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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - 1 Corinthians 4:13


    CHAPTERS: 1 Corinthians 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16     
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    King James Bible - 1 Corinthians 4:13

    Being defamed, we intreat: we are made as the filth of the world, and are the offscouring of all things unto this day.

    World English Bible

    Being defamed, we entreat. We are made as the filth of the world, the dirt wiped off by all, even until now.

    Douay-Rheims - 1 Corinthians 4:13

    We are blasphemed, and we entreat; we are made as the refuse of this world, the offscouring of all even until now.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    Being defamed, we entreat: we are made as the filth of the world, the offscouring of all things to this
    day.

    Greek Textus Receptus


    βλασφημουμενοι
    987 5746 V-PPP-NPM παρακαλουμεν 3870 5719 V-PAI-1P ως 5613 ADV περικαθαρματα 4027 N-NPN του 3588 T-GSM κοσμου 2889 N-GSM εγενηθημεν 1096 5675 V-AOI-1P παντων 3956 A-GPN περιψημα 4067 N-NSN εως 2193 CONJ αρτι 737 ADV

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (13) -
    La 3:45 Ac 22:22

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 4:13

    somos blasfemados, y rogamos; hemos venido a ser como la basura de este mundo, inmundicias de todos hasta ahora.

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - 1 Corinthians 4:13

    Verse 13. Being
    defamed] blasfhmoumenoi, Being blasphemed. I have already remarked that blasfhmein signifies to speak injuriously, and may have reference either to God or to man. GOD is blasphemed when his attributes, doctrines, providence, or grace, are treated contemptuously, or any thing said of him that is contrary to his holiness, justice, goodness, or truth. Man is blasphemed when any thing injurious is spoken of his person, character, conduct, &c. Blaspheming against men is any thing by which they are injured in their persons, characters, or property.

    We are made as the filth of the earth-the offscouring of all things] The Greek word which we render filth, is perikaqarmata, a purgation, or lustrative sacrifice; that which we translate offscouring is periyhma, a redemption sacrifice. To understand the full force of these words, as applied by the apostle in this place, we must observe that he alludes to certain customs among the heathens, who, in the time of some public calamity, chose out some unhappy men of the most abject and despicable character to be a public expiation for them; these they maintained a whole year at the public expense; and then they led them out, crowned with flowers, as was customary in sacrifices; and, having heaped all the curses of the country upon their heads, and whipped them seven times, they burned them alive, and afterwards their ashes were thrown into the sea, while the people said these words: periyhmahmwn ginou, be thou our propitiation. Sometimes the person thus chosen was thrown into the sea as a sacrifice to Neptune, the people saying the words as before. Hence Origen says that our Lord, in giving up himself as a propitiation for our sins, was much more than his apostles- perikaqarmata tou kosmou, pantwn periyhma, the lustration of the world, and the peculiar sacrifice for all men. The apostle, therefore, means that he and his fellows were treated like those wretched beings who were judged to be fit for nothing but to be expiatory victims to the infernal gods, for the safety and redemption of others. Our words filth and offscouring, convey no legitimate sense of the original. See several useful remarks upon these terms in Pearce, Whitby, and Parkhurst.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 13. Being defamed, we entreat , etc.] Being blasphemed, as the word signifies, being evil spoken of, our good name taken away, and characters hurt; we entreat or pray to God for them, that he would convince them of their evil, give them repentance unto life, and remission of their sins, according to Christs direction, ( Matthew 5:44) and in imitation of his example, ( Luke 23:34) or we entreat them; so the Syriac version reads it, whnm ny[b , we beseech them: not to blaspheme and speak evil of us, since it will be to their own hurt; we give them smooth words, and soft language, not rendering railing for railing, or reviling for reviling: we are made as the filth of the world, and the offscouring of all things unto this day ; referring, as some think, to ( Lamentations 3:45) or to the lustrations and expiations among the Heathens, who when any calamity was upon them, particularly a plague among them, used to take one of the refuse of the people, and sacrifice him by way of expiation; or any living creature, as a sheep which with imprecations they cast into a river, or into the sea, fancying it carried away all the contagion along with it; hence, by way of reproach, such that were under disgrace, and were ejected, and exiled, were called kayarmata , purgations; the refuse of the people, by which the rest were purged or the reference is to any dirt, or filth in common, swept out of houses, and trodden under foot; and so expresses the mean and abject condition of the apostles, and with what disdain and contempt they were treated in the world: all which shows that they were far from reigning as kings; and whilst this was their case, who were at the head of the interest of Christ, it must be a vain conceit of the Corinthians, that they reigned as kings without them.

