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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - 1 Peter 1:1

    CHAPTERS: 1 Peter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5     

    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25




    King James Bible - 1 Peter 1:1

    Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,

    World English Bible

    Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are
    living as foreigners in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,

    Douay-Rheims - 1 Peter 1:1

    Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers dispersed through Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, elect,

    Webster's Bible Translation

    Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,

    Greek Textus Receptus

    4074 αποστολος 652 ιησου 2424 χριστου 5547 εκλεκτοις 1588 παρεπιδημοις 3927 διασπορας 1290 ποντου 4195 γαλατιας 1053 καππαδοκιας 2587 ασιας 773 και 2532 βιθυνιας 978

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (1) -
    Mt 4:18; 10:2 Joh 1:41,42; 21:15-17

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 1:1

    ¶ Pedro, apstol de Jess, el Cristo, a los extranjeros esparcidos en Ponto, en Galacia, en Capadocia, en Asia, y en Bitinia,

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - 1 Peter 1:1

    Verse 1. Peter, an
    apostle] Simon Peter, called also Kephas: he was a fisherman, son of Jonah, brother of Andrew, and born at Bethsaida; and one of the first disciples of our Lord. See the preface.

    The strangers scattered throughout] Jews first, who had believed the Gospel in the different countries here specified; and converted Gentiles also. Though the word strangers may refer to all truly religious people, see Gen. xlvii. 9; Psa. xxxix. 12, in the Septuagint, and Heb. xi. 13, yet the inscription may have a special reference to those who were driven by persecution to seek refuge in those heathen provinces to which the influence of their persecuting brethren did not extend.

    Pontus] An ancient kingdom of Asia Minor, originally a part of Cappadocia; bounded on the east by Colchis, on the west by the river Halys, on the north by the Euxine Sea, and on the south by Armenia Minor. This country probably derived its name from the Pontus Euxinus, on which it was partly situated. In the time of the Roman emperors it was divided into three parts: 1. Pontus Cappadocius; 2. Pontus Galaticus; and, 3. Pontus Polemoniacus. The first extended from the Pontus Polemoniacus to Colchis, having Armenia Minor and the upper stream of the Euphrates for its southern boundary. The second extended from the river Halys to the river Thermodon. The third extended from the river Thermodon to the borders of the Pontus Cappadocius.

    Six kings of the name of Mithridates reigned in this kingdom, some of whom are famous in history. The last king of this country was David Comnenus, who was taken prisoner, with all his family, by Mohammed II.

    in the year 1462, and carried to Constantinople; since which time this country (then called the empire of Trebizond, from Trapezas, a city founded by the Grecians, on the uttermost confines of Pontus) has continued under the degrading power of the Turks.

    Galatia] The ancient name of a province of Asia Minor, now called Amasia. It was called also Gallograecia, and Gallia Parva. It was bounded on the east by Cappadocia, on the south by Pamphylia, on the north by the Euxine Sea, and on the west by Bithynia. See the preface to the Epistle to the Galatians.

    Cappadocia] An ancient kingdom of Asia, comprehending all the country lying between Mount Taurus and the Euxine Sea.

    Asia] This word is taken in different senses: It signifies, 1. One of the three general divisions of our continent, and one of the four of the whole earth. It is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, the Archipelago, the Black Sea, the Palus Maeolis, the rivers Don and Dwina; and from Africa by the Arabic Gulf, or Red Sea: it is everywhere else surrounded by water. It is situated between latitude 2 and 77 N., and between longitude 26 E. and 170 W.; and is about 7, 583 miles in length, and 5, 200 miles in breadth.

    2. Asia Minor, that part of Turkey in Asia, now called Natolia, which comprehends a great number of province situated between the Euxine, Mediterranean, and Archipelago.

    3. That province of Asia Minor of which Ephesus was the capital. It appears, says Calmet, that it is in this latter sense that it is used here by St. Peter, because Pontus, Galatia, and Bithynia, are comprised in the provinces of Asia Minor. See Calmet.

    Bithynia] An ancient kingdom of Asia, formerly called Mysia, Mygdonia, Bebrycia, and Bithonia. It was bounded on the west by the Bosphorus, Thracius, and part of the Propontis, on the south by the river Rhyndacus, and Mount Olympus, on the north by the Euxine Sea, and on the east by the river Parthenius. This place is in some sort rendered infamous by the conduct of Prusias, one of its kings, who delivered up Hannibal, who had fled to him for protection, into the hands of the Romans. Nicomedes IV.

    bequeathed it to the Romans; and it is now in the hands of the Turks.

