PARALLEL HISTORY BIBLE - Hebrews 7:21
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if, before the priesthood of the Levitical law, there were not levites who were wont to offer sacrifices to God? For thus, after the above-mentioned patriarchs, was the Law given to Moses, at that (well-known) time after their exode from Egypt, after the interval and spaces of four hundred years. In fact, it was after Abraham’s “four hundred and thirty years”1151
LXX- Greek Septuagint - Hebrews 7:21 οι 3588 μεν 3303 γαρ 1063 χωρις 5565 ορκωμοσιας 3728 εισιν 1526 5748 ιερεις 2409 γεγονοτες 1096 5756 ο 3588 δε 1161 μετα 3326 ορκωμοσιας 3728 δια 1223 του 3588 λεγοντος 3004 5723 προς 4314 αυτον 846 ωμοσεν 3660 5656 κυριος 2962 και 2532 ου 3756 μεταμεληθησεται 3338 5700 συ 4771 ιερευς 2409 εις 1519 τον 3588 αιωνα 165 κατα 2596 την 3588 ταξιν 5010 μελχισεδεκ 3198
Douay Rheims Bible But this with an oath, by him that said unto him: The Lord hath sworn, and he will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever.)
King James Bible - Hebrews 7:21 (For those priests were made without an oath; but this with an oath by him that said unto him, The Lord sware and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec:)
World English Bible (for they indeed have been made priests without an oath), but he with an oath by him that says of him, "The Lord swore and will not change his mind, 'You are a priest forever, according to the order of Melchizedek.'"
Early Church Father Links Anf-05 iii.iii.iii.xx Pg 4, Anf-05 iii.iii.iii.xxiii Pg 5, Anf-08 vii.xxv.i Pg 38, Npnf-114 v.xvii Pg 40, Npnf-114 vi.xvii Pg 40, Npnf-203 iv.x.cxlvii Pg 23, Npnf-205 viii.i.viii.ii Pg 21, Npnf-207 ii.xiv Pg 104
World Wide Bible Resources
Early Christian Commentary - (A.D. 100 - A.D. 325)
Anf-03 iv.ix.ii Pg 16:Heb.7.10 Bible:Heb.7.15 Bible:Heb.7.17">Gen. xiv. 18, Ps. cx. (cix. in. LXX.) 4; Heb. v. 10, vii. 1–3, 10, 15, 17.
Anf-01 viii.iv.lxiii Pg 5—does this not declare to you2182
Ps. cx. 4.
2182 Or, “to us.” that [He was] from of old,2183
2183 ἄνωθεν; in Lat. vers. antiquitus, which Maranus prefers. and that the God and Father of all things intended Him to be begotten by a human womb? And speaking in other words, which also have been already quoted, [he says]: ‘Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of rectitude is the sceptre of Thy kingdom. Thou hast loved righteousness, and hast hated iniquity: therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows. [He hath anointed Thee] with myrrh, and oil, and cassia from Thy garments, from the ivory palaces, whereby they made Thee glad. Kings’ daughters are in Thy honour. The queen stood at Thy right hand, clad in garments embroidered with gold.2184
2184 Literally, “garments of gold, variegated.” Hearken, O daughter, and behold, and incline thine ear, and forget thy people and the house of thy father; and the King shall desire thy beauty: because he is thy Lord, and thou shalt worship Him.’2185
Anf-01 viii.iv.cxviii Pg 2 and what this prediction means; and the prophecy of Isaiah which says, ‘His burial is taken away from the midst,’2394
Ps. cx. 4.
Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxxiii Pg 3 enemies. In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’ Who does not admit, then, that Hezekiah is no priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek? And who does not know that he is not the redeemer of Jerusalem? And who does not know that he neither sent a rod of power into Jerusalem, nor ruled in the midst of his enemies; but that it was God who averted from him the enemies, after he mourned and was afflicted? But our Jesus, who has not yet come in glory, has sent into Jerusalem a rod of power, namely, the word of calling and repentance [meant] for all nations over which demons held sway, as David says, ‘The gods of the nations are demons.’ And His strong word has prevailed on many to forsake the demons whom they used to serve, and by means of it to believe in the Almighty God because the gods of the nations are demons.2278
Or better, “His.” This quotation from Ps. cx. is put very differently from the previous quotation of the same Psalm in chap. xxxii. [Justin often quotes from memory. Kaye, cap. viii.]
2278 This last clause is thought to be an interpolation. And we mentioned formerly that the statement, ‘In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee from the womb,’ is made to Christ.
Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxii Pg 4 ‘The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of Thy strength out of Sion: rule Thou also in the midst of Thine enemies. With Thee shall be, in the day, the chief of Thy power, in the beauties of Thy saints. From the womb, before the morning star, have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. The Lord is at Thy right hand: He has crushed kings in the day of His wrath: He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill [with] the dead bodies.2031
2031 πληρώσει πτώματα; Lat. version, implebit ruinas. Thirlby suggested that an omission has taken place in the mss. by the transcriber’s fault. He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall He lift up the head.’
Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiii Pg 0
Anf-03 iv.ix.ii Pg 16 if, before the priesthood of the Levitical law, there were not levites who were wont to offer sacrifices to God? For thus, after the above-mentioned patriarchs, was the Law given to Moses, at that (well-known) time after their exode from Egypt, after the interval and spaces of four hundred years. In fact, it was after Abraham’s “four hundred and thirty years”1151
Bible:Heb.7.10 Bible:Heb.7.15 Bible:Heb.7.17">Gen. xiv. 18, Ps. cx. (cix. in. LXX.) 4; Heb. v. 10, vii. 1–3, 10, 15, 17.
