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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Hebrews 1:2


    CHAPTERS: Hebrews 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13     

    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

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    King James Bible - Hebrew 1:2

    Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

    World English Bible

    has at the end of these days spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds.

    Douay-Rheims - Hebrew 1:2

    In these days hath spoken to us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the world.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    Hath in these last days spoken to us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

    Greek Textus Receptus


    επ
    1909 εσχατων 2078 των 3588 ημερων 2250 τουτων 3778 ελαλησεν 2980 5656 ημιν 2254 εν 1722 υιω 5207 ον 3739 εθηκεν 5087 5656 κληρονομον 2818 παντων 3956 δι 1223 ου 3739 και 2532 τους 3588 αιωνας 165 εποιησεν 4160 5656

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (2) -
    Ge 49:1 Nu 24:14 De 4:30; 18:15; 31:29 Isa 2:2 Jer 30:24; 48:47

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 1:2

    en estos postreros tiempos nos ha hablado por el Hijo, al cual constituy por heredero de todo, por el cual asimismo hizo los siglos;

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Hebrew 1:2

    Verse 2. Last days] The
    Gospel dispensation, called the last days and the last time, because not to be followed by any other dispensation; or the conclusion of the Jewish Church and state now at their termination.

    By his Son] It is very remarkable that the pronoun autou, his, is not found in the text; nor is it found in any MS. or version. We should not therefore supply the pronoun as our translators have done; but simply read en uiw, BY A SON, or IN A SON, whom he hath appointed heir of all things. God has many sons and daughters, for he is the Father of the spirits of all flesh; and he has many heirs, for if sons, then heirs, heirs of God, and joint heirs with Jesus Christ; but he has no Son who is heir of all things, none by whom he made the worlds, none in whom he speaks, and by whom he has delivered a complete revelation to mankind, but Jesus the Christ.

    The apostle begins with the lowest state in which Christ has appeared: 1.

    His being a SON, born of a woman, and made under the law. He then ascends, 2. So his being an Heir, and an Heir of all things. 3. He then describes him as the Creator of all worlds. 4. As the Brightness of the Divine glory. 5. As the express Image of his person, or character of the Divine substance. 6. As sustaining the immense fabric of the universe; and this by the word of his power. 7. As having made an atonement for the sin of the world, which was the most stupendous of all his works.

    "'Twas great to speak a world from nought; Twas greater to redeem." 8. As being on the right hand of God, infinitely exalted above all created beings; and the object of adoration to all the angelic host. 9. As having an eternal throne, neither his person nor his dignity ever changing or decaying.