    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ , etc.] The writer of this epistle describes himself first by his name, Peter, the same with Cephas, which signifies a rock, or stone; a name given him by Christ at his first conversion, and which respected his after firmness, solidity, resolution, and constancy; for his former name was Simeon, or Simon, as sometimes called; (see Matthew 4:18 John 1:42) and he further describes himself by his office, as an apostle of Jesus Christ ; being one of the twelve apostles, and the first of that number; who saw Christ in the flesh, was conversant with him, had his call and commission immediately from him, and was qualified by him to preach the Gospel; and was sent out first into Judea, and then into all the world to publish it, with a power of working miracles to confirm it; and this his character he makes mention of, in order to give the greater weight and authority to his epistle; and it is to be observed, that he does not style himself, as his pretended successor does, the head of the church, and Christ's vicar on earth; nor does he call himself the prince of the apostles, but only an apostle, as he was upon an equal foot with the rest. The persons he writes to are the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia : these Jews here intended are called strangers; not in a metaphorical sense, either because they were, as the wicked are, estranged from the womb, and alienated from the life of God, as all unconverted men are, and as they were before conversion; for now they were no more strangers in this sense: or because of their unsettled state and condition in this life; having no continuing city, and seeking one to come, an heavenly country; and living as pilgrims and strangers, in which respect they are indeed so styled, ( 1 Peter 2:11) but in a civil sense, and not as the Gentiles were, aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, for these were Jews; but on account of their not being in their own land, and in a foreign country, and therefore said to be scattered, or the strangers of the dispersion; either on account of the persecution at the death of Stephen, when multitudes of the converted Jews were scattered abroad, not only throughout the regions of Judea and Samaria, but as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch; (see Acts 8:1,4 11:19) and so it may be afterwards throughout the places here mentioned; or else these were some remains of the ten tribes carried captive by Shalmaneser, and of the two tribes by Nebuchadnezzar; or rather the dispersion of the Greeks, mentioned in ( John 7:35) under the Macedonians, by Ptolemy Lagus: however, there were Jews of Pontus, who inhabited that place, and of such we read in ( Acts 2:9) who came to worship at the feast of Pentecost, some of which were converted to the Christian faith, and being mentioned first, has occasioned this epistle to be called, both by Tertullian f4 , and Cyprian f5 , the epistle to the Pontians.

