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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Romans 12:1


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    King James Bible - Romans 12:1

    I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service.

    World English Bible

    Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a
    living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service.

    Douay-Rheims - Romans 12:1

    I BESEECH you therefore, brethren, by the mercy of God, that you present your bodies a
    living sacrifice, holy, pleasing unto God, your reasonable service.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a
    living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your reasonable service.

    Greek Textus Receptus


    παρακαλω
    3870 5719 V-PAI-1S ουν 3767 CONJ υμας 5209 P-2AP αδελφοι 80 N-VPM δια 1223 PREP των 3588 T-GPM οικτιρμων 3628 N-GPM του 3588 T-GSM θεου 2316 N-GSM παραστησαι 3936 5658 V-AAN τα 3588 T-APN σωματα 4983 N-APN υμων 5216 P-2GP θυσιαν 2378 N-ASF ζωσαν 2198 5723 V-PAP-ASF αγιαν 40 A-ASF ευαρεστον 2101 A-ASF τω 3588 T-DSM θεω 2316 N-DSM την 3588 T-ASF λογικην 3050 A-ASF λατρειαν 2999 N-ASF υμων 5216 P-2GP

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (1) -
    Ro 15:30 1Co 1:10 2Co 5:20; 6:1; 10:1 Eph 4:1 1Th 4:1,10; 5:12

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 12:1

    ¶ Así que, hermanos, os ruego por las misericordias de Dios, que presentis vuestros cuerpos en sacrificio vivo, santo, agradable a Dios, que es vuestro racional culto.

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Romans 12:1

    Verse 1. I beseech you therefore,
    brethren] This address is probably intended both for the Jews and the Gentiles; though some suppose that the Jews are addressed in the first verse, the Gentiles in the second.

    By the mercies of God!] dia twn oiktirmwn tou qeou? By the tender mercies or compassions of God, such as a tender father shows to his refractory children; who, on their humiliation, is easily persuaded to forgive their offenses. The word oiktirmov comes from oiktov, compassion; and that from eikw, to yield; because he that has compassionate feelings is easily prevailed on to do a kindness, or remit an injury.

    That ye present your bodies] A metaphor taken from bringing sacrifices to the altar of God. The person offering picked out the choicest of his flock, brought it to the altar, and presented it there as an atonement for his sin. They are exhorted to give themselves up in the spirit of sacrifice; to be as wholly the Lord's property as the whole burnt-offering was, no part being devoted to any other use.

    A living sacrifice] In opposition to those dead sacrifices which they were in the habit of offering while in their Jewish state; and that they should have the lusts of the flesh mortified, that they might live to God.

    Holy] Without spot or blemish; referring still to the sacrifice required by the law.

    Acceptable unto God] euareston? The sacrifice being perfect in its kind, and the intention of the offerer being such that both can be acceptable and well pleasing to God, who searches the heart. All these phrases are sacrificial, and show that there must be a complete surrender of the person-the body, the whole man, mind and flesh, to be given to God; and that he is to consider himself no more his own, but the entire property of his Maker.

    Your reasonable service.] Nothing can be more consistent with reason than that the work of God should glorify its Author. We are not our own, we are the property of the Lord, by the right of creation and redemption; and it would be as unreasonable as it would be wicked not to live to his glory, in strict obedience to his will. The reasonable service, logikhn latreian, of the apostle, may refer to the difference between the Jewish and Christian worship. The former religious service consisted chiefly in its sacrifices, which were di alogwn, of irrational creatures, i.e. the lambs, rams, kids, bulls, goats, &c., which were offered under the law. The Christian service or worship is logikh, rational, because performed according to the true intent and meaning of the law; the heart and soul being engaged in the service. He alone lives the life of a fool and a madman who lives the life of a sinner against God; for, in sinning against his Maker he wrongs his own soul, loves death, and rewards evil unto himself.

