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  • PARALLEL HISTORY BIBLE - Ezekiel 24:5


    CHAPTERS: Ezekiel 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48     

    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27

    TEXT: BIB   |   AUDIO: MISLR - DAVIS   |   VIDEO: BIB - COMM


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    HELPS: KJS - KJV - ASV - DBY - DOU - WBS - YLT - HEB - BBE - WEB - NAS - SEV - TSK - CRK - WES - MHC - GILL - JFB

    LXX- Greek Septuagint - Ezekiel 24:5

    εξ 1537 1803 επιλεκτων κτηνων 2934 ειλημμενων και 2532 υποκαιε τα 3588 οστα υποκατω 5270 αυτων 846 εζεσεν εζεσεν και 2532 ηψηται τα 3588 οστα αυτης 846 εν 1722 1520 μεσω 3319 αυτης 846

    Douay Rheims Bible

    Take the fattest of the flock, and lay together piles of bones under it: the seething thereof is boiling
    hot, and the bones thereof are thoroughly sodden in the midst of it.

    King James Bible - Ezekiel 24:5

    Take the choice of the flock, and burn also the bones under it, and make it boil well, and let them seethe the bones of it therein.

    World English Bible

    Take the choice of the flock, and also a pile [of
    wood] for the bones under [the caldron]; make it boil well; yes, let its bones be boiled in its midst.

    World Wide Bible Resources


    Ezekiel 24:5

    Early Christian Commentary - (A.D. 100 - A.D. 325)

    Anf-02 vi.iv.ii.xv Pg 27.1


    Anf-02 vi.iii.i.v Pg 24.1


    Anf-01 ix.iv.x Pg 21
    Isa. lxi. 1.

    For inasmuch as the Word of God was man from the root of Jesse, and son of Abraham, in this respect did the Spirit of God rest upon Him, and anoint Him to preach the Gospel to the lowly. But inasmuch as He was God, He did not judge according to glory, nor reprove after the manner of speech. For “He needed not that any should testify to Him of man,3391

    3391 This is according to the Syriac Peschito version.

    for He Himself knew what was in man.”3392

    3392


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xviii Pg 3
    Isa. lxi. 1.

    That is the Spirit of whom the Lord declares, “For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you.”3616

    3616


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xix Pg 19
    Isa. lxi. 1.

    —pointing out both the anointing Father, the anointed Son, and the unction, which is the Spirit.


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxiv Pg 5
    Isa. lxi. 1.

    At the same time, showing that it was He Himself who had been foretold by Esaias the prophet, He said to them: “This day is this Scripture fulfilled in your ears.”


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xiv Pg 14
    Isa. lxi. 1, 2.



    Anf-02 vi.iv.i.xxi Pg 115.1


    Anf-03 iv.ix.xii Pg 5
    Isa. xlii. 6, 7, comp. lxi. 1; Luke iv. 14–18.

    —of ignorance, to wit. And if these blessings accrue through Christ, they will not have been prophesied of another than Him through whom we consider them to have been accomplished.1382

    1382


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiv Pg 34
    Isa. lxi. 1.

    Blessed are the needy, because theirs is the kingdom of heaven.”3966

    3966


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiv Pg 36
    Isa. lxi. 1.

    Blessed are they that hunger, for they shall be filled.”3968

    3968


    Anf-03 v.ix.xi Pg 11
    Isa. lxi. 1 and Luke iv. 18.

    He speaks of Himself likewise to the Father in the Psalm: “Forsake me not until I have declared the might of Thine arm to all the generation that is to come.”7884

    7884


    Anf-03 vi.iii.vii Pg 7
    Acts iv. 27. “In this city” (ἐν τῇ πόλει ταύτῃ) is omitted in the English version; and the name ᾽Ιησοῦν, “Jesus,” is omitted by Tertullian. Compare Acts x. 38 and Lev. iv. 18 with Isa. lxi. 1 in the LXX.

    Thus, too, in our case, the unction runs carnally, (i.e. on the body,) but profits spiritually; in the same way as the act of baptism itself too is carnal, in that we are plunged in water, but the effect spiritual, in that we are freed from sins.


    Npnf-201 iii.vi.iii Pg 22


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiv Pg 40
    Isa. lxi. 3.

    Now since Christ, as soon as He entered on His course,3972

    3972 Statim admissus.

    fulfilled such a ministration as this, He is either, Himself, He who predicted His own coming to do all this; or else if he is not yet come who predicted this, the charge to Marcion’s Christ must be a ridiculous one (although I should perhaps add a necessary3973

    3973 Said in irony, as if Marcion’s Christ deserved the rejection.

    one), which bade him say, “Blessed shall ye be, when men shall hate you, and shall reproach you, and shall cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man’s sake.”3974

    3974


    Anf-03 iv.ix.ix Pg 67
    See Isa. liii. 3; 7, in LXX.; and comp. Ps. xxxviii. 17 (xxxvii. 18 in LXX.) in the “Great Bible” of 1539.

    If He “neither did contend nor shout, nor was His voice heard abroad,” who “crushed not the bruised reed”—Israel’s faith, who “quenched not the burning flax”1309

    1309


    Anf-03 iv.ix.xiv Pg 4
    See Ps. xxxviii. 17 in the “Great Bible” (xxxvii. 18 in LXX.). Also Isa. liii. 3 in LXX.

    and knowing how to bear infirmity:” to wit as having been set by the Father “for a stone of offence,”1447

    1447


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 70
    Isa. xxxv. 3.

    and that “the dead which are in the grave shall arise,”4311

    4311


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.x Pg 5
    Isa. xxxv. 3 in an altered form.

    this refers to the palsy. “Be strong; fear not.”3764

    3764


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xii Pg 53
    Isa. xxxv. 3.

    in the sick of the palsy.


