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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Revelation 4:6

    CHAPTERS: Revelation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22     

    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11




    King James Bible - Revelation 4:6

    And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal: and in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, were four beasts full of eyes before and behind.

    World English Bible

    Before the throne was something like a sea of
    glass, similar to crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind.

    Douay-Rheims - Revelation 4:6

    And in the sight of the throne was, as it were, a sea of
    glass like to crystal; and in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, were four living creatures, full of eyes before and behind.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    And before the throne there was a sea of
    glass like crystal: And in the midst of the throne, and around the throne, were four living beings full of eyes before and behind.

    Greek Textus Receptus

    2532 ενωπιον 1799 του 3588 θρονου 2362 θαλασσα 2281 υαλινη 5193 ομοια 3664 κρυσταλλω 2930 και 2532 εν 1722 μεσω 3319 του 3588 θρονου 2362 και 2532 κυκλω 2945 του 3588 θρονου 2362 τεσσαρα 5064 ζωα 2226 γεμοντα 1073 5723 οφθαλμων 3788 εμπροσθεν 1715 και 2532 οπισθεν 3693

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (6) -
    Re 15:2 Ex 38:8 1Ki 7:23

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 4:6

    Y delante del trono había como un mar de color de vidrio semejante al cristal; y en medio del trono, y alrededor del trono, cuatro animales llenos de ojos delante y detrs.

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Revelation 4:6

    Verse 6. Four
    beasts] tessara zwa? Four living creatures or four animals.

    The word beast is very improperly used here and elsewhere in this description. Wiclif first used it, and translators in general have followed him in this uncouth rendering. A beast before the throne of God in heaven sounds oddly.

    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 6. And before the throne [there was] a sea of glass like unto crystal , etc.] By which is meant, not heaven, nor the souls of the blessed there, nor the multitude of the holy angels, nor the first converts to Christianity at Jerusalem; for those that got the victory over the beast are said to stand upon this sea, ( Revelation 15:2), which these senses, especially the three last, will by no means admit of. Some by it understand the world, which may be compared to a sea, for the multitude of people in it, as many waters in this book signify people and nations, ( Revelation 17:15); and to a sea of glass, which is brittle, for the frailty and transitoriness of the world, of the fashion of it, and of men and things in it; and to the clear crystal, because all things in it are open and manifest to the omniscient eye of God; but the world, and men of it, used not to be compared to a still and quiet sea, as this is, but to one disturbed and troubled by winds and tempests, whose waters cast up mire and dirt, ( Isaiah 57:20). Others think the ordinance of baptism is designed, of which the Red sea, through which the Israelites passed under the cloud, was an emblem; and which may be compared to a sea of glass, for its transparency, it clearly expressing the sufferings, burial, and resurrection of Christ; and to crystal, for its purity; and to all this for its cleansing nature, as it leads unto the blood of Christ; and its being before the throne may denote its being the way of entrance into the Gospel church. Others think the blood of Christ is meant, in allusion to the brazen sea in the tabernacle, which was made of the looking glasses the women brought, and for the priests to wash in, before they entered on business, ( Exodus 30:18 38:8), and to the molten sea in the temple, which was for the same purpose, ( 1 Kings 7:23). Christ's blood is the fountain opened to wash in for sin, and may be compared to a sea for its abundant efficacy in cleansing from all sin; and it is this which makes way to the throne, and to him that sits on it; and is a special privilege enjoyed by those who come to Mount Zion, or into a Gospel church state; there is always this laver to wash their garments in, and make them white: though this sea, being of glass, seems not so much designed to wash in; and therefore rather I think by it is meant the Gospel, compared to a sea for the deep things of God and mysteries of grace which are in it; to a sea of glass, because in it is beheld, as in a glass, the glory of the Lord, of his person, office, and righteousness, as well as many other wondrous things; and to one like crystal, for the clearness, perspicuity, and evidence of the truths contained in it; and to a, fixed, still; and quiet sea, because it is the Gospel of peace, love, grace, and mercy, and brings peace, joy, and tranquillity to troubled minds, when the law works wrath: but here are no tossing, foaming, raging waves of wrath, and fury, but all smooth, stable, solid, tranquil, and quiet. And this is said to be before the throne, where the rainbow of the covenant is, of which the Gospel is a transcript; and where the four and twenty elders, or members of churches be, for their delight and comfort; and where the seven spirits of God are, to furnish men with gifts to preach it; and where the four living creatures, or ministers of the word, have their place, who officiate in it. Agreeably to this figurative way of speaking, the Jews call the law, atyrwad amy , the sea of the law, and the sea of wisdom; and frequently give the characters of such and such a doctor, as being very expert and conversant dwmlth yb , in the sea of the Talmud, or doctrine f136 . The Alexandrian copy, the Complutensian edition, the Vulgate Latin and Syriac versions, read, there was as a sea of glass, somewhat that looked like one. The word glass is left out in the Ethiopic version, but very aptly is it so described, the colour of the sea being sometimes green like that of glass. And in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, [were] four beasts ; or living creatures, as the word may be better rendered, agreeably to ( Ezekiel 1:5), to which reference is here had; and by whom are meant not the angels, though there are many things which agree with them; they are said to be the four spirits of the heavens, which go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth, ( Zechariah 6:5). They may be rightly called living creatures, since they live a most happy life in heaven; their situation is before the throne, and in the presence of God; and their being so sedulous, diligent, and watchful in doing the will of God, may be signified by their being full of eyes behind, and before, and within; their strength may be fitly expressed by the lion; their indefatigableness in the service of God, by the ox: their wisdom, prudence, and knowledge, by the face of a man; and their swiftness in obeying the divine commands by the flying eagle; their number of wings agrees with that of the seraphim in ( Isaiah 6:2); to which the allusion seems to be; and their work, in continually ascribing glory to God, suits with them: to which may be added, that the Jews often speak of four angels, waskl bybs , round about his throne, that is, the throne of God; whose names are Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael; the three first they place in this manner, Michael at his right hand, Uriel at his left, and Gabriel before him f137 .

