudden winds arise, and disperse these clouds, the hope of the husbandman and shepherd is cut off. These false teachers are represented as clouds; they have the form and office of the teachers of righteousness, and from such appearances pure doctrine may be naturally expected: but these are clouds without water - they distil no refreshing showers, because they have none; they are carried away and about by their passions, as those light fleecy clouds are carried by the winds. See the notes on 2 Pet. ii. 17.

    Trees whose fruit withereth] dendra fqinopwrina? Galled or diseased trees; for fqinopwron is, according to Phavorinus, nosov fqinousa apwrav, a disease (in trees) which causes their fruit to wither; for although there are blossoms, and the fruit shapes or is set, the galls in the trees prevent the proper circulation of the sap, and therefore the fruit never comes to perfection. Hence the apostle immediately adds, without fruit; i.e. the fruit never comes to maturity. This metaphor expresses the same thing as the preceding. They have the appearance of ministers of the Gospel, but they have no fruit.

    "Twice dead" - First, naturally and practically dead in sin, from which they had been revived by the preaching and grace of the Gospel. Secondly, dead by backsliding or apostasy from the true faith, by which they lost the grace they had before received; and now likely to continue in that death, because plucked up from the roots, their roots of faith and love being no longer fixed in Christ Jesus. Perhaps the aorist is taken here for the future: They SHALL BE plucked up from the roots - God will exterminate them from the earth.

    Verse 13. "Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame" - The same metaphor as in Isa. lvii. 20: The wicked are like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt. These are like the sea in a storm, where the swells are like mountains; the breakers lash the shore, and sound like thunder; and the great deep, stirred up from its very bottom, rolls its muddy, putrid sediment, and deposits it upon the beach.

    Such were those proud and arrogant boasters, those headstrong, unruly, and ferocious men, who swept into their own vortex the souls of the simple, and left nothing behind them that was not indicative of their folly, their turbulence, and their impurity.

    "Wandering stars" - asterev planhtai? Not what we call planets; for although these differ from what are called the fixed stars, which never change their place, while the planets have their revolution round the sun; yet, properly speaking, there is no irregularity in their motions: for their appearance of advancing, stationary, and retrograde, are only in reference to an observer on the earth, viewing them in different parts of their orbits; for as to themselves, they ever continue a steady course through all their revolutions. But these are uncertain, anomalous meteors, ignes fatui, wills-o'-the-wisp; dancing about in the darkness which themselves have formed, and leading simple souls astray, who have ceased to walk in the light, and have no other guides but those oscillating and devious meteors which, if you run after them, will flee before you, and if you run from them will follow you.

    "The blackness of darkness" - They are such as are going headlong into that outer darkness where there is wailing, and weeping, and gnashing of teeth.

    The whole of this description appears to have been borrowed from 2 Peter 2, where the reader is requested to see the notes.

    Verse 14. "Enoch also, the seventh from Adam" - He was the seventh patriarch, and is distinguished thus from Enoch, son of Cain, who was but the third from Adam; this appears plainly from the genealogy, 1 Chron. i. 1: Adams Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalaleel, Jered, Henoch or Enoch, &c. Of the book of Enoch, from which this prophecy is thought to have been taken, much has been said; but as the work is apocryphal, and of no authority, I shall not burden my page with extracts. See the preface.

    Perhaps the word proefhteuse, prophesied, means no more than preached, spoke, made declarations, &c., concerning these things and persons; for doubtless he reproved the ungodliness of his own times. It is certain that a book of Enoch was known in the earliest ages of the primitive Church, and is quoted by Origen and Tertullian; and is mentioned by St. Jerome in the Apostolical Constitutions, by Nicephorus, Athanasius, and probably by St. Augustine. See Suicer's Thesaurus, vol. i., col. 1131. Such a work is still extant among the Abyssinians.

    "Ten thousand of his saints" - This seems to be taken from Daniel vii. 10.

    Verse 15. "To execute judgment" - This was originally spoken to the antediluvians; and the coming of the Lord to destroy that world was the thing spoken of in this prophecy or declaration. But as God had threatened this, it required no direct inspiration to foretell it. To execute judgment, &c. This is a very strange verse as to its composition, and is loaded with various readings; the MSS. and versions being at little agreement among themselves on its phraseology. autwn, which we translate among them, is omitted by the best MSS. and versions, and is, in all probability, spurious.

    Many also omit asebeiav after rgwn, ungodly deeds. Many insert logwn, words or speeches, after sklhrwn, hard; and this word our translators have supplied. And instead of amartwloi, sinners, the Sahidic has anqrwpoi, men. There are others of less note; but the frequent recurrence of ALL and UNGODLY makes the construction of the sentence very harsh.