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxiv Pg 52
    Isa. xxxv. 3, 5, 6, Sept.

    When, therefore, He proclaimed the benefits of His cures, then also did He put the scorpions and the serpents under the feet of His saints—even He who had first received this power from the Father, in order to bestow it upon others and then manifested it forth conformably to the order of prophecy.4464

    4464 Secundum ordinem prædicationis.



    Anf-03 v.viii.xx Pg 16
    Ver. 3.

    and the lame leap as an hart?7409

    7409


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 103


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 91


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 69
    Isa. xxxv. 5, 6.

    and that “the hands which hang down, and the feeble knees, shall be strengthened,”4310

    4310


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xlviii Pg 2
    Isa. xxxv. 6.

    And that He did those things, you can learn from the Acts of Pontius Pilate. And how it was predicted by the Spirit of prophecy that He and those who hoped in Him should be slain, hear what was said by Isaiah. These are the words: “Behold now the righteous perisheth, and no man layeth it to heart; and just men are taken away, and no man considereth. From the presence of wickedness is the righteous man taken, and his burial shall be in peace: he is taken from our midst.”1868

    1868


    Anf-03 iv.ix.ix Pg 70
    See Isa. xxxv. 4, 5, 6.

    and so on; which works not even you deny that Christ did, inasmuch as you were wont to say that, “on account of the works ye stoned Him not, but because He did them on the Sabbaths.”1312

    1312


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxiv Pg 52
    Isa. xxxv. 3, 5, 6, Sept.

    When, therefore, He proclaimed the benefits of His cures, then also did He put the scorpions and the serpents under the feet of His saints—even He who had first received this power from the Father, in order to bestow it upon others and then manifested it forth conformably to the order of prophecy.4464

    4464 Secundum ordinem prædicationis.



    Anf-03 v.viii.xx Pg 17
    Ver. 6.

    No doubt we are accustomed also to give a spiritual significance to these statements of prophecy, according to the analogy of the physical diseases which were healed by the Lord; but still they were all fulfilled literally: thus showing that the prophets foretold both senses, except that very many of their words can only be taken in a pure and simple signification, and free from all allegorical obscurity; as when we hear of the downfall of nations and cities, of Tyre and Egypt, and Babylon and Edom, and the navy of Carthage; also when they foretell Israel’s own chastisements and pardons, its captivities, restorations, and at last its final dispersion.  Who would prefer affixing a metaphorical interpretation to all these events, instead of accepting their literal truth? The realities are involved in the words, just as the words are read in the realities.  Thus, then, (we find that) the allegorical style is not used in all parts of the prophetic record, although it occasionally occurs in certain portions of it.


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 100


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 92


    Anf-03 vi.iii.xix Pg 9
    Jer. xxxi. 8, xxxviii. 8 in LXX., where ἐν ἑορτῇ φασέκ is found, which is not in the English version.

    However, every day is the Lord’s; every hour, every time, is apt for baptism: if there is a difference in the solemnity, distinction there is none in the grace.


    Anf-01 ix.vi.x Pg 12
    Isa. xxv. 9.

    and Peter says in his Epistle: “Whom, not seeing, ye love; in whom, though now ye see Him not, ye have believed, ye shall rejoice with joy unspeakable;”3909

    3909


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 139


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 139


    Anf-01 ii.ii.lvii Pg 4
    Prov. i. 23–31. [Often cited by this name in primitive writers.]

    “Behold, I will bring forth to you the words of My Spirit, and I will teach you My speech. Since I called, and ye did not hear; I held forth My words, and ye regarded not, but set at naught My counsels, and yielded not at My reproofs; therefore I too will laugh at your destruction; yea, I will rejoice when ruin cometh upon you, and when sudden confusion overtakes you, when overturning presents itself like a tempest, or when tribulation and oppression fall upon you. For it shall come to pass, that when ye call upon Me, I will not hear you; the wicked shall seek Me, and they shall not find Me. For they hated wisdom, and did not choose the fear of the Lord; nor would they listen to My counsels, but despised My reproofs. Wherefore they shall eat the fruits of their own way, and they shall be filled with their own ungodliness.” …258

    258 Junius (Pat. Young), who examined the ms. before it was bound into its present form, stated that a whole leaf was here lost. The next letters that occur are ιπον, which have been supposed to indicate εἶπον or ἔλιπον. Doubtless some passages quoted by the ancients from the Epistle of Clement, and not now found in it, occurred in the portion which has thus been lost.


    Anf-01 ix.iv.x Pg 24
    Prov. v. 22.

    Therefore did the Spirit of God descend upon Him, [the Spirit] of Him who had promised by the prophets that He would anoint Him, so that we, receiving from the abundance of His unction, might be saved. Such, then, [is the witness] of Matthew.


    Anf-02 vi.iv.ii.xvi Pg 4.1


    Npnf-201 iii.vii.xxiv Pg 38


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxiii Pg 23
    Jer. xvii. 10, in sense but not in letter.

    he magnified the power of that God who declared Himself to be as a lamp, “searching the reins and the heart.”4793

    4793


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xix Pg 3
    Hos. i. and Hos. ii.

    one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths,1992

    1992


    Anf-01 ii.ii.xxxvi Pg 8
    Ps. ii. 7, 8; Heb. i. 5.

