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  • ADAM CLARKE'S BIBLE COMMENTARY -
    JOSHUA 12

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    CHAPTER XII

    A list of the kings on the east of Jordan, which were conquered by MOSES, with their territories, 1-6. A list of those on the west side of Jordan, conquered by JOSHUA, in number thirty-one, 7-24.

    NOTES ON CHAP. XII

    Verse 1. "From the river Arnon unto Mount Hermon" - Arnon was the boundary of all the southern coast of the land occupied by the Israelites beyond Jordan; and the mountains of Hermon were the boundaries on the north. Arnon takes its rise in the mountains of Gilead, and having run a long way from north to south falls into the Dead Sea, near the same place into which Jordan discharges itself.

    "And all the plain on the east" - All the land from the plains of Moab to Mount Hermon.

    Verse 2. "From Aroer" - Aroer was situated on the western side of the river Arnon, in the middle of the valley through which this river takes its course.

    The kingdom of Sihon extended from the river Arnon and the city of Aroer on the south to the river Jabbok on the north.

    "And from half Gilead" - The mountains of Gilead extended from north to south from Mount Hermon towards the source of the river Arnon, which was about the midst of the extent of the kingdom of Sihon: thus Sihon is said to have possessed the half of Gilead, that is, the half of the mountains and of the country which bore the name of Gilead on the east of his territories. River Jabbok] This river has its source in the mountains of Gilead; and, running from east to west, falls into Jordan. It bounds the territories of Sihon on the north, and those of the Ammonites on the south.

    Verse 3. "The sea of Chinneroth" - Or Gennesareth, the same as the lake or sea of Tiberias.

    "The Salt Sea on the east" - jlmh y yam hammelach, which is here translated the Salt Sea, is understood by others to mean the sea of the city Melach. Where can we find any thing that can be called a salt sea on the east of the lake of Gennesareth? Some think that the lake Asphaltites, called also the Dead Sea, Sea of the Desert, Sea of Sodom, and Salt Sea, is here intended. Beth-jeshimoth] A city near the Dead Sea in the plains of Moab.

    "Ashdoth-pisgah" - Supposed to be a city at the foot of Mount Pisgah.

    Verse 4. "Coast of Og king of Bashan" - Concerning this person see the notes on Deut. iii. 11, and on Num. xxi. 35, &c.

    "The remnant or the giants" - Or, Rephaim. See the notes on Gen. vi. 4; xiv. 5, and Deut. ii. 7, 11.

    Verse 5. "The border of the Geshurites" - The country of Bashan, in the days of Moses and Joshua, extended from the river Jabbok on the south to the frontiers of the Geshurites and Maachathites on the north, to the foot of the mountains of Hermon.

    Verse 7. "From Baal-gad" - A repetition of what is mentioned chap. xi. 17.

    Verse 9. "The king of Jericho, &c." - On this and the following verses see the notes on chap. x. 1-3.

    Verse 13. "The king of Geder" - Probably the same with Gedor, chap. xv. 58; it was situated in the tribe of Judah.

    Verse 14. "The king of Hormah" - Supposed to be the place where the Israelites were defeated by the Canaanites see Num. xiv. 45; and which probably was called Hormah, hmrh chormah, or destruction, from this circumstance.

    Verse 15. "Adullam" - A city belonging to the tribe of Judah, chap. xv. 35.

    In a cave at this place David often secreted himself during his persecution by Saul; 1 Sam. xxii. 1.

    Verse 17. "Tappuah" - There were two places of this name: one in the tribe of Judah, chap. xv. 34, and another in the tribe of Ephraim on the borders of Manasseh; but which of the two is meant here cannot be ascertained. See the note on chap. xv. 53.

    "Hepher" - The same, according to Calmet, as Ophrah in the tribe of Benjamin, chap. xviii. 23.

    Verse 18. "Aphek" - There were several cities of this name: one in the tribe of Asher, chap. xix. 30, another in the tribe of Judah, 1 Sam. iv. 1; xxix. 1; and a third in Syria, 1 Kings xx. 26, and 2 Kings xiii. 17. Which of the two former is here intended cannot be ascertained.

    "Lasharon" - There is no city of this name known. Some consider the l lamed in the word wrl lashsharon to be the sign of the genitive case, and in this sense it appears to have been understood by the Vulgate, which translates rex Saron, the king of Sharon. This was rather a district than a city, and is celebrated in the Scriptures for its fertility; Isa. xxxiii. 9; xxxv. 2.

    Some suppose it was the same with Saron, near Lydda, mentioned Acts ix. 35.

    Verse 20. "Shimron-meron" - See on chap. xi. 1.

    Verse 21. "Taanach" - A city in the half tribe of Manasseh, to the west of Jordan, not far from the frontiers of Zebulun, Joshua xvii. 11. This city was assigned to the Levites, chap. xxi. 25.

    Verse 22. "Kedesh" - There was a city of this name in the tribe of Naphtali, chap. xix. 37. It was given to the Levites, and was one of the cities of refuge, chap. xx. 7.

    "Jokneam of Carmel" - This city is said to have been at the foot of Mount Carmel, near the river Belus, in the tribe of Zebulun, chap. xix. 11. It was given to the Levites, chap. xxi. 34.

    Verse 23. "The king of Dor" - The city of this name fell to the lot of the children of Manasseh, chap. xvii. 11. Bochart observes that it was one of the oldest royal cities in Phoenicia. The Canaanites held it, Judg. i. 27.

    Antiochus Sydetes besieged it in aftertimes, but could not make himself master of it. See Bochart, Canaan, lib. i., c. 28, and Dodd.

    "The king of the nations of Gilgal" - This is supposed to mean the higher Galilee, surnamed Galilee of the Gentiles or, nations, as the Hebrew word ywg goyim means. On this ground it should be read king of Galilee of the nations. Others suppose it is the same country with that of which Tidal was king, see Gen. xiv. 1. The place is very uncertain, and commentators have rendered it more so by their conjectures.

    Verse 24. "King of Tirzah" - This city appears to have been for a long time the capital of the kingdom of Israel, and the residence of its kings. See 1 Kings xiv. 17; xv. 21, 33. Its situation cannot be exactly ascertained; but it is supposed to have been situated on a mountain about three leagues south of Samaria.

    "All the kings thirty and one." - The Septuagint say eikosi ennea, twenty-nine, and yet set down but twenty-eight, as they confound or omit the kings of Beth-el, Lasharon, and Madon. So many kings in so small a territory, shows that their kingdoms must have been very small indeed.

    The kings of Beth-el and Ai had but about 12, 000 subjects in the whole; but in ancient times all kings had very small territories. Every village or town had its chief; and this chief was independent of his neighbours, and exercised regal power in his own district. In reading all ancient histories, as well as the Bible, this circumstance must be kept constantly in view; for we ought to consider that in those times both kings and kingdoms were but a faint resemblance of those now. Great Britain, in ancient times, was divided into many kingdoms: in the time of the Saxons it was divided into seven, hence called the Saxon heptarchy. But when Julius Caesar first entered this island, he found four kings in Kent alone; Cingetorix, Carnilius, Taximagulus, and Segonax. Hence we need not wonder at the numbers we read of in the land of Canaan. Ancient Gaul was thus divided; and the great number of sovereign princes, secular bishops, landgraves, dukes, &c., &c., in Germany, are the modern remains of those ancient divisions.

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