    Sometimes thus, Michael on his right hand, Gabriel on his left, Uriel before him, and Raphael behind him, and the holy blessed God in the middle; and they are expressly called by them the four living creatures, meaning in Ezekiel's vision; and they make mention of the intellectual living creatures which are aysrkl yrjs , round about the throne f139 . Notwithstanding all this, the angels cannot be intended, because these four living creatures are said to be redeemed by the blood of Christ, and are distinguished from angels in ( Revelation 5:8-11); nor are the four Gospels, with the four evangelists, here meant; for whatever agreement may be fancied there is between these, and the likeness of the living creatures; as that Matthew may be signified by the creature that has the face of a man, because he begins his Gospel with the genealogy of Christ, as man; and Mark by the lion, because he begins his Gospel with the voice of one crying in the wilderness; and Luke by the ox, because he begins his Gospel with an account of Zacharias the priest, offering in the temple; and John by the eagle, because he begins his Gospel, the first face or leaf of it, in a very high style, and with the divinity of Christ: and with what truth soever it may be said of these that they are full of divine light and knowledge, and swiftly spread it in the world, and are continually giving glory to God; yet it cannot be said of them, with any propriety, as is said of these four living creatures, that they fall down before God, and worship him, and are redeemed by the blood of the Lamb: besides, these four are represented as calling to John at the opening of the first four seals, to come and see what was to be seen; and one of them is said to give to the seven angels the vials of wrath to pour out, ( Revelation 5:8,9 6:1,3,5,7 15:7), to which may be added, that this sense is attended with this inconvenience, that it makes John to be one of the four creatures which he saw: nor are four particular apostles, as Peter and John, Paul and Barnabas, pointed at, as others think; nor the pure apostolical church, for the church is represented by the four and twenty elders, and these four living creatures are distinguished from the hundred and forty four thousand on Mount Zion, in ( Revelation 14:1,3). Dr. Goodwin has a very ingenious thought upon these words, could it be supported; he thinks that these four living creatures design the four officers in the Christian church, the ruling elder, the pastor, the deacon, and the teacher; the ruling elder by the lion, who needs courage to deal with men in case of sins; the pastor by the ox, for his laboriousness in treading out the corn; the deacon by that which has the face of a man, it being necessary that he should be merciful and pitiful to the poor, as is the heart of a man; and the teacher by the flying eagle, who is quick to espy errors, and soars aloft into high mysteries: but then it should be observed, that there is no such officer ass ruling elder in the church, distinct from the pastor; and that the pastor and teacher are one; so that there are but two sorts of officers in the church, pastor, and deacon; (see Philippians 1:1); to which may be added, that the four living creatures are all in the same situation, and are alike full of eyes, and have the same number of wings, and are employed in the same work; all which cannot be said equally of church officers. By these four living creatures, I apprehend, we are to understand the ministers of the Gospel in general, in the successive ages of the church, to whom all the characters do well agree. And though they may not be all found in everyone, at least not in all alike, yet thou are in one or another of them, and in them as together considered. They are said to be four, being fewer in number than the members of the church, which are signified by the twenty four elders, and yet a sufficient number; and in allusion to the four standards of the camp of Israel in the wilderness, to which there seems to be some reference in the whole of this account; as the tabernacle there was placed in the midst, so the throne of God here; as the priests and Levites were round about that, so the four and twenty elders here; as there were seven lamps, over against the candlestick in the tabernacle, continually burning, so there are seven spirits here before the throne; and as there were four princes, who were standard bearers, placed at the four corners of the camp, so here four living creatures, or ministers of the word, who are standard bearers: the standard of Judah, with Issachar and Zabulon under him, was at the east of the tabernacle; and Ephraim, with Manasseh and Benjamin, at the west; Reuben, with Simeon and Gad, at the south; and Dan, with Asher and Naphtali, at the north; and the Jewish writers say f140 , that on Judah's standard was the figure of a lion, on Ephraim's the figure of an ox, on Reuben's the figure of a man, and on Dan's the figure of an eagle; and to which the four living creatures are likened here. And this number four may be the rather mentioned, with respect to the four parts of the world, and corners of the earth, whither the ministers of the Gospel are sent to preach, and whither their commission reaches; there being of the elect of God in all parts to be gathered in by their ministry: and very properly may they be called living creatures, because they are alive in themselves, being quickened by the Spirit of God; or otherwise they would not be fit for their work; and because their work requires liveliness in the exercise of grace, and fervency in the performance of duty: and because they are a means in the hand of God of quickening dead sinners, and of reviving drooping saints by the word of life, which they hold forth: the situation of these four living creatures agrees with them, who are said to be both in the midst of, and round about the throne, and so were nearer to it than the four and twenty elders, and were between that and them; as the ministers of the Gospel are set in the first place in the church; have nearness to God, and much of his presence, which is particularly promised them; and stand between God and the people, and receive from the one, and communicate to the other, and lead on the worship of God, as these four do; (see Revelation 4:9,10). And these are said to be full of eyes ; of spiritual light, and evangelical knowledge; and they have need of all the eyes they have to look into the Scriptures of truth, to search and pry into them, and find out the sense and meaning of them; to overlook the flock committed to them, they have taken the oversight of; to look to themselves, their doctrine, and their conversation; to espy enemies and dangers, and give notice of them to the churches; to look to God upon the throne, and to the Lamb in the midst of it, for fresh supplies of gifts and grace; and to see to it, that all their ministrations tend to the glory of God, the honour of a Redeemer, and the good of souls. And they had eyes before and behind ; before them, to look to the word of God, and the deep things in it, which continually lies before them, and to the things that are yet to come relating to the kingdom and church of Christ; and behind them, to observe how all sacrifices and types, predictions and promises, have had their accomplishment in Christ; they have eyes before them to watch over the church they are in the midst of, and which is the flock that is before them; and eyes behind, to guard against Satan and his emissaries, false teachers, who sometimes slyly and secretly come upon the back of them; they have eyes before them, to look to him that sits upon the throne, on whom their dependence, and from whom their expectations are; and they have eyes behind them, to look on the four and twenty elders, the members of the churches, to whom they minister.