    And again He saith to Him, “Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool.”160

    160


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxii Pg 11
    Ps. ii. 8.

    And as from the multitude of his sons the prophets of the Lord [afterwards] arose, there was every necessity that Jacob should beget sons from the two sisters, even as Christ did from the two laws of one and the same Father; and in like manner also from the handmaids, indicating that Christ should raise up sons of God, both from freemen and from slaves after the flesh, bestowing upon all, in the same manner, the gift of the Spirit, who vivifies us.4122

    4122 The text of this sentence is in great confusion, and we can give only a doubtful translation.

    But he (Jacob) did all things for the sake of the younger, she who had the handsome eyes,4123

    4123 [Leah’s eyes were weak, according to the LXX.; and Irenæus infers that Rachel’s were “beautiful exceedingly.” Canticles, i. 15.]

    Rachel, who prefigured the Church, for which Christ endured patiently; who at that time, indeed, by means of His patriarchs and prophets, was prefiguring and declaring beforehand future things, fulfilling His part by anticipation in the dispensations of God, and accustoming His inheritance to obey God, and to pass through the world as in a state of pilgrimage, to follow His word, and to indicate beforehand things to come. For with God there is nothing without purpose or due signification.


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xl Pg 3
    Ps. i., Ps. ii.


    Anf-02 vi.iv.iv.xx Pg 18.1


    Anf-03 iv.ix.xii Pg 3
    Ps. ii. 7, 8.

    For you will not be able to affirm that “son” to be David rather than Christ; or the “bounds of the earth” to have been promised rather to David, who reigned within the single (country of) Judea, than to Christ, who has already taken captive the whole orb with the faith of His gospel; as He says through Isaiah:  “Behold, I have given Thee for a covenant1380

    1380 Dispositionem; Gr. διαθήκην.

    of my family, for a light of Gentiles, that Thou mayst open the eyes of the blind”—of course, such as err—“to outloose from bonds the bound”—that is, to free them from sins—“and from the house of prison”—that is, of death—“such as sit in darkness”1381

    1381


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxv Pg 36
    Ps. ii. 8.

    If, indeed, he has some things of his own, the whole of which he might give to his son, along with the man of the Creator, then show some one thing of them all, as a sample, that I may believe; lest I should have as much reason not to believe that all things belong to him, of whom I see nothing, as I have ground for believing that even the things which I see not are His, to whom belongs the universe, which I see.  But “no man knoweth who the Father is, but the Son; and who the Son is, but the Father, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him.”4499

    4499


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxix Pg 40
    Ps. ii. 8.

    “And all that glory shall serve Him; His dominion shall be an everlasting one, which shall not be taken from Him, and His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed,”5052

    5052


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xvii Pg 20
    Ps. ii. 8.

    It was He who “wrought in Christ His mighty power, by raising Him from the dead, and setting Him at His own right hand, and putting all things under His feet5966

    5966


    Npnf-201 iii.vi.iii Pg 14


    Npnf-201 iii.viii.viii Pg 22


    Anf-02 vi.ii.viii Pg 27.1


    Anf-02 vi.iv.v.xiii Pg 8.1


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxxiii Pg 3
    Or better, “His.” This quotation from Ps. cx. is put very differently from the previous quotation of the same Psalm in chap. xxxii. [Justin often quotes from memory. Kaye, cap. viii.]

    enemies. In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’ Who does not admit, then, that Hezekiah is no priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek? And who does not know that he is not the redeemer of Jerusalem? And who does not know that he neither sent a rod of power into Jerusalem, nor ruled in the midst of his enemies; but that it was God who averted from him the enemies, after he mourned and was afflicted? But our Jesus, who has not yet come in glory, has sent into Jerusalem a rod of power, namely, the word of calling and repentance [meant] for all nations over which demons held sway, as David says, ‘The gods of the nations are demons.’ And His strong word has prevailed on many to forsake the demons whom they used to serve, and by means of it to believe in the Almighty God because the gods of the nations are demons.2278

    2278 This last clause is thought to be an interpolation.

    And we mentioned formerly that the statement, ‘In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee from the womb,’ is made to Christ.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxii Pg 4
    Ps. cx.

    ‘The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of Thy strength out of Sion: rule Thou also in the midst of Thine enemies. With Thee shall be, in the day, the chief of Thy power, in the beauties of Thy saints. From the womb, before the morning star, have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. The Lord is at Thy right hand: He has crushed kings in the day of His wrath: He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill [with] the dead bodies.2031

    2031 πληρώσει πτώματα; Lat. version, implebit ruinas. Thirlby suggested that an omission has taken place in the mss. by the transcriber’s fault.

    He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall He lift up the head.’


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 20
    Ps. cx.

