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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Ephesians 4:18


    CHAPTERS: Ephesians 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6     

    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32

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    King James Bible - Ephesians 4:18

    Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:

    World English Bible

    being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the
    life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardening of their hearts;

    Douay-Rheims - Ephesians 4:18

    Having their understanding darkened, being alienated from the
    life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their hearts.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the
    life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:

    Greek Textus Receptus


    εσκοτισμενοι
    4654 5772 τη 3588 διανοια 1271 οντες 5607 5752 απηλλοτριωμενοι 526 5772 της 3588 ζωης 2222 του 3588 θεου 2316 δια 1223 την 3588 αγνοιαν 52 την 3588 ουσαν 5607 5752 εν 1722 αυτοις 846 δια 1223 την 3588 πωρωσιν 4457 της 3588 καρδιας 2588 αυτων 846

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (18) -
    Ps 74:20; 115:4-8 Isa 44:18-20; 46:5-8 Ac 17:30; 26:17,18

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 4:18

    Teniendo el entendimiento entenebrecido, ajenos de la vida de Dios por la ignorancia que en ellos hay, por la ceguedad de su corazn;

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Ephesians 4:18

    Verse 18. 2. Having the understanding darkened] This is the second instance alleged by the
    apostle of the degradation of the Gentiles. Having no means of knowledge, the heart, naturally dark, became more and more so by means of habitual transgression; every thing in the Gentile system having an immediate tendency to blind the eyes and darken the whole soul.

    3. Being alienated from the life of God] The original design of God was to live in man; and the life of God in the soul of man was that by which God intended to make man happy, and without which true happiness was never found by any human spirit: from this through the ignorance that was in them, dia thn agnoian thn ousan, through the substantial or continually existing ignorance, which there was nothing to instruct, nothing to enlighten; for the most accurate writings of their best philosophers left them entirely ignorant of the real nature of God. And if they had no correct knowledge of the true God they could have no religion; and if no religion, no morality. Their moral state became so wretched that they are represented as abhorring every thing spiritual and pure, for this is the import of the word aphllotriwmenoi (which we translate alienated) in some of the best Greek writers. They abhorred every thing that had a tendency to lay any restraint on their vicious passions and inclinations.

    4. Blindness of their heart] dia thn pwrwsin? Because of the callousness of their hearts. Callous signifies a thickening of the outward skin of any particular part, especially on the hands and feet, by repeated exercise or use, through which such parts are rendered insensible. This may be metaphorically applied to the conscience of a sinner, which is rendered stupid and insensible by repeated acts of iniquity.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 18. Having the understanding darkened , &c.] Not that the natural faculty of the understanding is lost in men, nor the understanding in things natural and civil, and which is quick enough, especially in things that are evil; but in things spiritual it is very dark and ignorant, as about the nature and perfections of God, his holiness and righteousness; about sin and the consequences of it; about Christ, his person, office, and work, and salvation by him; about the Spirit, and his work of grace upon the soul; and about the Scripture, and the doctrines contained in it; and so it came to be by sin: the understanding of man was at first filled both with natural and divine knowledge; but man was not content with this, and being ambitious of more, even of being as God, lost what he had; for on account of his sin he was banished from the divine presence, which brought not only a darkness upon him, but upon all his posterity; and which is increased by personal iniquity, and oftentimes by Satan the god of this world, who blinds the minds of men; and sometimes men are given up in just judgment by God, to a judicial blindness and hardness of heart; and which issues in utter darkness, in blackness of darkness for evermore: being alienated from the life of God ; not that which God lives in himself, but that which he lives in his people; nor that natural life which men receive from him, but a spiritual life, a life of grace, faith and holiness; and which may be called the life of God, because it is infused by the Spirit of God, and the word of God is the means of it, and it is supported and secured by the power of God, and is according to the will of God, and is directed to his glory: now wicked and unconverted men are alienated from this life; they are estranged from God the fountain of it; and go astray from the law, the rule of an holy life; and are entirely destitute of a principle of life, from whence men can only act and are utterly unacquainted with the pleasures and sweetness of the life of faith and holiness; nor do they approve of such a life, but have the utmost aversion to it: through the ignorance that is in them ; every unregenerate man is an ignorant man, and especially the Gentiles were very ignorant of God, and of divine things; ignorance is natural to men, it comes by sin, and is itself sinful, and is sometimes the punishment of sin, and also the cause of it, as here of alienation from the life of God; for where is ignorance of God, there can be no desire after him, no communion with him, no faith in him, had dependence on him; no true worship of him, or living according to his will, and to his glory: and this ignorance is, because of the blindness of their hearts , or the hardness of it; there is a natural hardness of the heart, the heart is naturally stony, and so it remains till grace takes away the stony heart, and gives an heart of flesh; it is insensible and inflexible, and not susceptive of any impression; and there is a voluntary hardness of it, men willingly harden themselves against the Lord, and make their hearts like an adamant stone, all sin is of an hardening nature; and there is a judicial hardness, which God gives up men unto; and when and where this is the case, in either sense, it is no wonder men should be so ignorant of God, and so alienated from the life of him: blh twyms , blindness of heart f51 , is a Rabbinical phrase.