    Perhaps these Jews converted on the day of Pentecost, on their return hither, laid the first foundation of a Gospel church state in this country: it is a tradition of the ancients, mentioned by Eusebius f6 , that Peter himself preached here, and so, very likely, formed the Christians he found, and those that were converted by him, into Gospel churches; and it appears by a letter of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth f7 , that there were churches in Poutus in the second century, particularly at Amastris, the bishop of which was one Palma, whom he commends, and Focas is said to be bishop of Syncope, in the same age; and in the third century, Gregory and Athenodorus, disciples of Origen, were bishops in this country f8 ; the former was a very famous man, called Gregory Thaumaturgus, the wonder worker, and was bishop of Neocaesarea: in the fourth century there was a church in the same place, of which Longinus was bishop, as appears from the Nicene council, at which he and other bishops in Pontus were present; and in this age, in the times of Dioclesian, many in this country endured most shocking sufferings, related by Eusebius f9 ; and in the same century Helladius is said to govern the churches of Pontus; and in the fifth century we read of churches in Pontus, reformed by Chrysostom; in this age Theodorus was bishop of Heraclea, and Themistius of Amastris, both in this province, and both these bishops were in the Chalcedon council; and in the sixth century there were churches in Pontus, whose bishops were in the fifth synod held at Rome and Constantinople; and so there were in the seventh and eighth centuries f10 Galatia , next mentioned, is that part of the lesser Asia, called Gallo Graecia, in which were several churches, to whom the Apostle Paul wrote his epistle, called the epistle to the Galatians; (see Gill on Acts 16:6) (see Gill on Galatians 1:2). Cappadocia , according to Ptolomy f11 , was bounded on the west by Galatia, on the south by Cilicia, on the east by Armenia the great, on the north by part of the Euxine Pontus; it had many famous cities in it, as Solinus says; as Archelais, Neocaesarea, Melita, and Mazaca. The Jews oftentimes talk of going from Cappadocia to Lud, or Lydda; so that, according to them, it seems to be near to that place, or, at least, that there was a place near Lydda so called; of this (see Gill on Acts 2:9). From this country also there were Jews at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, some of whom were converted; and here likewise the Apostle Peter is said to preach, as before observed of Pontus, and who probably founded a church or churches here in the first century; and in the second century, according to Tertullian f14 , there were believers in Christ dwelling in this country; and in the third century, Eusebius makes mention of Neon, bishop of Larandis, and Celsus, bishop of Iconium, both in Cappadocia; there was also Phedimus of Amasea, in the same country, in this age, and at Caesarea, in Cappadocia, several martyrs suffered under Decius; and in this century, Stephen, bishop of Rome, threatened to excommunicate some bishops in Cappadocia, because they had rebaptized some that had been heretics: in the fourth century there were churches in Cappadocia, of one of which, namely, at Sasimi, the famous Gregory Nazianzen was first bishop, and afterwards of Nazianzum, as was also the famous Basil of Caesarea, in the same country; hither the persecution under Dioclesian reached, and many had their thighs broken, as Eusebius relates f16 ; from hence were sent several bishops, who assisted at the council of Nice, under Constantine, and at another held at Jerusalem: in the fifth century there were churches in Cappadocia, in several places, the names of whose bishops are on record; as Firmus, Thalassius, Theodosins, Daniel, Aristomachus, Patricius, and others: in the sixth century there were many famous churches in this country, whose bishops were in the fifth synod held at Rome and Constantinople; and in the seventh century there were several of them in the sixth synod of Constantinople; and in the eighth century mention is made of bishops of several churches in Cappadocia, in the second Nicene synod; and even in the ninth century there were Christians in these parts f17 . Asia here intends neither the lesser nor the greater Asia, but Asia, properly so called; and which, according to Solinus f18 , Lycia and Phrygia bounded on the east, the Aegean shores on the west, the Egyptian sea on the south, and Paphlagonia on the north; the chief city in it was Ephesus, and so it is distinguished from Phrygia, Galatia, Mysia, and Bithynia, in ( Acts 16:6,7) as here from Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia, and from Pontus and Cappadocia, in ( Acts 2:9) though they were all in lesser Asia. Here also were Jews converted on the day of Pentecost; and here likewise Peter is said to preach; and by him, and by the Apostle John, who also lived and died in this country, churches were planted; and churches there were here, even in the seventh century, as distinct from the other Asia, greater or less; for out of it bishops were sent to, and were present at, the sixth council at Constantinople, whose names are recorded; yea, in the eighth century there were churches and bishops, one of which persuaded Leo to remove images from places of worship; and another was in the Nicene synod f19 . The last place mentioned is Bithynia , of which (see Gill on Acts 16:7). And though the Apostle Paul, and his compassions, were not suffered at a certain time to go into Bithynia, and preach the Gospel there, yet it is certain that it was afterwards carried thither; and as Peter is said to preach in Pontus, Asia, and Capadocia, so likewise in Bithynia; here, according to the Roman martyrology, Luke, the evangelist, died; and, according to tradition, Prochorus, one of the seven deacons in ( Acts 6:5) was bishop of Nicomedia, in this country; and Tychicus, of whom the Apostle Paul makes frequent mention, was bishop of Chalcedon, another city in it; and who are both said to be of the seventy disciples; (see Gill on Luke 10:1), and it is certain, from the testimony of Pliny f20 , an Heathen writer, in a letter of his to Trajan the emperor, written about the year 104, that there were then great numbers of Christians in Bithynia; not only the cities, but the towns and villages were full of them; and in the third century, the persecution under Dioclesian raged, particularly at Nicomedia, where Anthimus, the pastor of the church in that place, had his head cut off as Eusebius f21 relates: in the beginning of the fourth century, Nice, in Bithynia, became famous for the council held there under Constantine, against Arius; and in this century, bishops from Bithynia assisted at a synod held at Tyre, in Phoenicia; and in the fifth century was held a synod at Chalcedon, a city in this country, against the Nestorinn heresy; and the names of several bishops of Chalcedon, Nicomedia, and Nice, who lived, in this age, are on record; and in the sixth century there were bishops from these several places, and others, who were present in the fifth synod at Constantinople; as there were also in the seventh century, at the sixth synod held at the same place, whose names are particularly mentioned; and in the eighth century bishops from hence were in the Nicene synod; and even in the ninth century there were some that bore the Christian name in Bithynia f22 . In these places however, it seems, dwelt many Jews, who were converted to Christ, to whom the apostle inscribes this epistle, and whom he further describes in the following verse.