    was a chant in honour of Hezekiah,5599

    5599 In Ezechiam cecinisse.

    because “he went up to the house of the Lord,”5600

    5600


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 23
    Tertullian, as usual, argues from the Septuagint, which in the latter clause of Ps. cx. 3 has ἐκ γαστρὸς πρὸ ἑωσφόρου ἐγέννησά σε; and so the Vulgate version has it. This Psalm has been variously applied by the Jews. Raschi (or Rabbi Sol. Jarchi) thinks it is most suitable to Abraham, and possibly to David, in which latter view D. Kimchi agrees with him.  Others find in Solomon the best application; but more frequently is Hezekiah thought to be the subject of the Psalm, as Tertullian observes. Justin Martyr (in Dial. cum Tryph.) also notices this application of the Psalm. But Tertullian in the next sentence appears to recognize the sounder opinion of the older Jews, who saw in this Ps. cx. a prediction of Messiah.  This opinion occurs in the Jerusalem Talmud, in the tract Berachoth, 5. Amongst the more recent Jews who also hold the sounder view, may be mentioned Rabbi Saadias Gaon, on Dan. vii. 13, and R. Moses Hadarsan [singularly enough quoted by Raschi in another part of his commentary (Gen. xxxv. 8)], with others who are mentioned by Wetstein, On the New Testament, Matt. xxii. 44. Modern Jews, such as Moses Mendelsohn, reject the Messianic sense; and they are followed by the commentators of the Rationalist school amongst ourselves and in Germany. J. Olshausen, after Hitzig, comes down in his interpretation of the Psalm as late as the Maccabees, and sees a suitable accomplishment of its words in the honours heaped upon Jonathan by Alexander son of Antiochus Epiphanes (see 1 Macc. x. 20). For the refutation of so inadequate a commentary, the reader is referred to Delitzch on Ps. cx. The variations of opinion, however, in this school, are as remarkable as the fluctuations of the Jewish writers. The latest work on the Psalms which has appeared amongst us (Psalms, chronologically arranged, by four Friends), after Ewald, places the accomplishment of Ps. cx. in what may be allowed to have been its occasionDavid’s victories over the neighboring heathen.

    are applicable to Hezekiah, and to the birth of Hezekiah. We on our side5602

    5602 Nos.

    have published Gospels (to the credibility of which we have to thank5603

    5603 Debemus.

    them5604

    5604 Istos: that is, the Jews (Rigalt.).

    for having given some confirmation, indeed, already in so great a subject5605

    5605 Utique jam in tanto opere.

    ); and these declare that the Lord was born at night, that so it might be “before the morning star,” as is evident both from the star especially, and from the testimony of the angel, who at night announced to the shepherds that Christ had at that moment been born,5606

    5606 Natum esse quum maxime.

    and again from the place of the birth, for it is towards night that persons arrive at the (eastern) “inn.” Perhaps, too, there was a mystic purpose in Christ’s being born at night, destined, as He was, to be the light of the truth amidst the dark shadows of ignorance. Nor, again, would God have said, “I have begotten Thee,” except to His true Son.  For although He says of all the people (Israel), “I have begotten5607

    5607 Generavi: Sept. ἐγέννησα.

    children,”5608

    5608


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxxiii Pg 3
    Or better, “His.” This quotation from Ps. cx. is put very differently from the previous quotation of the same Psalm in chap. xxxii. [Justin often quotes from memory. Kaye, cap. viii.]

    enemies. In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’ Who does not admit, then, that Hezekiah is no priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek? And who does not know that he is not the redeemer of Jerusalem? And who does not know that he neither sent a rod of power into Jerusalem, nor ruled in the midst of his enemies; but that it was God who averted from him the enemies, after he mourned and was afflicted? But our Jesus, who has not yet come in glory, has sent into Jerusalem a rod of power, namely, the word of calling and repentance [meant] for all nations over which demons held sway, as David says, ‘The gods of the nations are demons.’ And His strong word has prevailed on many to forsake the demons whom they used to serve, and by means of it to believe in the Almighty God because the gods of the nations are demons.2278

    2278 This last clause is thought to be an interpolation.

    And we mentioned formerly that the statement, ‘In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee from the womb,’ is made to Christ.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxii Pg 4
    Ps. cx.

    ‘The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of Thy strength out of Sion: rule Thou also in the midst of Thine enemies. With Thee shall be, in the day, the chief of Thy power, in the beauties of Thy saints. From the womb, before the morning star, have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. The Lord is at Thy right hand: He has crushed kings in the day of His wrath: He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill [with] the dead bodies.2031

    2031 πληρώσει πτώματα; Lat. version, implebit ruinas. Thirlby suggested that an omission has taken place in the mss. by the transcriber’s fault.

    He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall He lift up the head.’


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 20
    Ps. cx.

    was a chant in honour of Hezekiah,5599

    5599 In Ezechiam cecinisse.

    because “he went up to the house of the Lord,”5600

    5600


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 23
    Tertullian, as usual, argues from the Septuagint, which in the latter clause of Ps. cx. 3 has ἐκ γαστρὸς πρὸ ἑωσφόρου ἐγέννησά σε; and so the Vulgate version has it. This Psalm has been variously applied by the Jews. Raschi (or Rabbi Sol. Jarchi) thinks it is most suitable to Abraham, and possibly to David, in which latter view D. Kimchi agrees with him.  Others find in Solomon the best application; but more frequently is Hezekiah thought to be the subject of the Psalm, as Tertullian observes. Justin Martyr (in Dial. cum Tryph.) also notices this application of the Psalm. But Tertullian in the next sentence appears to recognize the sounder opinion of the older Jews, who saw in this Ps. cx. a prediction of Messiah.  This opinion occurs in the Jerusalem Talmud, in the tract Berachoth, 5. Amongst the more recent Jews who also hold the sounder view, may be mentioned Rabbi Saadias Gaon, on Dan. vii. 13, and R. Moses Hadarsan [singularly enough quoted by Raschi in another part of his commentary (Gen. xxxv. 8)], with others who are mentioned by Wetstein, On the New Testament, Matt. xxii. 44. Modern Jews, such as Moses Mendelsohn, reject the Messianic sense; and they are followed by the commentators of the Rationalist school amongst ourselves and in Germany. J. Olshausen, after Hitzig, comes down in his interpretation of the Psalm as late as the Maccabees, and sees a suitable accomplishment of its words in the honours heaped upon Jonathan by Alexander son of Antiochus Epiphanes (see 1 Macc. x. 20). For the refutation of so inadequate a commentary, the reader is referred to Delitzch on Ps. cx. The variations of opinion, however, in this school, are as remarkable as the fluctuations of the Jewish writers. The latest work on the Psalms which has appeared amongst us (Psalms, chronologically arranged, by four Friends), after Ewald, places the accomplishment of Ps. cx. in what may be allowed to have been its occasionDavid’s victories over the neighboring heathen.