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 17-24 - The
    apostle charged the Ephesians in the name and by the authority of the Lord Jesus, that having professed the gospel, they should not be a the unconverted Gentiles, who walked in vain fancies and carna affections. Do not men, on every side, walk in the vanity of their minds? Must not we then urge the distinction between real and nomina Christians? They were void of all saving knowledge; they sat in darkness, and loved it rather than light. They had a dislike and hatre to a life of holiness, which is not only the way of life God require and approves, and by which we live to him, but which has some likenes to God himself in his purity, righteousness, truth, and goodness. The truth of Christ appears in its beauty and power, when it appears as in Jesus. The corrupt nature is called a man; like the human body, it is of divers parts, supporting and strengthening one another. Sinfu desires are deceitful lusts; they promise men happiness, but rende them more miserable; and bring them to destruction, if not subdued an mortified. These therefore must be put off, as an old garment, a filth garment; they must be subdued and mortified. But it is not enough to shake off corrupt principles; we must have gracious ones. By the ne man, is meant the new nature, the new creature, directed by a ne principle, even regenerating grace, enabling a man to lead a new lif of righteousness and holiness. This is created, or brought forth by God's almighty power.


    Greek Textus Receptus


    εσκοτισμενοι
    4654 5772 τη 3588 διανοια 1271 οντες 5607 5752 απηλλοτριωμενοι 526 5772 της 3588 ζωης 2222 του 3588 θεου 2316 δια 1223 την 3588 αγνοιαν 52 την 3588 ουσαν 5607 5752 εν 1722 αυτοις 846 δια 1223 την 3588 πωρωσιν 4457 της 3588 καρδιας 2588 αυτων 846

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    18. Understanding (dianoia). See on
    Luke i. 51. The moral understanding.

    Life of God (zwhv). See on John i. 4. The life which God bestows; life in Christ. See 1 John v. 11.

    Through the ignorance. The cause of the alienation. Not to be construed with darkened, since ignorance is the effect, and not the cause, of the darkness of the understanding Which is in them (thn ousan en autoiv). The participle of the substantive verb expresses the deep-seated, indwelling character of the ignorance.

    Hardening (pwrwsin). See on Mark iii. 5. Dependent, like ignorance, on allienated. Arrange the whole clause thus: The Gentiles walk in the vanity of their mind, being darkened in their understanding, being alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardening of their heart.


    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    4:18 {Being darkened} (eskotwmenoi ontes). Periphrastic perfect passive participle of skotow, old verb from skotos (darkness), in N.T. only here and #Re 9:2; 16:10. {In their understanding} (tei dianoiai). Locative case. Probably dianoia (dia, nous) includes the emotions as well as the intellect (nous). It is possible to take ontes with apellotriwmenoi (see #2:12) which would qen be periphrastic (instead of eskot"menoi) perfect passive participle. {From the life of God} (tes zwes tou qeou). Ablative case zwes after apellotriwmenoi (#2:12). {Because of the ignorance} (dia ten agnoian). Old word from agnoew, not to know. Rare in N.T. See #Ac 3:17. {Hardening} (p"r"sin). Late medical term (Hippocrates) for callous hardening. Only other N.T. examples are #Mr 3:5; Ro 11:25.


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