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 1-9 - This epistle is addressed to believers in general, who are strangers in every city or country where they live, and are scattered through the nations. These are to ascribe their salvation to the electing love of the Father, the redemption of the Son, and the sanctification of the Holy Ghost; and so to give glory to one God in three Persons, int whose name they had been baptized. Hope, in the world's phrase, refer only to an uncertain good, for all worldly hopes are tottering, buil upon sand, and the worldling's hopes of heaven are blind and groundles conjectures. But the hope of the sons of the living God is a livin hope; not only as to its object, but as to its effect also. It enliven and comforts in all distresses, enables to meet and get over all difficulties. Mercy is the spring of all this; yea, great mercy an manifold mercy. And this well-grounded hope of salvation, is an activ and living principle of obedience in the soul of the believer. The matter of a Christian's joy, is the remembrance of the happiness lai up for him. It is incorruptible, it cannot come to nothing, it is a estate that cannot be spent. Also undefiled; this signifies its purit and perfection. And it fadeth not; is not sometimes more or les pleasant, but ever the same, still like itself. All possessions her are stained with defects and failings; still something is wanting: fai houses have sad cares flying about the gilded and ceiled roofs; sof beds and full tables, are often with sick bodies and uneasy stomachs All possessions are stained with sin, either in getting or in using them. How ready we are to turn the things we possess into occasions an instruments of sin, and to think there is no liberty or delight in their use, without abusing them! Worldly possessions are uncertain an soon pass away, like the flowers and plants of the field. That must be of the greatest worth, which is laid up in the highest and best place in heaven. Happy are those whose hearts the Holy Spirit sets on thi inheritance. God not only gives his people grace, but preserves the unto glory. Every believer has always something wherein he may greatl rejoice; it should show itself in the countenance and conduct. The Lor does not willingly afflict, yet his wise love often appoints shar trials, to show his people their hearts, and to do them good at the latter end. Gold does not increase by trial in the fire, it become less; but faith is made firm, and multiplied, by troubles an afflictions. Gold must perish at last, and can only purchase perishin things, while the trial of faith will be found to praise, and honour and glory. Let this reconcile us to present afflictions. Seek then to believe Christ's excellence in himself, and his love to us; this wil kindle such a fire in the heart as will make it rise up in a sacrific of love to him. And the glory of God and our own happiness are s united, that if we sincerely seek the one now, we shall attain the other when the soul shall no more be subject to evil. The certainty of this hope is as if believers had already received it.

    Greek Textus Receptus

    4074 αποστολος 652 ιησου 2424 χριστου 5547 εκλεκτοις 1588 παρεπιδημοις 3927 διασπορας 1290 ποντου 4195 γαλατιας 1053 καππαδοκιας 2587 ασιας 773 και 2532 βιθυνιας 978

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    1. Peter (Petrov). See on
    Matt. xvi. 18. As Paul in his letters does not call himself by his original name of Saul, so Peter calls himself, not Simon, but Peter, the name most significant and precious both to himself and to his readers, because bestowed by his Lord. In the opening of the second epistle he uses both names.

    An apostle. Of all the catholic epistles, Peter's alone puts forward his apostleship in the introduction. He is addressing churches with which he had no immediate connection, and which were distinctively Pauline. Hence he appeals to his apostleship in explanation of his writing to them, and as his warrant for taking Paul's place.

    To the strangers - elect (ver. 2, ejklektoiv parepidhmoiv). The Rev., properly, joins the two words, elect who are sojourners, instead of continuing elect with according to the foreknowledge, etc., as A.V.

    Elect. Regarding all whom he addressed as subjects of saving grace. The term corresponds to the Old-Testament title of Jehovah's people: Isaiah lxv. 9, 15, 22; Ps. cv. 43. Compare Matt. xx. 16; xxii. 14; Romans viii. 33.

    Sojourners (parepidhmoiv). Persons sojourning for a brief season in a foreign country. Though applied primarily to Hebrews scattered throughout the world (Gen. xxiii. 4; Ps. xxxix. 12), it has here a wider, spiritual sense, contemplating Christians as having their citizenship in heaven. Compare Heb. xi. 13. The preposition para, in composition, implies a sense of transitoriness, as of one who passes by to something beyond.

    Scattered (diasporav). Lit., of the dispersion; from diaspeirw, to scatter or spread abroad; speirw meaning, originally, to sow. The term was a familiar one for the whole body of Jews outside the Holy Land, scattered among the heathen.

    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25


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