    are applicable to Hezekiah, and to the birth of Hezekiah. We on our side5602

    5602 Nos.

    have published Gospels (to the credibility of which we have to thank5603

    5603 Debemus.

    them5604

    5604 Istos: that is, the Jews (Rigalt.).

    for having given some confirmation, indeed, already in so great a subject5605

    5605 Utique jam in tanto opere.

    ); and these declare that the Lord was born at night, that so it might be “before the morning star,” as is evident both from the star especially, and from the testimony of the angel, who at night announced to the shepherds that Christ had at that moment been born,5606

    5606 Natum esse quum maxime.

    and again from the place of the birth, for it is towards night that persons arrive at the (eastern) “inn.” Perhaps, too, there was a mystic purpose in Christ’s being born at night, destined, as He was, to be the light of the truth amidst the dark shadows of ignorance. Nor, again, would God have said, “I have begotten Thee,” except to His true Son.  For although He says of all the people (Israel), “I have begotten5607

    5607 Generavi: Sept. ἐγέννησα.

    children,”5608

    5608


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxix Pg 13
    Zech. ix. 15, 16 (Septuagint).

    etc. And that you may not suppose that these predictions refer to such sufferings as await them from so many wars with strangers,5026

    5026 Allophylis.

    consider the nature (of the sufferings).  In a prophecy of wars which were to be waged with legitimate arms, no one would think of enumerating stones as weapons, which are better known in popular crowds and unarmed tumults.  Nobody measures the copious streams of blood which flow in war by bowlfuls, nor limits it to what is shed upon a single altar. No one gives the name of sheep to those who fall in battle with arms in hand, and while repelling force with force, but only to those who are slain, yielding themselves up in their own place of duty and with patience, rather than fighting in self-defence. In short, as he says, “they roll as sacred stones,” and not like soldiers fightStones are they, even foundation stones, upon which we are ourselves edified—“built,” as St. Paul says, “upon the foundation of the apostles,”5027

    5027


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxix Pg 13
    Zech. ix. 15, 16 (Septuagint).

    etc. And that you may not suppose that these predictions refer to such sufferings as await them from so many wars with strangers,5026

    5026 Allophylis.

    consider the nature (of the sufferings).  In a prophecy of wars which were to be waged with legitimate arms, no one would think of enumerating stones as weapons, which are better known in popular crowds and unarmed tumults.  Nobody measures the copious streams of blood which flow in war by bowlfuls, nor limits it to what is shed upon a single altar. No one gives the name of sheep to those who fall in battle with arms in hand, and while repelling force with force, but only to those who are slain, yielding themselves up in their own place of duty and with patience, rather than fighting in self-defence. In short, as he says, “they roll as sacred stones,” and not like soldiers fightStones are they, even foundation stones, upon which we are ourselves edified—“built,” as St. Paul says, “upon the foundation of the apostles,”5027

    5027


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xxi Pg 26
    Joel iii. 16; Amos i. 2.

    And that it is from that region which is towards the south of the inheritance of Judah that the Son of God shall come, who is God, and who was from Bethlehem, where the Lord was born [and] will send out His praise through all the earth, thus3705

    3705 As Massuet observes, we must either expunge “sciut” altogether, or read “sic” as above.

    says the prophet Habakkuk: “God shall come from the south, and the Holy One from Mount Effrem. His power covered the heavens over, and the earth is full of His praise. Before His face shall go forth the Word, and His feet shall advance in the plains.”3706

    3706


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 65
    Joel iii. 16.

    and, “In Judah is God known;”4306

    4306


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 62
    Ps. xlv. 3, 4.

    And whatever other things of a like nature are spoken regarding Him, these indicated that beauty and splendour which exist in His kingdom, along with the transcendent and pre-eminent exaltation [belonging] to all who are under His sway, that those who hear might desire to be found there, doing such things as are pleasing to God. Again, there are those who say, “He is a man, and who shall know him?”4303

    4303


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxviii Pg 0


    Anf-02 iv.ii.ii.x Pg 3.1


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.vii Pg 15
    Ps. xlv. 2, 3.

    For the Father, after making Him a little lower than the angels, “will crown Him with glory and honour, and put all things under His feet.”3193

    3193


    Anf-03 iv.ix.ix Pg 32
    Ps. xlv. 3, clause 1 (in LXX. Ps. xliv. 4).

    But what do you read above concerning the Christ? “Blooming in beauty above the sons of men; grace is outpoured in thy lips.”1277

    1277


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xiv Pg 3
    Ps. xlv. 3.

