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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Romans 1:1

    CHAPTERS: Romans 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16     

    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32




    King James Bible - Romans 1:1

    Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

    World English Bible

    Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the Good News of God,

    Douay-Rheims - Romans 1:1

    PAUL, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

    Webster's Bible Translation

    Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated to the gospel of God,

    Greek Textus Receptus

    3972 N-NSM δουλος 1401 N-NSM ιησου 2424 N-GSM χριστου 5547 N-GSM κλητος 2822 A-NSM αποστολος 652 N-NSM αφωρισμενος 873 5772 V-RPP-NSM εις 1519 PREP ευαγγελιον 2098 N-ASN θεου 2316 N-GSM

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (1) -
    Ac 13:9; 21:40; 22:7,13; 26:1,14

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 1:1

    ¶ Pablo, siervo de Jess, el Cristo, llamado a ser apstol, apartado para el Evangelio de Dios,

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Romans 1:1

    Verse 1.
    Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ] The word doulov, which we translate servant, properly means a slave, one who is the entire property of his master; and is used here by the apostle with great propriety. He felt he was not his own, and that his life and powers belonged to his heavenly owner, and that he had no right to dispose of or employ them but in the strictest subserviency to the will of his Lord. In this sense, and in this spirit, he is the willing slave of Jesus Christ; and this is, perhaps, the highest character which any soul of man can attain on this side eternity. "I am wholly the Lord's; and wholly devoted in the spirit of sacrificial obedience, to the constant, complete, and energetic performance of the Divine will." A friend of God is high; a son of God is higher; but the servant, or, in the above sense, the slave of God, is higher than all;-in a word, he is a person who feels he has no property in himself, and that God is all and in all.

    Called to be an apostle] The word apostolov, apostle, from apostellein, to send, signifies simply a messenger or envoy; one sent on a confidential errand: but here it means an extraordinary messenger; one sent by God himself to deliver the most important message on behalf of his Maker;-in a word, one sent by the Divine authority to preach the Gospel to the nations. The word klhtov, called, signifies here the same as constituted, and should be joined with apostolov, as it is in the Greek, and translated thus: Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, constituted an apostle, &c. This sense the word called has in many places of the sacred writings; e. g. Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed on us, that we should be called, klhqwmen, CONSTITUTED, or made the sons of God. As it is likely that no apostle had been employed in founding the Church of Rome, and there was need of much authority to settle the matters that were there in dispute, it was necessary he should show them that he derived his authority from God, and was immediately delegated by him to preach and write as he was now doing.

    Separated unto the Gospel] Set apart and appointed to this work, and to this only; as the Israelites were separate from all the people of the earth, to be the servants of God: see Lev. xx. 26. St. Paul may here refer to his former state as a Pharisee, which literally signifies a separatist, or one separated. Before he was separated unto the service of his own sect; now he is separated unto the Gospel of God. On the word GOSPEL, and its meaning, see the preface to the notes on St. Matthew; and for the meaning of the word Pharisee, see the same Gospel, Matt. iii. 7.

    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ , etc..] The name of the author of this epistle is Paul, who formerly was called Saul. Some think his name was changed upon his own conversion; others, upon the conversion of the Roman deputy Sergius Paulus, ( Acts 13:7,9); others, that he was so called from the littleness of his stature; but rather it should seem that he had two names, which was usual with the Jews; one by which they went among the Gentiles, and another by they were called in their own land; (see Gill on Acts 13:9). A servant of Jesus Christ; not a servant of sin, nor of Satan, nor of man, nor of Moses and his law, nor of the traditions of the elders, but of Jesus Christ; and not by creation only, but by redemption, and by powerful efficacious grace in conversion; which is no ways contrary to true liberty; nor a disgraceful, but a most honourable character; and which chiefly regards him as a minister of the Gospel: called to be an apostle : an apostle was one that was immediately sent by Christ, and had his authority and doctrine directly from him, and had a power of working miracles from him, in confirmation of the truth of his mission, authority, and doctrine; all which were to be found in the author of this epistle, who did not thrust himself into this office, or take this honour to himself, of which he always judged himself unworthy, but was called to it according to the will, and by the grace of God: separated unto the Gospel of God . This may regard either God's eternal purpose concerning him, his preordination of him from eternity to be a preacher of the Gospel, to which he was separated from his mother's womb, ( Galatians 1:15); or the separation of him to that work made by the order of the Spirit of God, ( Acts 13:2). The phrase used is either in allusion to the priests and Levites, who were separated from their brethren the children of Israel, to their sacred employments; or rather to the apostle's having been wrp , a Pharisee, which signifies one separated, as he was now; only with this difference, before he was separated to the law, but now to the Gospel, to preach and defend it, which he did with all faithfulness and integrity; the excellency of which Gospel is signified by its being called the Gospel of God: he is the author of it; his grace is the subject of it; and he it is who commits it to men, qualifies them for the preaching of it, and succeeds them in it.

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 1-7 - The
    doctrine of which the apostle Paul wrote, set forth the fulfilmen of the promises by the prophets. It spoke of the Son of God, even Jesu the Saviour, the promised Messiah, who came from David as to his huma nature, but was also declared to be the Son of God, by the Divine powe which raised him from the dead. The Christian profession does no consist in a notional knowledge or a bare assent, much less in pervers disputings, but in obedience. And all those, and those only, ar brought to obedience of the faith, who are effectually called of Jesu Christ. Here is, 1. The privilege of Christians; they are beloved of God, and are members of that body which is beloved. 2. The duty of Christians; to be holy, hereunto are they called, called to be saints These the apostle saluted, by wishing them grace to sanctify their souls, and peace to comfort their hearts, as springing from the fre mercy of God, the reconciled Father of all believers, and coming to them through the Lord Jesus Christ.