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 1-8 - After the Lord Jesus had instructed the apostle to write to the churches "the things that are," there was another vision. The apostl saw a throne set in heaven, an emblem of the universal dominion of Jehovah. He saw a glorious One upon the throne, not described by huma features, so as to be represented by a likeness or image, but only by his surpassing brightness. These seem emblems of the excellence of the Divine nature, and of God's awful justice. The rainbow is a fit emble of that covenant of promise which God has made with Christ, as the Hea of the church, and with all his people in him. The prevailing colou was a pleasant green, showing the reviving and refreshing nature of the new covenant. Four-and-twenty seats around the throne, were filled with four-and-twenty elders, representing, probably, the whole church of God. Their sitting denotes honour, rest, and satisfaction; their sitting about the throne signifies nearness to God, the sight an enjoyment they have of him. They were clothed in white raiment; the imputed righteousness of the saints and their holiness: they had of their heads crowns of gold, signifying the glory they have with him Lightnings and voices came from the throne; the awful declarations God makes to his church, of his sovereign will and pleasure. Seven lamps of fire were burning before the throne; the gifts, graces, and operation of the Spirit of God in the churches of Christ, dispensed according to the will and pleasure of Him who sits upon the throne. In the gospe church, the laver for purification is the blood of the Lord Jesu Christ, which cleanses from all sin. In this all must be washed, to be admitted into the gracious presence of God on earth, and his glorious presence in heaven. The apostle saw four living creatures, between the throne and the circle of the elders, standing between God and the people. These seem to signify the true ministers of the gospel, becaus of their place between God and the people. This also is shown by the description given, denoting wisdom, courage, diligence, and discretion and the affections by which they mount up toward heaven.