    But what do you read about Christ just before? “Thou art fairer than the children of men; grace is poured forth upon Thy lips.”3287

    3287


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xviii Pg 11
    Ps. xlv. 3.

    or by Isaiah as “taking away the spoils of Samaria and the power of Damascus,”6012

    6012


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxix Pg 13
    Zech. ix. 15, 16 (Septuagint).

    etc. And that you may not suppose that these predictions refer to such sufferings as await them from so many wars with strangers,5026

    5026 Allophylis.

    consider the nature (of the sufferings).  In a prophecy of wars which were to be waged with legitimate arms, no one would think of enumerating stones as weapons, which are better known in popular crowds and unarmed tumults.  Nobody measures the copious streams of blood which flow in war by bowlfuls, nor limits it to what is shed upon a single altar. No one gives the name of sheep to those who fall in battle with arms in hand, and while repelling force with force, but only to those who are slain, yielding themselves up in their own place of duty and with patience, rather than fighting in self-defence. In short, as he says, “they roll as sacred stones,” and not like soldiers fightStones are they, even foundation stones, upon which we are ourselves edified—“built,” as St. Paul says, “upon the foundation of the apostles,”5027

    5027


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxix Pg 13
    Zech. ix. 15, 16 (Septuagint).

    etc. And that you may not suppose that these predictions refer to such sufferings as await them from so many wars with strangers,5026

    5026 Allophylis.

    consider the nature (of the sufferings).  In a prophecy of wars which were to be waged with legitimate arms, no one would think of enumerating stones as weapons, which are better known in popular crowds and unarmed tumults.  Nobody measures the copious streams of blood which flow in war by bowlfuls, nor limits it to what is shed upon a single altar. No one gives the name of sheep to those who fall in battle with arms in hand, and while repelling force with force, but only to those who are slain, yielding themselves up in their own place of duty and with patience, rather than fighting in self-defence. In short, as he says, “they roll as sacred stones,” and not like soldiers fightStones are they, even foundation stones, upon which we are ourselves edified—“built,” as St. Paul says, “upon the foundation of the apostles,”5027

    5027


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xxi Pg 26
    Joel iii. 16; Amos i. 2.

    And that it is from that region which is towards the south of the inheritance of Judah that the Son of God shall come, who is God, and who was from Bethlehem, where the Lord was born [and] will send out His praise through all the earth, thus3705

    3705 As Massuet observes, we must either expunge “sciut” altogether, or read “sic” as above.

    says the prophet Habakkuk: “God shall come from the south, and the Holy One from Mount Effrem. His power covered the heavens over, and the earth is full of His praise. Before His face shall go forth the Word, and His feet shall advance in the plains.”3706

    3706


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 65
    Joel iii. 16.

    and, “In Judah is God known;”4306

    4306


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 62
    Ps. xlv. 3, 4.

    And whatever other things of a like nature are spoken regarding Him, these indicated that beauty and splendour which exist in His kingdom, along with the transcendent and pre-eminent exaltation [belonging] to all who are under His sway, that those who hear might desire to be found there, doing such things as are pleasing to God. Again, there are those who say, “He is a man, and who shall know him?”4303

    4303


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxviii Pg 0


    Anf-02 iv.ii.ii.x Pg 3.1


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.vii Pg 15
    Ps. xlv. 2, 3.

    For the Father, after making Him a little lower than the angels, “will crown Him with glory and honour, and put all things under His feet.”3193

    3193


    Anf-03 iv.ix.ix Pg 32
    Ps. xlv. 3, clause 1 (in LXX. Ps. xliv. 4).

    But what do you read above concerning the Christ? “Blooming in beauty above the sons of men; grace is outpoured in thy lips.”1277

    1277


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xiv Pg 3
    Ps. xlv. 3.

    But what do you read about Christ just before? “Thou art fairer than the children of men; grace is poured forth upon Thy lips.”3287

    3287


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xviii Pg 11
    Ps. xlv. 3.

    or by Isaiah as “taking away the spoils of Samaria and the power of Damascus,”6012

    6012


    Anf-01 ii.ii.xxxvi Pg 8
    Ps. ii. 7, 8; Heb. i. 5.

    And again He saith to Him, “Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool.”160

    160


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxii Pg 11
    Ps. ii. 8.

    And as from the multitude of his sons the prophets of the Lord [afterwards] arose, there was every necessity that Jacob should beget sons from the two sisters, even as Christ did from the two laws of one and the same Father; and in like manner also from the handmaids, indicating that Christ should raise up sons of God, both from freemen and from slaves after the flesh, bestowing upon all, in the same manner, the gift of the Spirit, who vivifies us.4122

    4122 The text of this sentence is in great confusion, and we can give only a doubtful translation.

    But he (Jacob) did all things for the sake of the younger, she who had the handsome eyes,4123

    4123 [Leah’s eyes were weak, according to the LXX.; and Irenæus infers that Rachel’s were “beautiful exceedingly.” Canticles, i. 15.]

    Rachel, who prefigured the Church, for which Christ endured patiently; who at that time, indeed, by means of His patriarchs and prophets, was prefiguring and declaring beforehand future things, fulfilling His part by anticipation in the dispensations of God, and accustoming His inheritance to obey God, and to pass through the world as in a state of pilgrimage, to follow His word, and to indicate beforehand things to come. For with God there is nothing without purpose or due signification.


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xl Pg 3
    Ps. i., Ps. ii.


    Anf-02 vi.iv.iv.xx Pg 18.1


    Anf-03 iv.ix.xii Pg 3
    Ps. ii. 7, 8.

