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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - 2 Corinthians 4:4


    CHAPTERS: 2 Corinthians 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13     

    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18

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    King James Bible - 2 Corinthians 4:4

    In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.

    World English Bible

    in whom the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelieving, that the
    light of the Good News of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, should not dawn on them.

    Douay-Rheims - 2 Corinthians 4:4

    In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of unbelievers, that the
    light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, should not shine unto them.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them who believe not, lest the
    light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine to them.

    Greek Textus Receptus


    εν
    1722 PREP οις 3739 R-DPM ο 3588 T-NSM θεος 2316 N-NSM του 3588 T-GSM αιωνος 165 N-GSM τουτου 5127 D-GSM ετυφλωσεν 5186 5656 V-AAI-3S τα 3588 T-APN νοηματα 3540 N-APN των 3588 T-GPM απιστων 571 A-GPM εις 1519 PREP το 3588 T-ASN μη 3361 PRT-N αυγασαι 826 5658 V-AAN αυτοις 846 P-DPM τον 3588 T-ASM φωτισμον 5462 N-ASM του 3588 T-GSN ευαγγελιου 2098 N-GSN της 3588 T-GSF δοξης 1391 N-GSF του 3588 T-GSM χριστου 5547 N-GSM ος 3739 R-NSM εστιν 2076 5748 V-PXI-3S εικων 1504 N-NSF του 3588 T-GSM θεου 2316 N-GSM

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (4) -
    Mt 4:8,9 Joh 12:31,40; 14:30; 16:11 1Co 10:20 Eph 2:2; 6:12

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 4:4

    en los cuales el dios de este siglo ceg el entendimiento de los incrdulos, para que no les resplandezca la lumbre del Evangelio de la gloria del Cristo, el cual es la imagen de Dios.

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - 2 Corinthians 4:4

    Verse 4. In whom the
    god of this world, &c.] We see here that those whose minds are blinded, are they who believe not; and because they believe not, their minds continue in darkness, and are proper subjects for Satan to work on; and he deepens the darkness, and increases the hardness.

    But who is meant by the god of this world? It is generally answered, the same who is called the prince of this world, John xvi. 11. But the question recurs, who is the prince of this world? and the answer to both is, SATAN.

    The reader will do well to consult the notes on John xii. 31, and the concluding observations on John xiv. 30. I must own I feel considerable reluctance to assign the epithet o qeov, THE God, to Satan; and were there not a rooted prejudice in favour of the common opinion, the contrary might be well vindicated, viz. that by the God of this world the supreme Being is meant, who in his judgment gave over the minds of the unbelieving Jews to spiritual darkness, so that destruction came upon them to the uttermost.

    Satan, it is true, has said that the kingdoms of the world and their glory are his, and that he gives them to whomsoever he will; Matt. iv. 8, 9. But has God ever said so? and are we to take this assertion of the boasting devil and father of lies for truth? Certainly not. We are not willing to attribute the blinding of men's minds to God, because we sometimes forget that he is the God of justice, and may in judgment remove mercies from those that abuse them; but this is repeatedly attributed to him in the Bible, and the expression before us is quite a parallel to the following, Isa. vi. i10: Go and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. MAKE the HEART of this PEOPLE FAT, and MAKE their EARS HEAVY, and SHUT their EYES; LEST they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, &c. And see the parallel places, Matt. xiii. 14, 15; Mark iv. 12; John xii. 40; and particularly Rom. xi. 8-10: God HATH GIVEN THEM THE SPIRIT of SLUMBER, EYES that they SHOULD not SEE, and EARS that they SHOULD not HEAR; let their EYES be DARKENED, &c. Now all this is spoken of the same people, in the same circumstances of wilful rebellion and obstinate unbelief; and the great God of heaven and earth is he who judicially blinds their eyes; makes their hearts fat, i.e. stupid; gives them the spirit of slumber: and bows down their back, &c. On these very grounds it is exceedingly likely that the apostle means the true God by the words the god of this world.