    Dr. Macknight supposes that Enoch's prophecy was common among the Jews; for the first words in Hebrew are Maranatha, and these were used by them in that form of excommunication or cursing which they pronounced against irreclaimable offenders. The doctor forgets himself here; the words Maranatha are not Hebrew, but Syriac. In Hebrew the form of execration begins with hta rwra arur attah, "cursed art thou;" or hta rjm mochoram attah: but the Syriac (Syriac) maran atha, is literally, our Lord is coming; see on 1 Cor. xvi. 22; but here, in the Syriac, the words are (Syriac) atha moria, "the Lord cometh." So it is doubtful whether this fancied analogy exists.

    Verse 16. "These are murmurers" - Grudging and grumbling at all men, and at all things; complainers, memyimoiroi, complainers of their fate or destiny - finding fault with God and all his providential dispensations, making and governing worlds in their own way; persons whom neither God nor man can please.

    "Walking after their own lusts" - Taking their wild, disorderly, and impure passions for the rule of their conduct, and not the writings of the prophets and apostles.

    "Great swelling words" - uperogka. See the explanation of this term in 2 Pet. ii. 18.

    "Having men's persons in admiration" - Time-servers and flatterers; persons who pretend to be astonished at the greatness, goodness, sagacity, learning, wisdom; &c., of rich and great men, hoping thereby to acquire money, influence, power, friends, and the like.

    "Because of advantage." - wfeleiav carin? For the sake of lucre. All the flatterers of the rich are of this kind; and especially those who profess to be ministers of the Gospel, and who, for the sake of a more advantageous settlement or living, will soothe the rich even in their sins. With such persons a rich man is every thing; and if he have but a grain of grace, his piety is extolled to the skies! I have known several ministers of this character, and wish them all to read the sixteenth verse of Jude.

    Verse 17. "Remember-the words" - Instead of following those teachers and their corrupt doctrine, remember what Christ and his apostles have said; for they foretold the coming of such false teachers and impostors.

    Verse 18. "Mockers in the last time" - See the notes on 1 Timothy iv. 1; 2 Tim. iii. 1, &c.; and particularly 2 Pet. iii. 2, 3, &c., to which Jude seems to refer.

    The last time.
    - The conclusion of the Jewish polity.

    Verse 19. "Who separate themselves" - From the true Church, which they leave from an affectation of superior wisdom.

    "Sensual" - yucikoi? Animal - living as brute beasts, guided simply by their own lusts and passions, their Bible being the manifold devices and covetousness of their own hearts; for they have not the Spirit - they are not spiritually minded; and have no Holy Ghost, no inspiration from God.

    Verse 20. "Building up yourselves" - Having the most holy faith- the Gospel of our Lord Jesus, and the writings of his apostles, for your foundation; founding all your expectations on these, and seeking from the Christ who is their sum and substance; all the grace and glory ye need.

    "Praying in the Holy Ghost" - Holding fast the Divine influence which ye have received, and under that influence making prayer and supplication to God. The prayer that is not sent up through the influence of the Holy Ghost is never likely to reach heaven.

    Verse 21. "Keep yourselves in the love of God" - By building up yourselves on your most holy faith, and praying in the Holy Ghost; for without this we shall soon lose the love of God.

    "Looking for the mercy of our Lord" - For although they were to build themselves up, and to pray in the Holy Ghost, and keep themselves in the love of God, yet this building, praying, and keeping, cannot merit heaven; for, after all their diligence, earnestness, self-denial, watching, obedience, &c., they must look for the MERCY of the Lord Jesus Christ, to bring them to ETERNAL LIFE.

    Verse 22. "And of some have compassion, making a difference" - The general meaning of this exhortation is supposed to be, "Ye are not to deal alike with all those who have been seduced by false teachers; ye are to make a difference between those who have been led away by weakness and imprudence, and those who, in the pride and arrogance of their hearts, and their unwillingness to submit to wholesome discipline, have separated themselves from the Church, and become its inveterate enemies." Instead of kai ouv men eleeite diakrinomenoi, and of some have compassion, making a difference, many MSS., versions, and fathers have kai ouv men elegcete diakrinomenouv, and some rebuke, after having judged them; or, rebuke those that differ; or, some that are wavering convince; or whatever else the reader pleases: for this and the following verse are all confusion, both in the MSS. and versions; and it is extremely difficult to know what was the original text. Our own is as likely as any.