    For you will not be able to affirm that “son” to be David rather than Christ; or the “bounds of the earth” to have been promised rather to David, who reigned within the single (country of) Judea, than to Christ, who has already taken captive the whole orb with the faith of His gospel; as He says through Isaiah:  “Behold, I have given Thee for a covenant1380

    1380 Dispositionem; Gr. διαθήκην.

    of my family, for a light of Gentiles, that Thou mayst open the eyes of the blind”—of course, such as err—“to outloose from bonds the bound”—that is, to free them from sins—“and from the house of prison”—that is, of death—“such as sit in darkness”1381

    1381


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxv Pg 36
    Ps. ii. 8.

    If, indeed, he has some things of his own, the whole of which he might give to his son, along with the man of the Creator, then show some one thing of them all, as a sample, that I may believe; lest I should have as much reason not to believe that all things belong to him, of whom I see nothing, as I have ground for believing that even the things which I see not are His, to whom belongs the universe, which I see.  But “no man knoweth who the Father is, but the Son; and who the Son is, but the Father, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him.”4499

    4499


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxix Pg 40
    Ps. ii. 8.

    “And all that glory shall serve Him; His dominion shall be an everlasting one, which shall not be taken from Him, and His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed,”5052

    5052


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xvii Pg 20
    Ps. ii. 8.

    It was He who “wrought in Christ His mighty power, by raising Him from the dead, and setting Him at His own right hand, and putting all things under His feet5966

    5966


    Npnf-201 iii.vi.iii Pg 14


    Npnf-201 iii.viii.viii Pg 22


    Anf-02 vi.ii.viii Pg 27.1


    Anf-02 vi.iv.v.xiii Pg 8.1


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxxiii Pg 3
    Or better, “His.” This quotation from Ps. cx. is put very differently from the previous quotation of the same Psalm in chap. xxxii. [Justin often quotes from memory. Kaye, cap. viii.]

    enemies. In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’ Who does not admit, then, that Hezekiah is no priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek? And who does not know that he is not the redeemer of Jerusalem? And who does not know that he neither sent a rod of power into Jerusalem, nor ruled in the midst of his enemies; but that it was God who averted from him the enemies, after he mourned and was afflicted? But our Jesus, who has not yet come in glory, has sent into Jerusalem a rod of power, namely, the word of calling and repentance [meant] for all nations over which demons held sway, as David says, ‘The gods of the nations are demons.’ And His strong word has prevailed on many to forsake the demons whom they used to serve, and by means of it to believe in the Almighty God because the gods of the nations are demons.2278

    2278 This last clause is thought to be an interpolation.

    And we mentioned formerly that the statement, ‘In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee from the womb,’ is made to Christ.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxii Pg 4
    Ps. cx.

    ‘The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of Thy strength out of Sion: rule Thou also in the midst of Thine enemies. With Thee shall be, in the day, the chief of Thy power, in the beauties of Thy saints. From the womb, before the morning star, have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. The Lord is at Thy right hand: He has crushed kings in the day of His wrath: He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill [with] the dead bodies.2031

    2031 πληρώσει πτώματα; Lat. version, implebit ruinas. Thirlby suggested that an omission has taken place in the mss. by the transcriber’s fault.

    He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall He lift up the head.’


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 20
    Ps. cx.

    was a chant in honour of Hezekiah,5599

    5599 In Ezechiam cecinisse.

    because “he went up to the house of the Lord,”5600

    5600


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 23
    Tertullian, as usual, argues from the Septuagint, which in the latter clause of Ps. cx. 3 has ἐκ γαστρὸς πρὸ ἑωσφόρου ἐγέννησά σε; and so the Vulgate version has it. This Psalm has been variously applied by the Jews. Raschi (or Rabbi Sol. Jarchi) thinks it is most suitable to Abraham, and possibly to David, in which latter view D. Kimchi agrees with him.  Others find in Solomon the best application; but more frequently is Hezekiah thought to be the subject of the Psalm, as Tertullian observes. Justin Martyr (in Dial. cum Tryph.) also notices this application of the Psalm. But Tertullian in the next sentence appears to recognize the sounder opinion of the older Jews, who saw in this Ps. cx. a prediction of Messiah.  This opinion occurs in the Jerusalem Talmud, in the tract Berachoth, 5. Amongst the more recent Jews who also hold the sounder view, may be mentioned Rabbi Saadias Gaon, on Dan. vii. 13, and R. Moses Hadarsan [singularly enough quoted by Raschi in another part of his commentary (Gen. xxxv. 8)], with others who are mentioned by Wetstein, On the New Testament, Matt. xxii. 44. Modern Jews, such as Moses Mendelsohn, reject the Messianic sense; and they are followed by the commentators of the Rationalist school amongst ourselves and in Germany. J. Olshausen, after Hitzig, comes down in his interpretation of the Psalm as late as the Maccabees, and sees a suitable accomplishment of its words in the honours heaped upon Jonathan by Alexander son of Antiochus Epiphanes (see 1 Macc. x. 20). For the refutation of so inadequate a commentary, the reader is referred to Delitzch on Ps. cx. The variations of opinion, however, in this school, are as remarkable as the fluctuations of the Jewish writers. The latest work on the Psalms which has appeared amongst us (Psalms, chronologically arranged, by four Friends), after Ewald, places the accomplishment of Ps. cx. in what may be allowed to have been its occasionDavid’s victories over the neighboring heathen.

    are applicable to Hezekiah, and to the birth of Hezekiah. We on our side5602

    5602 Nos.

    have published Gospels (to the credibility of which we have to thank5603

    5603 Debemus.

    them5604

    5604 Istos: that is, the Jews (Rigalt.).

    for having given some confirmation, indeed, already in so great a subject5605

    5605 Utique jam in tanto opere.

    ); and these declare that the Lord was born at night, that so it might be “before the morning star,” as is evident both from the star especially, and from the testimony of the angel, who at night announced to the shepherds that Christ had at that moment been born,5606