    10. As continuing to exercise dominion, when the earth and the heavens are no more! It is only in God manifested in the flesh that all these excellences can possibly appear, therefore the apostle begins this astonishing climax with the simple Sonship of Christ, or his incarnation; for, on this, all that he is to man, and all that he has done for man, is built.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 2. Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son , etc..] This is the Gospel revelation, or the revelation in the Gospel dispensation; which though it comes from the same author the other does, yet in many things differs from it, and is preferable to it; and indeed the general design of this epistle is to show the superior excellency of the one to the other; the former was delivered out in time past, but this in these last days; the Alexandrian copy, the Complutensian edition, and several other copies, read, in the last of these days: perfectly agreeable to the phrase ymyh tyrjab , used in ( Genesis 49:1 Numbers 24:14 Isaiah 2:2) to which the apostle refers, and in which places the days of the Messiah are intended; and it is a rule with the Jews f12 , that wherever the phrase, the last days, is mentioned, the days of the Messiah are designed: and they are to be understood not of the last days of the natural world, but of, the Jewish world and state; indeed the times of the Messiah, or Gospel dispensation, may be called the last days of the natural world, according to the tradition of the house of Elias; which teaches, that the duration of the world will be six thousand years, and divides it into three parts, the last of which is assigned to the Messiah, thus; two thousand years void, (or without the law,) two thousand years the law, and two thousand years the days of the Messiah f13 : but it is best to understand this of the last days of the Mosaic economy, or Jewish dispensation; for the Messiah was to come before the Jewish civil and church states were dissolved; before the sceptre departed from Judah, and before the second temple was destroyed; and he was to come at the end, or toward the close of both these states; and which is called the end, or ends of the world, ( Habakkuk 2:3 Hebrews 9:26 1 Corinthians 10:11) and quickly after Jesus, the true Messiah was come, an end was put to both these: from whence it may be observed, that the Messiah must be come; that the Mosaic economy, and Jewish worship, will never be restored again; that the Gospel revelation being made in the last days, ought to be regarded the more, it being the last revelation God will ever make. Moreover, this differs from the former in this respect, that was made to the fathers, this to us; meaning either the apostles in particular, or the Jews in general, to whom the apostle is writing: this shows that the Gospel revelation was first made to the Jews; and it being made to them personally, they were under great obligation to regard it; and that God had not cast off his people; and that though he had greatly indulged their fathers, he had showed greater favour to them, having provided some better thing for them: and there is a difference between these two revelations in the manner in which they were made; the former was at sundry times, and in divers manners, the latter was made at once, and in one way; that was delivered out in parts, and by piece meal, this the whole together; the whole mind and will of God, all his counsel, all that Christ heard of the Father; it is the faith that was once, and at once, delivered to the saints; and it has been given out in one way, by the preaching of the word: to which may be added, that formerly God spoke by many persons, by the prophets, but now by one only, by his Son; who is so not by creation, nor by adoption, nor by office, but by nature; being his own Son, his proper Son, begotten of him, of the same nature with him, and equal to him; and so infinitely preferable to the prophets: he is a Son, and not a servant, in whom the Father is, and he in the Father, and in whom the Spirit is without measure; and God is said to speak by him, or in him, because he was now incarnate; and what he says from God should be attended to, both on account of the dignity of his person, as the Son of God, and because of the authority he came with as Mediator: whom he hath appointed heir of all things; which must be understood of him not as God, and Creator; for as such he has a right to all things; all that the Father has are his; the kingdom of nature and providence belongs to him, he being the Former and Maker of all things; but as Mediator, who has all things committed to him, to subserve the ends of his office; and has a kingdom appointed him, and which he will deliver up again the word all may refer either to persons or things; to persons, not angels, good or bad, though both are subject to him, yet neither are called his inheritance; but elect men, who are his portion, and the lot of his inheritance; and to things relating to these persons, and for their use and service, in time, and to all eternity; as all temporal things, and all spiritual ones, the blessings and promises of the covenant of grace, the gifts and graces of the Spirit, and eternal glory and happiness, the saints' inheritance, who are joint heirs with Christ. By whom also he made the worlds ; this is said in agreement with the notions of the Jews, and their way of speaking, who make mention of three worlds, which they call, the upper world (the habitation of God), the middle world (the air), and the lower world (the earth); and sometimes they call them the world of angels (where they dwell), the world of orbs (where the sun, moon, and stars are), and the world below (on which we live); and it is frequent in their writings, and prayer books f16 , to call God ymlw[h lk wbr , Lord of all worlds; (see Gill on Hebrews 11:3), these God made by his Son, not as an instrument, but as an efficient cause with him; for by him were all things made, whether visible or invisible; and the preposition by does not always denote instrumentality, but sometimes efficiency; and is used of God the Father himself, and in this epistle, ( Hebrews 2:10).

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 1-3 -
    God spake to his ancient people at sundry times, through successiv generations, and in divers manners, as he thought proper; sometimes by personal directions, sometimes by dreams, sometimes by visions sometimes by Divine influences on the minds of the prophets. The gospe revelation is excellent above the former; in that it is a revelatio which God has made by his Son. In beholding the power, wisdom, an goodness of the Lord Jesus Christ, we behold the power, wisdom, an goodness of the Father, Joh 14:7; the fulness of the Godhead dwells not typically, or in a figure, but really, in him. When, on the fall of man, the world was breaking to pieces under the wrath and curse of God the Son of God, undertaking the work of redemption, sustained it by his almighty power and goodness. From the glory of the person and office of Christ, we proceed to the glory of his grace. The glory of His perso and nature, gave to his sufferings such merit as was a ful satisfaction to the honour of God, who suffered an infinite injury an affront by the sins of men. We never can be thankful enough that God has in so many ways, and with such increasing clearness, spoken to u fallen sinners concerning salvation. That he should by himself cleans us from our sins is a wonder of love beyond our utmost powers of admiration, gratitude, and praise.


    Greek Textus Receptus


    επ
    1909 εσχατων 2078 των 3588 ημερων 2250 τουτων 3778 ελαλησεν 2980 5656 ημιν 2254 εν 1722 υιω 5207 ον 3739 εθηκεν 5087 5656 κληρονομον 2818 παντων 3956 δι 1223 ου 3739 και 2532 τους 3588 αιωνας 165 εποιησεν 4160 5656