    Greek Textus Receptus

    2532 ενωπιον 1799 του 3588 θρονου 2362 θαλασσα 2281 υαλινη 5193 ομοια 3664 κρυσταλλω 2930 και 2532 εν 1722 μεσω 3319 του 3588 θρονου 2362 και 2532 κυκλω 2945 του 3588 θρονου 2362 τεσσαρα 5064 ζωα 2226 γεμοντα 1073 5723 οφθαλμων 3788 εμπροσθεν 1715 και 2532 οπισθεν 3693

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    6. Of
    glass (ualinh). Rev., glassy, which describes the appearance not the material. The adjective, and the kindred noun ualov glass occur only in Revelation. The etymology is uncertain; some maintaining an Egyptian origin, and others referring it to the Greek uw to rain, with the original signification of rain-drop. Originally, some kind of clear, transparent stone. Herodotus says that the Ethiopians place their dead bodies "in a crystal pillar which has been hollowed out to receive them, crystal being dug up in great abundance in their country, and of a kind very easy to work. You may see the corpse through the pillar within which it lies; and it neither gives out any unpleasant odor, nor is it in any respect unseemly: yet there is no part that is not as plainly visible as if the body were bare" (iii. 24). Glass is known to have been made in Egypt at least 3,800 years ago. The monuments show that the same glass bottles were used then as in later times; and glass blowing is represented in the paintings in the tombs. The Egyptians possessed the art of coloring it, and of introducing gold between two layers of glass. The ruins of glass-furnaces are still to be seen at the Natron Lakes. The glass of Egypt was long famous. It was much used at Rome for ornamental purposes, and a glass window has been discovered at Pompeii: Pliny speaks of glass being malleable.

    Crystal. Compare Ezek. i. 22; Job xxxvii. 18; Exod. xxiv. 10. The word is used in classical Greek for ice. Thucydides, describing the attempt of the Plataeans to break out from their city when besieged by the Peloponnesians and Boeotians, relates their climbing over the wall and crossing the ditch, but only after a hard struggle; "for the ice (krustallov) in it was not frozen hard enough to bear" (iii., 23). Crystal, regarded as a mineral, was originally held to be only pure water congealed, by great length of time, into ice harder than common. Hence it was believed that it could be produced only in regions of perpetual ice. In the midst of - round about. Commonly explained as one in the midst of each of the four sides of the throne. "At the extremities of two diameters passing through the center of the round throne" (Milligan). Beasts (zwa). Rev., living creatures. Alford aptly remarks that beasts is the most unfortunate word that could be imagined. Beast is qhrion. Zwon emphasizes the vital element, qhrion the bestial.

    Full of eyes before and behind. The four living beings are mainly identical with the cherubim of Ezek. i. 5-10; x. 5-20; Isa. vi. 2, 3; though with some differences of detail. For instance, Ezekiel's cherubim have four wings, while the six described here belong to the seraphim of Isaiah. So also the Trisagion (thrice holy) is from Isaiah. In Ezekiel's vision each living being has all four faces, whereas here, each of the four has one.

    "There came close after them four animals, Incoronate each one with verdant leaf, Plumed with six wings was every one of them, The plumage full of eyes; the eyes of Argus If they were living would be such as these. Reader I to trace their forms no more I waste My rhymes; for other spendings press me so, That I in this cannot be prodigal. But read Ezekiel who depicteth them As he beheld them from the region cold Coming with cloud, with whirlwind, and with fire; And such as thou shalt find them in his pages, Such were they here; saving that in their plumage John is with me, and differeth from him." Dante, "Purgatorio," xxix., 92-105.

    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11


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