    Verse 23. "And others save with fear" - "Some of them snatch from the fire: but when they repent, have mercy upon them in fear." - Syriac. "And some of them rebuke for their sins; and on others have mercy when they are convicted; and others save from the fire and deliver them." - Erpen's Arabic. Mr. Wesley's note has probably hit the sense. "Meantime watch over others as well as yourselves; and give them such help as their various needs require. For instance, 1. Some that are wavering in judgment, staggered by others' or by their own evil reasoning, endeavour more deeply to convince of the truth as it is in Jesus. 2. Some snatch with a swift and strong hand out of the fire of sin and temptation. 3. On others show compassion, in a milder and gentler way; though still with a jealous fear, lest you yourselves be infected with the disease you endeavour to cure. See therefore that, while ye love the sinners, ye retain the utmost abhorrence of their sins, and of any, the least degree of or approach to them." Having even the garment spotted by the flesh.] Fleeing from all appearance of evil. Dictum sumptum, ut apparet, a mulieribus sanguine menstruo pollutis, quarum vestes etiam pollutae censebantur: or there may be an allusion to a case of leprosy, for that infected the garments of the afflicted person, and these garments were capable of conveying the contagion to others.

    Verse 24. "Now unto him that is able to keep you from falling" - Who alone can preserve you from the contagion of sin, and preserve you from falling into any kind of error that might be prejudicial to the interests of your souls; and thus to present you faultless, or, as many others read, aspilouv, without spot, alluding to the spotted garment mentioned above.

    "Before the presence of his glory" - Where nothing can stand that does not resemble himself, with exceeding great joy, in finding yourselves eternally out of the reach of the possibility of falling, and for having now arrived at an eternity of happiness.

    Verse 25. "To the only wise God" - Who alone can teach, who alone has declared the truth; that truth in which ye now stand. See on Rom. xvi. 27.

    "Our saviour" - Who has by his blood washed us from our sins, and made us kings and priests unto God the Father.

    "Be glory" - Be ascribed all light, excellence, and splendour.

    "Majesty" - All power, authority, and pre-eminence.

    "Dominion" - All rule and government in the world and in the Church, in earth and in heaven.

    "And power" - All energy and operation to every thing that is wise, great, good, holy, and excellent.

    "Both now" - In the present state of life and things.

    "And ever." - eiv pantav touv aiwnav? To the end of all states, places, dispensations, and worlds; and to a state which knows no termination, being that ETERNITY in which this glory, majesty, dominion, and power ineffably and incomprehensibly dwell.

    Amen.] So let it be, so ought it to be, and so it shall be.

    After to the only wise God our saviour, many excellent MSS. versions, &c., add dia ihsou cristou tou kuriou hmwn, by Jesus Christ our Lord; and after dominion and power they add pro pantov tou aiwnov, before all time; and both these readings Griesbach has received into the text. The text, therefore, may be read thus: To the only wise God our saviour, by Christ Jesus our Lord, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, before all time; and now, and through all futurity. Amen. Let the whole creation join in one chorus, issuing in one eternal Amen! Subscriptions to this epistle in the VERSIONS:-

    The Epistle of Jude the apostle, whose intercession be ever with us, Amen. The end.
    - SYRIAC.

    The Epistle of Jude, the brother of James is finished: and glory be to God for ever and ever, Amen.
    - AETHIOPIC.

    Nothing in the VULGATE.

    Nothing in the ARABIC.

    "This epistle was written A. D. 64, by the Apostle Jude, the brother of James; who is also called Lebbeus and Thaddeus; and who preached (the Gospel) to the Armenians and to the Persians."- This is found at the end of the ARMENIAN Bible, printed in 1698.

    The Epistle of Jude the son of Joseph, and brother of James, is ended-A MS. copy of the SYRIAC.

    The end of the catholic Epistle of St. Jude.
    - COMPLUTENSIAN.

    The Epistle of Jude the apostle is ended.
    - IBID. Latin text.

    In the MANUSCRIPTS:-

    Jude.
    - Codex Vaticanus, B.

    The Epistle of Jude.
    - Codex Alexandrinus.

    The catholic Epistle of Jude.
    - Codex Ephrem.

    The Epistle of the holy Apostle Jude.
    - Codex G, in Griesbach.

    Of how little authority such subscriptions are, we have already had occasion to observe in various cases. Very few of them are ancient; and none of them coeval with the works to which they are appended. They are, in general, the opinions of the scribes who wrote the copies; or of the Churches for whose use they were written. No stress therefore should be laid on them, as if proceeding from Divine authority.

    With the Epistle of Jude end all the apostolical epistles, and with it the canon of the New Testament, as to gospels and epistles; for the Apocalypse is a work sui generis, and can rank with neither. It is in general a collection of symbolic prophecies, which do not appear to be yet fully understood by the Christian world, and which can only be known when they are fulfilled.

    Finished for a new impression, January 4th, 1832.
    - A. C.

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