    And as to the expression this world, aiwnov toutou, we are not to imagine that it necessarily means wicked men, or a wicked age; for it is frequently used to express the whole mundane system, and all that is called time: Whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither en toutw tw aiwni, in THIS WORLD, nor in the world to come; Matt. xii. 32. In Luke xx. 34, the children, uioi tou aiwnov toutou, of THIS WORLD, mean simply mankind at large in their state of probation in this lower world, in opposition to their state in the world to come. The same meaning the word has in several other places, to which l need not refer; it simply implying the present state of things, governed by the Divine providence, in contradistinction from the eternal state: and it is very remarkable that, in 1 Timothy i. 17, God himself is called basileuv twn aiwnwn, the King of the WORLD; what we call King eternal; but here it evidently means him who governs both worlds, and rules in time and eternity. This character among the Asiatics is considered essential to God; and therefore in the very first surat of the Koran he is called (Arabic) Rubbi Alalameen, "the Lord of both worlds," an expression perfectly similar to that above. But it is needless to multiply examples; they exist in abundance. Some, and particularly the ancient fathers, have connected tou aiwnov toutou with twn apistwn, and have read the verse: But God hath blinded the minds of the unbelievers of this world, &c. Irenaeus, Tertullian, Chrysostom, Theodouret, Photius, Theophylact, and Augustine, all plead for the above meaning; and St. Augustine says that it was the opinion of almost all the ancients.

    Lest the light of the glorious Gospel] They have resisted the grace which God gave them, and have refused to yield to the evidences which amply prove the Messiahship of Jesus; and therefore their eyes were judicially darkened, as it is said in the prophet: He hath closed their eyes, and hath given them the spirit of slumber. That is, they have shut their eyes against the light, and their blindness and stupor are the consequence.

    By glorious Gospel we are to understand the luminous Gospel; that which comes with so much light and evidence to every candid mind.

    Who is the image of God] Christ is called, Heb. i. 3, the brightness of God's glory, and the express image of his person. See the note there.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 4. In whom the god of this world hath blinded , etc..] The description of the persons to whom the Gospel is hid, is here further carried on; in which the character of Satan is given, who is here styled the god of this world; just as he is by Christ, the prince of this world, ( John 12:31 14:30) not because he had any hand in the making of it, or has any concern in the government of it, or in the disposal of men or things in it; but because of his influence over the worst, and greatest part of the world; which lies in wickedness, under the power of this wicked one, being led captive by him at his will; who have voluntarily given themselves up to him, and whose lusts they will do; and so declare themselves to be his children, and him their Father, yea, their god: the influence he has over them is, he hath blinded the minds of them that believe not . The apostle here seems to refer to one of the devils, which the Jews frequently speak of lams , Samael; who they say is the head of all the devils; a very malignant spirit, and who deceived our first parents; the word is compounded of la , god, and ams , to blind; him they call the angel of death, and say f36 , that he hath aml[ ynp yja , brought darkness upon the face of the world, or the creatures, the Gentiles: agreeably to which the apostle calls the devil, the god that hath blinded; what he blinds in men, is their mind: the more excellent and knowing part of man; not the eyes of their bodies, but of their understandings; which shows the near access Satan has to the souls of men; he penetrates into their very hearts and minds, and has an influence there: the persons whose minds he blinds, are those who believe not; which distinguishes them from others that perish, who never enjoyed the Gospel, and therefore he says, in, or among whom; and from true believers, on whom Satan can have no such influence; and is a reason of these men's perishing, and of Satan's influence over them; and must be understood of reprobates, and final unbelievers: the influence he has over them is expressed by blinding them; which he does, by diverting them from hearing the Gospel, and by stirring up the enmity of their minds against it, and by increasing their natural darkness and blindness with respect to it. The end which Satan has in doing this is, lest the light of the glorious Gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them ; here many things are hinted, in commendation of the Gospel, as that it is the Gospel of Christ; because he was not only the greatest and best preacher of it that ever was, but also is the author and subject of it; Christ is the sum and substance of the Gospel, the principal thing in it, or person that is spoken of therein; and then Christ who is the grand subject of the Gospel is described, in order to recommend it the more, as the image of God. The Jews call the Messiah, la lx , the image of God; some copies, and the Complutension edition, and the Arabic version, read, the image of the invisible God, as in ( Colossians 1:15). So Christ is as the Son of God, being the natural, substantial, essential, eternal, not created, and perfect image of his Father; and so he is as man and Mediator: further, the Gospel is said to be the glorious Gospel of Christ, as it must needs be, since it so clearly and illustriously sets forth the glory of Christ; contains such glorious doctrines and promises in it, and is attended with such glorious effects, where it comes with power: add to all this, that light is attributed to it; the Jews speak of the light of the law, and the law is called light; and say, that hrwt ala rwa ya , there is no light but the law; but this may be more truly said of the Gospel, by which not only persons may be notionally enlightened, who never were made really partakers of the grace of God, but is the means of spiritual and saving illumination to thousands, when it is attended with the demonstration of the Spirit: now all these excellent characters of the Gospel serve to enhance the spite and malice of Satan, in endeavouring all he can to kinder the bright shining of this glorious Gospel, to and upon any of the sons of men; and his reason for so doing is, because he knows, that should the Gospel shine unto them, the interest and glory of Christ would be advanced, and his own would decline.