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 7-13 - We have no reason to be
    proud; all we have, or are, or do, that is good, is owing to the free and rich grace of God. A sinner snatche from destruction by sovereign grace alone, must be very absurd an inconsistent, if proud of the free gifts of God. St. Paul sets fort his own circumstances, ver. 9 Allusion is made to the cruel spectacle in the Roman games; where men were forced to cut one another to pieces to divert the people; and where the victor did not escape with his life, though he should destroy his adversary, but was only kept for another combat, and must be killed at last. The thought that many eye are upon believers, when struggling with difficulties or temptations should encourage constancy and patience. "We are weak, but ye ar strong." All Christians are not alike exposed. Some suffer greate hardships than others. The apostle enters into particulars of their sufferings. And how glorious the charity and devotion that carried the through all these hardships! They suffered in their persons an characters as the worst and vilest of men; as the very dirt of the world, that was to be swept away: nay, as the offscouring of all things, the dross of all things. And every one who would be faithful in Christ Jesus, must be prepared for poverty and contempt. Whatever the disciples of Christ suffer from men, they must follow the example, an fulfil the will and precepts of their Lord. They must be content, with him and for him, to be despised and abused. It is much better to be rejected, despised, and ill used, as St. Paul was, than to have the good opinion and favour of the world. Though cast off by the world a vile, yet we may be precious to God, gathered up with his own hand, an placed upon his throne.


    Greek Textus Receptus


    βλασφημουμενοι
    987 5746 V-PPP-NPM παρακαλουμεν 3870 5719 V-PAI-1P ως 5613 ADV περικαθαρματα 4027 N-NPN του 3588 T-GSM κοσμου 2889 N-GSM εγενηθημεν 1096 5675 V-AOI-1P παντων 3956 A-GPN περιψημα 4067 N-NSN εως 2193 CONJ αρτι 737 ADV

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    13.
    Defamed (dusfhmoumenoi). Publicly slandered; while reviled refers to personal abuse.

    Intreat (parakaloumen). See on consolation, Luke vi. 24, and comfort, Acts ix. 31. The sense is, we strive to appease by entreaty.

    Filth - offscouring (perikaqarmata - periyhma). The former word is from perikaqairw to cleanse all round. Hence that which is thrown off in cleansing; refuse. Kaqarma the refuse of a sacrifice. So Aeschylus. Electra says: "Should I, like one who has carried away refuse (kaqarmaq) from a purification, after tossing away the urn, go back again with unturned eyes?" ("Choephoroe," 90). In Prov. xxi. 18, Sept., it occurs in the sense of ransom. Some find an allusion here to an ancient Athenian custom of throwing certain worthless persons into the sea in case of plague or famine, saying Be our offscouring! These persons were called perikaqarmata offscourings, or periyhmata scrapings, in the belief that they would wipe away the nation's guilt. Ignatius says to the Ephesians, periyhma uJmwn I am your offscouring. The sense is twofold: I am as the meanest among you; and I devote my life for you. In the middle of the third century, periyhma sou had become a common expression of formal compliment: your humble servant. See Lightfoot, "Apostolic Fathers," on Ignatius to the Ephesians, 8. "Compare Lam. iii. 45, and Tobit v. 18. Periyhma that which is scraped or scoured off. Both words only here in the New Testament.

    This tremendous piece of irony justifies the numerous allusions which have been made to Paul's vehemence and severity. Thus Dante, in his vision of the Earthly Paradise, pictures Paul:

    "Two old men I beheld, unlike in habit, But like in gait, each dignified and grave.

    One (Luke) showed himself as one of the disciples Of that supreme Hippocrates whom Nature Made for the animals she holds most dear, Contrary care the other (Paul) manifested, With sword so shining and so sharp, it caused Terror to me on this side of the river." "Purgatorio," xxix., 134-141.

    "His words, indeed, seem to be those of a simple, and, as it were, an innocent and rustic man, who knows neither how to frame nor to avoid wiles; but whithersoever you look, there are thunderbolts" (Jerome). "Paul thunders, lightens, utters pure flames" (Erasmus). See a collection of quotations in Farrar's "Life and Work of St. Paul," i., 619. 86


    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    4:13 {Being defamed we intreat} (dusfemoumenoi parakaloumen). The participle dusfemoumenoi is an old verb (in I Macc. 7:41) to use ill, from dusfemos, but occurs here only in the N.T. Paul is opening his very heart now after the keen irony above. {As the filth of the world} (hws perikaqarmata tou kosmou). Literally, sweepings, rinsings, cleansings around, dust from the floor, from perikaqairw, to cleanse all around (Plato and Aristotle) and so the refuse thrown off in cleansing. Here only in the N.T. and only twice elsewhere. kaqarma was the refuse of a sacrifice. In #Pr 21:18 perikaqarma occurs for the scapegoat. The other example is Epictetus iii. 22,78, in the same sense of an expiatory offering of a worthless fellow. It was the custom in Athens during a plague to throw to the sea some wretch in the hope of appeasing the gods. One hesitates to take it so here in Paul, though Findlay thinks that possibly in Ephesus Paul may have heard some such cry like that in the later martyrdoms _Christiani ad leones_. At any rate in #1Co 15:32 Paul says "I fought with wild beasts" and in #2Co 1:9 "I had the answer of death." Some terrible experience may be alluded to here. The word shows the contempt of the Ephesian populace for Paul as is shown in #Ac 19:23-41 under the influence of Demetrius and the craftsmen. {The offscouring of all things} (pantwn periyema). Late word, here only in N.T., though in Tob. 5:18. The word was used in a formula at Athens when victims were flung into the sea, periyema hemwn genou (Became a periyema for us), in the sense of expiation. The word merely means scraping around from periyaw, offscrapings or refuse. That is probably the idea here as in Tob. 5:18. It came to have a complimentary sense for the Christians who in a plague gave their lives for the sick. But it is a bold figure here with Paul of a piece with perikaqarmata.


    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21

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