    Greek Textus Receptus

    3972 N-NSM δουλος 1401 N-NSM ιησου 2424 N-GSM χριστου 5547 N-GSM κλητος 2822 A-NSM αποστολος 652 N-NSM αφωρισμενος 873 5772 V-RPP-NSM εις 1519 PREP ευαγγελιον 2098 N-ASN θεου 2316 N-GSM

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    Paul (Paulov). A transcript for the Latin paulus or paullus, meaning little. It was a favorite name among the Cilicians, and the nearest approach in sound to the Hebrew Saul. According to some, both names were borne by him in his childhood, Paulus being the one by which he was known among the Gentiles, and which was subsequently assumed by him to the exclusion of the other, in order to indicate his position as the friend and teacher of the Gentiles. The practice of adopting Gentile names may be traced through all the periods of Hebrew history. 12 Double names also, national and foreign, often occur in combination, as Belteshazzar-Daniel; Esther-Hadasa; thus Saul-Paulus.

    Others find in the name an expression of humility, according to Paul's declaration that he was "the least of the apostles" (1 Cor. xv. 9). Others, an allusion to his diminutive stature; and others again think that he assumed the name out of compliment to Sergius Paulus, the deputy of Cyprus. Dean Howson, while rejecting this explanation, remarks: "We cannot believe it accidental that the words 'who is also called Paul,' occur at this particular point of the inspired narrative. The heathen name rises to the surface at the moment when St. Paul visibly enters on his office as the apostle of the heathen. The Roman name is stereotyped at the moment when he converts the Roman governor."

    A servant (doulov). Lit., bond-servant or slave. Paul applies the term to himself, Gal. i. 10; Philip. i. 1; Tit. i. 1; and frequently to express the relation of believers to Christ. The word involves the ideas of belonging to a master, and of service as a slave. The former is emphasized in Paul's use of the term, since Christian service, in his view, has no element of servility, but is the expression of love and of free choice. From this stand-point the idea of service coheres with those of freedom and of sonship. Compare 1 Cor. vii. 22; Gal. iv. 7; Eph. vi. 6; Philemon 16.

    On the other hand, believers belong to Christ by purchase (1 Corinthians vi. 20; 1 Pet. i. 18; Eph. i. 7), and own Him as absolute Master. It is a question whether the word contains any reference to official position. In favor of this it may be said that when employed in connection with the names of individuals, it is always applied to those who have some special work as teachers or ministers, and that most of such instances occur in the opening salutations of the apostolic letters. The meaning, in any case, must not be limited to the official sense.

    Called to be an apostle (klhtov apostolov). As the previous phrase describes generally Paul's relation to Christ, this expression indicates it specifically. "Called to be an apostle" (A.V. and Rev.), signifies called to the office of an apostle. 13 Yet, as Dr. Morison observes, there is an ambiguity in the rendering, since he who is simply called to be an apostle may have his apostleship as yet only in the future. The Greek indicates that the writer was actually in the apostolate - a called apostle. Godet, "an apostle by way of call."

    Separated unto the gospel of God (ajfwrismenov eijv eujaggelion Qeou). Characterizing the preceding phrase more precisely: definitely separated from the rest of mankind. Compare Gal. i. 15, and "chosen vessel," Acts ix. 15. The verb means "to mark off (apo) from others by a boundary (orov)." It is used of the final separation of the righteous from the wicked (Matt. xiii. 49; xxv. 32); of the separation of the disciples from the world (Luke vi. 22); and of the setting apart of apostles to special functions (Acts xiii. 2). Gospel is an exception to the almost invariable usage, in being without the article (compare Apoc. xiv. 6); since Paul considers the Gospel rather as to its quality - good news from God - than as the definite proclamation of Jesus Christ as a Savior. The defining elements are added subsequently in vers. 3, 4. Not the preaching of the Gospel, but; the message itself is meant. For Gospel, see on superscription of Matthew.

    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    1:1 {To the Romans} (pros rwmaious). this is the title in Aleph A B C, our oldest Greek MSS. for the epistle. We do not know whether Paul gave any title at all. Later MSS. add other words up to the Textus Receptus: The epistle of Paul to the Romans. The epistle is put first in the MSS. because it is the most important of Paul's Epistles.

    {Paul} (Paulos). Roman name (Paulus). See on Ac 13:9 for the origin of this name by the side of Saul. {Servant} (doulos). Bond-slave of Jesus Christ (or Christ Jesus as some MSS. give it and as is the rule in the later Epistles) for the first time in the Epistles in the opening sentence, though the phrase already in #Ga 1:10. Recurs in #Php 1:1 and desmios (bondsman) in #Phm 1:1. {Called to be an apostle} (kletos apostolos). An apostle by vocation (Denney) as in #1Co 1:1. In #Ga 1:1 kletos is not used, but the rest of the verse has the same idea. {Separated} (aph"rismenos). Perfect passive participle of aforizw for which verb see on Ga 1:15. Paul is a spiritual Pharisee (etymologically), separated not to the oral tradition, but to God's gospel, a chosen vessel (#Ac 9:15). By man also (#Ac 13:2). Many of Paul's characteristic words like euaggelion have been already discussed in the previous Epistles that will call for little comment from now on.

    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32


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