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 1-7 - The
    best of men would faint, if they did not receive mercy from God And that mercy which has helped us out, and helped us on, hitherto, we may rely upon to help us even to the end. The apostles had no base an wicked designs, covered with fair and specious pretences. They did no try to make their ministry serve a turn. Sincerity or uprightness wil keep the favourable opinion of wise and good men. Christ by his gospe makes a glorious discovery to the minds of men. But the design of the devil is, to keep men in ignorance; and when he cannot keep the ligh of the gospel of Christ out of the world, he spares no pains to kee men from the gospel, or to set them against it. The rejection of the gospel is here traced to the wilful blindness and wickedness of the human heart. Self was not the matter or the end of the apostles preaching; they preached Christ as Jesus, the Saviour and Deliverer who saves to the uttermost all that come to God through him. Minister are servants to the souls of men; they must avoid becoming servants to the humours or the lusts of men. It is pleasant to behold the sun in the firmament; but it is more pleasant and profitable for the gospel to shine in the heart. As light was the beginning of the first creation so, in the new creation, the light of the Spirit is his first work upo the soul. The treasure of gospel light and grace is put into earthe vessels. The ministers of the gospel are subject to the same passion and weaknesses as other men. God could have sent angels to make know the glorious doctrine of the gospel, or could have sent the mos admired sons of men to teach the nations, but he chose humbler, weake vessels, that his power might be more glorified in upholding them, an in the blessed change wrought by their ministry.


    Greek Textus Receptus


    εν
    1722 PREP οις 3739 R-DPM ο 3588 T-NSM θεος 2316 N-NSM του 3588 T-GSM αιωνος 165 N-GSM τουτου 5127 D-GSM ετυφλωσεν 5186 5656 V-AAI-3S τα 3588 T-APN νοηματα 3540 N-APN των 3588 T-GPM απιστων 571 A-GPM εις 1519 PREP το 3588 T-ASN μη 3361 PRT-N αυγασαι 826 5658 V-AAN αυτοις 846 P-DPM τον 3588 T-ASM φωτισμον 5462 N-ASM του 3588 T-GSN ευαγγελιου 2098 N-GSN της 3588 T-GSF δοξης 1391 N-GSF του 3588 T-GSM χριστου 5547 N-GSM ος 3739 R-NSM εστιν 2076 5748 V-PXI-3S εικων 1504 N-NSF του 3588 T-GSM θεου 2316 N-GSM

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    4. The
    God of this world (o qeov tou aiwnov toutou). The phrase occurs only here. Compare Eph. ii. 2; vi. 12; John xii. 31; xiv. 30. Satan is called God in the rabbinical writings.

    "The first God is the true God; but the second God is Samuel." "The matron said, 'Our God is greater than thy God; for when thy God appeared to Moses in the bush, he hid his face; when, however, he saw the serpent, which is my God, he fled."' The light (ton fwtismon). Only here and ver. 6. Lit., the illumination, act of enlightening.

    Image of God. Compare Col. i. 15; John xvii. 5; Philip. ii. 6; iii. 21. Christ's light is also God's. Compare Heb. i. 3, Rev., effulgence (ajpaugasma, compare aujgasai shine, in this passage). Theodoret says: "The effulgence is both from the fire and with the fire, and has the fire as its cause, yet is not divided from the fire; for whence comes the fire, thence also comes the effulgence."

    Shine (augasai). Only here in the New Testament. From aujgh brightness, which also occurs but once, Acts xx. 11, daybreak. In classical Greek of the sun especially. Rev., dawn is legitimate as a translation, but hardly here, since Paul is going back to the figure of ch. iii. 18.


    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    4:4 {The god of this world} (ho qeos tou aiwnos toutou). "Age," more exactly, as in #1Co 1:20. Satan is "the god of this age," a phrase nowhere else in the N.T., but Jesus uses the same idea in #Joh 12:31; 14:30 and Paul in #Eph 2:2; 6:12 and John in #1Jo 5:19. Satan claimed the rule over the world in the temptations with Jesus. {Blinded} (etuflwsen). First aorist active of tuflow, old verb to blind (tuflos, blind). They refused to believe (apistwn) and so Satan got the power to blind their thoughts. That happens with wilful disbelievers. {The light} (ton fwtismon). The illumination, the enlightening. Late word from fotizw, to give light, in Plutarch and LXX. In N.T. only in #2Co 4:4,6. Accusative case of general reference here with the articular infinitive (eis to me augasai that should not dawn). That is, if augasai is intransitive as is likely, though it is transitive in the old poets (from auge, radiance. Cf. German _Auge_=eye). If it is transitive, the idea would be "that they should not see clearly the illumination, etc."


    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18

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