Anf-03 iv.ix.xiv Pg 24 So, again, I will make an interpretation of the two goats which were habitually offered on the fast-day.1467
See Ps. cx. (cix. in LXX.) 4; Heb. v. 5–10.
Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 33 relates to (Christ) Himself. Hezekiah was no priest; and even if he had been one, he would not have been a priest for ever. “After the order,” says He, “of Melchizedek.” Now what had Hezekiah to do with Melchizedek, the priest of the most high God, and him uncircumcised too, who blessed the circumcised Abraham, after receiving from him the offering of tithes? To Christ, however, “the order of Melchizedek” will be very suitable; for Christ is the proper and legitimate High Priest of God. He is the Pontiff of the priesthood of the uncircumcision, constituted such, even then, for the Gentiles, by whom He was to be more fully received, although at His last coming He will favour with His acceptance and blessing the circumcision also, even the race of Abraham, which by and by is to acknowledge Him. Well, then, there is also another Psalm, which begins with these words: “Give Thy judgments, O God, to the King,” that is, to Christ who was to come as King, “and Thy righteousness unto the King’s son,”5612
Ps. cx. 4.
Anf-03 v.xi.viii Pg 8 For that Melchizedek, he says, was a heavenly Virtue of pre-eminent grace; in that Christ acts for human beings, being made their Deprecator and Advocate: Melchizedek does so8416
See Ps. cx. 4, and the references there.
8416 The Latin here is very careless, unless, with Routh, we suggest “et” for “eo,” and render: “and that what Christ does,” etc., “Melchizedek does,” etc. for heavenly angels and Virtues. For to such a degree, he says, is he better than Christ, that he is ἀπάτωρ (fatherless), ἀμήτωρ (motherless), ἀγενεαλογητον (without genealogy), of whom neither the beginning nor the end has been comprehended, nor can be comprehended.8417
Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 20 was a chant in honour of Hezekiah,5599
5599 In Ezechiam cecinisse. because “he went up to the house of the Lord,”5600
Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 23 are applicable to Hezekiah, and to the birth of Hezekiah. We on our side5602
Tertullian, as usual, argues from the Septuagint, which in the latter clause of Ps. cx. 3 has ἐκ γαστρὸς πρὸ ἑωσφόρου ἐγέννησά σε; and so the Vulgate version has it. This Psalm has been variously applied by the Jews. Raschi (or Rabbi Sol. Jarchi) thinks it is most suitable to Abraham, and possibly to David, in which latter view D. Kimchi agrees with him. Others find in Solomon the best application; but more frequently is Hezekiah thought to be the subject of the Psalm, as Tertullian observes. Justin Martyr (in Dial. cum Tryph.) also notices this application of the Psalm. But Tertullian in the next sentence appears to recognize the sounder opinion of the older Jews, who saw in this Ps. cx. a prediction of Messiah. This opinion occurs in the Jerusalem Talmud, in the tract Berachoth, 5. Amongst the more recent Jews who also hold the sounder view, may be mentioned Rabbi Saadias Gaon, on Dan. vii. 13, and R. Moses Hadarsan [singularly enough quoted by Raschi in another part of his commentary (Gen. xxxv. 8)], with others who are mentioned by Wetstein, On the New Testament, Matt. xxii. 44. Modern Jews, such as Moses Mendelsohn, reject the Messianic sense; and they are followed by the commentators of the Rationalist school amongst ourselves and in Germany. J. Olshausen, after Hitzig, comes down in his interpretation of the Psalm as late as the Maccabees, and sees a suitable accomplishment of its words in the honours heaped upon Jonathan by Alexander son of Antiochus Epiphanes (see 1 Macc. x. 20). For the refutation of so inadequate a commentary, the reader is referred to Delitzch on Ps. cx. The variations of opinion, however, in this school, are as remarkable as the fluctuations of the Jewish writers. The latest work on the Psalms which has appeared amongst us (Psalms, chronologically arranged, by four Friends), after Ewald, places the accomplishment of Ps. cx. in what may be allowed to have been its occasion—David’s victories over the neighboring heathen.
5602 Nos. have published Gospels (to the credibility of which we have to thank5603
5603 Debemus. them5604
5604 Istos: that is, the Jews (Rigalt.). for having given some confirmation, indeed, already in so great a subject5605
5605 Utique jam in tanto opere.); and these declare that the Lord was born at night, that so it might be “before the morning star,” as is evident both from the star especially, and from the testimony of the angel, who at night announced to the shepherds that Christ had at that moment been born,5606
5606 Natum esse quum maxime. and again from the place of the birth, for it is towards night that persons arrive at the (eastern) “inn.” Perhaps, too, there was a mystic purpose in Christ’s being born at night, destined, as He was, to be the light of the truth amidst the dark shadows of ignorance. Nor, again, would God have said, “I have begotten Thee,” except to His true Son. For although He says of all the people (Israel), “I have begotten5607
5607 Generavi: Sept. ἐγέννησα. children,”5608
Edersheim Bible History
Lifetimes x.v Pg 43.4, Lifetimes x.xiv Pg 49.8
Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge, Chapter 7
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