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    2. In these last times (ep). Lit. at the last of these days. The exact phrase only here; but comp
    1 Pet. v. 20 and Jude 18. LXX, ejp' ejscatou twn hJmerwn at the last of the days, Num. xxiv. 14; Deut. iv. 30; Jer. xxiii. 20; xxv. 18; Dan. x. 14. The writer conceives the history of the world in its relation to divine revelation as falling into two great periods. The first he calls aiJ hJmerai au=tai these days (i. 2), and oj kairov oJ ejnesthkwv the present season (ix. 9). The second he describes as kairov diorqwsewv the season of reformation (ix. 10), which is oj kairov oJ mellwn the season to come: comp. hJ oijkoumenh hJ mellousa the world to come (ii. 5); mellwn aijwn the age to come (vi. 5); poliv hJ mellousa the city to come (xii. 14). The first period is the period of the old covenant; the second that of the new covenant. The second period does not begin with Christ's first appearing. His appearing and public ministry are at the end of the first period but still within it. The dividing-point between the two periods is the sunteleia tou aijwnov the consummation of the age, mentioned in ix. 26. This does not mean the same thing as at the last of these days (i. 2), which is the end of the first period denoted by these days, but the conclusion of the first and the beginning of the second period, at which Christ appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. This is the end of the kairov ejnesthkwv the present season: this is the limit of the validity of the old sacrificial offerings: this is the inauguration of the time of reformation. The phrase ejp' ejscatou twn hJmerwn toutwn therefore signifies, in the last days of the first period, when Christ was speaking on earth, and before his crucifixion, which marked the beginning of the second period, the better age of the new covenant.

    Hath spoken unto us (elalhsen hmin). Rend. spake, referring to the time of Christ's teaching in the flesh. To us God spake as to the fathers of old.

    By his son (en uiw). Lit. in a son. Note the absence of the article. Attention is directed, not to Christ's divine personality, but to his filial relation. While the former revelation was given through a definite class, the prophets, the new revelation is given through one who is a son as distinguished from a prophet. He belongs to another category. The revelation was a son-revelation. See ch. ii. 10-18. Christ's high priesthood is the central fact of the epistle, and his sonship is bound up with his priesthood. See ch. v. 5. For a similar use of uiJov son without the article, applied to Christ, see ch. iii. 6; v. 8; vii. 28.

    Whom he hath appointed heir of all things (on eqhken klhronomon pantwn). For eqhken appointed, see on John xv. 16. For klhronomov heir, see on inheritance, l Peter i. 4; and comp. on Christ as heir, Mark xii. 1-12. God eternally predestined the Son to be the possessor and sovereign of all things. Comp. Psalm lxxxix. 28. Heirship goes with sonship. See Rom. viii. 17; Gal. iv. 7. Christ attained the messianic lordship through incarnation. Something was acquired as the result of his incarnation which he did not possess before it, and could not have possessed without it. Equality with God was his birthright, but out of his human life, death, and resurrection came a type of sovereignty which could pertain to him only through his triumph over human sin in the flesh (see ver. 3), through his identification with men as their brother. Messianic lordship could not pertain to his preincarnate state: it is a matter of function, not of inherent power and majesty. He was essentially Son of God; he must become Son of man.

    By whom also he made the worlds (di ou kai epoihsen touv aiwnav). Dia commonly expresses secondary agency, but, in some instances, it is used of God's direct agency. See 1 Cor. i. 1; 2 Corinthians i. 1; Gal. iv. 7. Christ is here represented as a mediate agency in creation. The phrase is, clearly, colored by the Alexandrian conception, but differs from it in that Christ is not represented as a mere instrument, a passive tool, but rather as a cooperating agent. "Every being, to reach existence, must have passed through the thought and will of the Logos" (Godet); yet "the Son can do nothing of himself but what he seeth the Father doing" (John v. 19). With this passage Col. i. 16 should be studied. There it is said that all things, collectively (ta panta), were created in him (en autw) and through him (di' aujtou as here). The former expression enlarges and completes the latter. Di' aujtou represents Christ as the mediate instrument. jEn aujtw indicates that "all the laws and purposes which guide the creation and government of the universe reside in him, the Eternal Word, as their meeting-point." 164 Comp. John i. 3; 1 Corinthians viii. 6. For touv aijwnav the worlds, see additional note on 2 Thessalonians i. 9. Rend. for by whom also he made, by whom he also made. The emphasis is on made, not on worlds: on the fact of creation, not on what was created. In the writer's thought heirship goes with creation. Christ is heir of what he made, and because he made it. As pantwn, in the preceding clause, regards all things taken singly, aijwnav regards them in cycles. jAiwnas does not mean times, as if representing the Son as the creator of all time and times, but creation unfolded in time through successive aeons. All that, in successive periods of time, has come to pass, has come to pass through him. Comp. 1 Cor. x. 11; Ephesians iii. 21; Heb. ix. 26; 1 Tim. i. 17; LXX, Tob. xiii. 6, 10; Ecclesiastes iii. 11. See also Clement of Rome, Ad Corinth. 35,oJ dhmiourgov kai pathr twn aijwnwn the Creator and Father of the ages. Besides this expression, the writer speaks of the world as kosmov (iv. 3; x. 5); hJ oijkoumenh (i. 6), and ta panta (i. 3).



    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

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