    Reasonable service, logikhn latreian, "a religious service according to reason," one rationally performed. The Romanists make this distinction between latreia, and douleia, latreia and douleia, (or dulia, as they corruptly write it,) worship and service, which they say signify two kinds of religious worship; the first proper to GOD, the other communicated to the creatures. But douleia, douleia, services, is used by the Septuagint to express the Divine worship. See Deut. xiii. 4; Judg. ii. 7; 1 Samuel vii. 3, and 1 Sam. xii. 10: and in the New Testament, Matthew vi. 24; Luke vi. 23; chap. xvi. 18; Col. iii. 24. The angel refused douleian, douleia, Rev. xxii. 7, because he was sundoulov sundoulos, a fellow servant; and the Divine worship is more frequently expressed by this word douleia, douleia, service, than by latreia, latreia, worship. The first is thirty-nine times in the Old and New Testament ascribed unto God, the other about thirty times; and latreia, worship or service, is given unto the creatures, as in Lev. xxiii. 7, 8, 21; Num. xxviii. 18; yea, the word signifies cruel and base bondage, Deut. xxviii. xl8: once in the New Testament it is taken for the worship of the creatures, chap. i. 25.

    The worshipping of idols is forbidden under the word latreia, latreia, thirty-four times in the Old Testament, and once in the New, as above; and twenty-three times under the term douleia, doaleia, in the Old Testament; and St. Paul uses douleuein qew, and latreuein qew indifferently, for the worship we owe to God. See chap. i. 9, 25; xii. 1, Gal. iv. 8, 9; 1 Thess. i. 9; Matt. vi. 24. And Ludouicus Vives, a learned Romanist, has proved out of Suidas, Xenophon, and Volla, that these two words are usually taken the one for the other, therefore the popish distinction, that the first signifies "the religious worship due only to God," and the second, "that which is given to angels, saints, and men," is unlearned and false. - See Leigh's Crit. Sacra.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 1. I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God , etc..] The apostle having finished the doctrinal part of this epistle, proceeds to that which is more practical; and enforces the several duties of religion, upon the principles he had before laid down, a method generally observed by him in all his epistles. The illative particle therefore, shows that the following exhortations are so many conclusions, consequences, and inferences, deduced from what had been said in the latter part of the preceding chapter; that since all things are of God, and by him and to him, then the saints ought to present their bodies to him, and to know, approve, and do his will; and since they have nothing but what they have received from him, they ought not to think too highly of, or glory in their attainments. The introduction to these exhortations, is in a very kind and affectionate manner; the saints are addressed as brethren, and very appropriately; since this expresses the relation they stood in to the apostle, for whom he had an hearty love and concern; and therefore what he pressed them to was out of a sincere regard to their good, as well as to the glory of God; also their relation to each other, and which several of the duties he urges had a connection with; likewise their relation to God, being of his family, having one and the same Father, and so under obligation to regard his will, honour and reverence him: moreover, these things are moved, not in an imperious way, in an authoritative manner, but by way of entreaty, I beseech you; as an ambassador of Christ, and as though in his stead: nor are they enforced by terrors, threats, and menaces, but by the mercies of God; that is, the abundant mercy of God, displayed in their election, regeneration, and calling; than which, nothing can have a greater influence on a believer, to engage him to holiness of life and conversation; and shows, that the doctrines of grace are no licentious ones, nor do they render useless precepts, exhortations, entreaties, cautions, and advice, particularly such as follow; that ye present your bodies ; not barely that part of them commonly so called, for this is not to be understood of a mere presentation of the body in public worship: for though this ought to be, yet not without the heart engaged therein, otherwise bodily exercise will be of no avail; nor of a bare abstinence from grosser sins done in the body, and against it, and which defile and dishonour it; much less of a maceration, and keeping under the body, by watchings, fasting, etc.. and still less of an offering of the body at death in a way of martyrdom, though this ought to be cheerfully complied with when called for: but by their bodies are meant, themselves, their whole souls and bodies, all the powers and faculties of their souls, and members of their bodies; and the presenting of them, designs a devoting of them, with all readiness and willingness, to the service of God for his honour and glory, without putting any confidence in, or placing any dependence upon them; which would be sacrificing to their own net, and burning incense to their drag; it includes the whole of their service, conversation, and religion, internal and external. So the Jews say, worthy is the portion of the righteous, who offer every day this offering before the Lord; and what is it? whyypnw whyymrg , their bodies and their souls, which they offer before him.

    The allusion is to the rite of sacrificing, to the bringing of the slain beast, and laying it on the altar, and there presenting and offering it to the Lord.

    Under the Gospel dispensation all believers are priests; and the sacrifices they bring are not the bodies of slain beasts, but their own bodies, their whole selves; and these a living sacrifice , in opposition to the bodies of slain beasts offered under the legal dispensation, and to the dead works of such as are destitute of faith in Christ, and to the lifeless performances of the saints themselves at certain times; and designs such a presentation of themselves in the performance of religious duties, as springs from a principle of life under the quickening influences of the Spirit of God, with faith and fervency; though without any view to obtain life hereby, for that is only by the offering up of the body of Christ once for all. Another epithet of this sacrifice of our bodies to God is holy , in allusion to the sacrifices under the law, which were separated from common use, and devoted to God, and were not to have the least spot and blemish in them; and regards men sanctified by the Spirit of God, and whose actions flow from a principle of holiness, and are performed under the influence of the Holy Spirit; and such sacrifices as are both living and holy, cannot but be acceptable to God through the mediation of his Son, by whom, as the persons, the souls and bodies of his people, so their spiritual sacrifices, whether of prayer or praise, are only acceptable to him: which is your reasonable service ; it is agreeably to reason, and especially as sanctified, that men who have their beings from God, and are upheld in them by him, and are followed with the bounties of Providence; and especially who are made new creatures, and are blessed by him with all spiritual blessings in Christ, that they should give up themselves to him, and cheerfully serve him in their day and generation; such service is also agreeably to the Scriptures of truth, the standard of filth and practice, and contain and enforce nothing but what is highly reasonable to be complied with; it is such service as lies not in the slaying of irrational creatures, but in the presenting of men endued with rational powers unto God; and is of a spiritual nature, performed by spiritual men, under the influence of the Spirit of God: and is suitable to the nature and perfections of God, and stands opposed to the corporeal and carnal service of the Jews.


    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 1, 2 - The apostle having closed the part of his epistle wherein he argues an proves various doctrines which are practically applied, here urge important duties from gospel principles. He entreated the Romans, a his brethren in Christ, by the mercies of God, to present their bodie as a living sacrifice to Him. This is a powerful appeal. We receiv from the Lord every day the fruits of his mercy. Let us rende ourselves; all we are, all we have, all we can do: and after all, what return is it for such very rich receivings? It is acceptable to God: reasonable service, which we are able and ready to give a reason for and which we understand. Conversion and sanctification are the renewin of the mind; a change, not of the substance, but of the qualities of the soul. The progress of sanctification, dying to sin more and more and living to righteousness more and more, is the carrying on thi renewing work, till it is perfected in glory. The great enemy to thi renewal is, conformity to this world. Take heed of forming plans for happiness, as though it lay in the things of this world, which soo pass away. Do not fall in with the customs of those who walk in the lusts of the flesh, and mind earthly things. The work of the Holy Ghos first begins in the understanding, and is carried on to the will affections, and conversation, till there is a change of the whole ma into the likeness of God, in knowledge, righteousness, and tru holiness. Thus, to be godly, is to give up ourselves to God.


    Greek Textus Receptus


    παρακαλω
    3870 5719 V-PAI-1S ουν 3767 CONJ υμας 5209 P-2AP αδελφοι 80 N-VPM δια 1223 PREP των 3588 T-GPM οικτιρμων 3628 N-GPM του 3588 T-GSM θεου 2316 N-GSM παραστησαι 3936 5658 V-AAN τα 3588 T-APN σωματα 4983 N-APN υμων 5216 P-2GP θυσιαν 2378 N-ASF ζωσαν 2198 5723 V-PAP-ASF αγιαν 40 A-ASF ευαρεστον 2101 A-ASF τω 3588 T-DSM θεω 2316 N-DSM την 3588 T-ASF λογικην 3050 A-ASF λατρειαν 2999 N-ASF υμων 5216 P-2GP

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    1. I beseech (parakalw). See on consolation,
    Luke vi. 24.

    By the mercies (dia twn oiktirmwn). By, not as an adjuration, but as presenting the motive for obedience. I use the compassion of God to move you to present, etc.

    Present. See on ch. vi. 13. It is the technical term for presenting the Levitical victims and offerings. See Luke ii. 22. In the Levitical sacrifices the offerer placed his offering so as to face the Most Holy Place, thus bringing it before the Lord.

    Bodies. Literally, but regarded as the outward organ of the will. So, expressly, Rom. vi. 13, 19; 2 Cor. v. 10. Compare Rom. vii. 5, 23. Hence the exhortation to glorify God in the body (1 Cor. vi. 20; compare Philip. i. 20; 2 Cor. iv. 10). So the body is called the body of sin (Rom. vi. 6; compare Col. ii. 11). In later Greek usage slaves were called swmata bodies. See Apoc. xviii. 13.

    A living sacrifice (qusian zwsan). Living, in contrast with the slain Levitical offerings. Compare ch. vi. 8, 11. "How can the body become a sacrifice? Let the eye look on no evil, and it is a sacrifice. Let the tongue utter nothing base, and it is an offering. Let the hand work no sin, and it is a holocaust. But more, this suffices not, but besides we must actively exert ourselves for good; the hand giving alms, the mouth blessing them that curse us, the ear ever at leisure for listening to God" (Chrysostom). Acceptable (euareston). Lit., well-pleasing.

    Which is your reasonable service (thn logikhn latreian). Explaining the whole previous clause. Service, see on ch. ix. 4. The special word for the service rendered by the Israelites as the peculiar people of God is very significant here. Reasonable, not in the popular sense of the term, as a thing befitting or proper, but rational, as distinguished from merely external or material. Hence nearly equivalent to spiritual. So Rev., in margin. It is in harmony with the highest reason.


    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    12:1 {Therefore} (oun). this inferential participle gathers up all the great argument of chapters #1-11. Now Paul turns to exhortation (parakalw), "I beseech you." {By the mercies} (dia t"n oiktirm"n). "By means of the mercies of God" as shown in his argument and in our lives. See #2Co 1:3 for "the Father of mercies." {To present} (parastesai). First aorist active infinitive of paristemi, for which verb see #6:13, a technical term for offering a sacrifice (Josephus, _Ant_. IV. 6, 4), though not in the O.T. Used of presenting the child Jesus in the temple (#Lu 2:22), of the Christian presenting himself (#Ro 6:13), of God presenting the saved (#Eph 5:27), of Christ presenting the church (#Col 1:28). {Bodies} (s"mata). So literally as in #6:13,19; 2Co 5:10 and in contrast with nous (mind) in verse #2. {A living sacrifice} (thusian z"san). In contrast with the Levitical sacrifices of slain animals. Cf. #6:8,11,13. Not a propitiatory sacrifice, but one of praise. {Acceptable} (euareston). "Well-pleasing." See on 2Co 5:9. {Which is your reasonable service} (tn logikn humwn latreian). "Your rational (spiritual) service (worship)." For latreia, see on 9:4. Logikos is from logos, reason. The phrase means here "worship rendered by the reason (or soul)." Old word, in N.T. only here and #1Pe 2:2 to logikon gala (not logical milk, but the milk nourishing the soul).


    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21

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