    5606 Natum esse quum maxime.

    and again from the place of the birth, for it is towards night that persons arrive at the (eastern) “inn.” Perhaps, too, there was a mystic purpose in Christ’s being born at night, destined, as He was, to be the light of the truth amidst the dark shadows of ignorance. Nor, again, would God have said, “I have begotten Thee,” except to His true Son.  For although He says of all the people (Israel), “I have begotten5607

    5607 Generavi: Sept. ἐγέννησα.

    children,”5608

    5608


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxxiii Pg 3
    Or better, “His.” This quotation from Ps. cx. is put very differently from the previous quotation of the same Psalm in chap. xxxii. [Justin often quotes from memory. Kaye, cap. viii.]

    enemies. In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’ Who does not admit, then, that Hezekiah is no priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek? And who does not know that he is not the redeemer of Jerusalem? And who does not know that he neither sent a rod of power into Jerusalem, nor ruled in the midst of his enemies; but that it was God who averted from him the enemies, after he mourned and was afflicted? But our Jesus, who has not yet come in glory, has sent into Jerusalem a rod of power, namely, the word of calling and repentance [meant] for all nations over which demons held sway, as David says, ‘The gods of the nations are demons.’ And His strong word has prevailed on many to forsake the demons whom they used to serve, and by means of it to believe in the Almighty God because the gods of the nations are demons.2278

    2278 This last clause is thought to be an interpolation.

    And we mentioned formerly that the statement, ‘In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee from the womb,’ is made to Christ.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxii Pg 4
    Ps. cx.

    ‘The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of Thy strength out of Sion: rule Thou also in the midst of Thine enemies. With Thee shall be, in the day, the chief of Thy power, in the beauties of Thy saints. From the womb, before the morning star, have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. The Lord is at Thy right hand: He has crushed kings in the day of His wrath: He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill [with] the dead bodies.2031

    2031 πληρώσει πτώματα; Lat. version, implebit ruinas. Thirlby suggested that an omission has taken place in the mss. by the transcriber’s fault.

    He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall He lift up the head.’


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 20
    Ps. cx.

    was a chant in honour of Hezekiah,5599

    5599 In Ezechiam cecinisse.

    because “he went up to the house of the Lord,”5600

    5600


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 23
    Tertullian, as usual, argues from the Septuagint, which in the latter clause of Ps. cx. 3 has ἐκ γαστρὸς πρὸ ἑωσφόρου ἐγέννησά σε; and so the Vulgate version has it. This Psalm has been variously applied by the Jews. Raschi (or Rabbi Sol. Jarchi) thinks it is most suitable to Abraham, and possibly to David, in which latter view D. Kimchi agrees with him.  Others find in Solomon the best application; but more frequently is Hezekiah thought to be the subject of the Psalm, as Tertullian observes. Justin Martyr (in Dial. cum Tryph.) also notices this application of the Psalm. But Tertullian in the next sentence appears to recognize the sounder opinion of the older Jews, who saw in this Ps. cx. a prediction of Messiah.  This opinion occurs in the Jerusalem Talmud, in the tract Berachoth, 5. Amongst the more recent Jews who also hold the sounder view, may be mentioned Rabbi Saadias Gaon, on Dan. vii. 13, and R. Moses Hadarsan [singularly enough quoted by Raschi in another part of his commentary (Gen. xxxv. 8)], with others who are mentioned by Wetstein, On the New Testament, Matt. xxii. 44. Modern Jews, such as Moses Mendelsohn, reject the Messianic sense; and they are followed by the commentators of the Rationalist school amongst ourselves and in Germany. J. Olshausen, after Hitzig, comes down in his interpretation of the Psalm as late as the Maccabees, and sees a suitable accomplishment of its words in the honours heaped upon Jonathan by Alexander son of Antiochus Epiphanes (see 1 Macc. x. 20). For the refutation of so inadequate a commentary, the reader is referred to Delitzch on Ps. cx. The variations of opinion, however, in this school, are as remarkable as the fluctuations of the Jewish writers. The latest work on the Psalms which has appeared amongst us (Psalms, chronologically arranged, by four Friends), after Ewald, places the accomplishment of Ps. cx. in what may be allowed to have been its occasionDavid’s victories over the neighboring heathen.

    are applicable to Hezekiah, and to the birth of Hezekiah. We on our side5602

    5602 Nos.

    have published Gospels (to the credibility of which we have to thank5603

    5603 Debemus.

    them5604

    5604 Istos: that is, the Jews (Rigalt.).

    for having given some confirmation, indeed, already in so great a subject5605

    5605 Utique jam in tanto opere.

    ); and these declare that the Lord was born at night, that so it might be “before the morning star,” as is evident both from the star especially, and from the testimony of the angel, who at night announced to the shepherds that Christ had at that moment been born,5606

    5606 Natum esse quum maxime.

    and again from the place of the birth, for it is towards night that persons arrive at the (eastern) “inn.” Perhaps, too, there was a mystic purpose in Christ’s being born at night, destined, as He was, to be the light of the truth amidst the dark shadows of ignorance. Nor, again, would God have said, “I have begotten Thee,” except to His true Son.  For although He says of all the people (Israel), “I have begotten5607

    5607 Generavi: Sept. ἐγέννησα.

    children,”5608

    5608


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxix Pg 13
    Zech. ix. 15, 16 (Septuagint).

    etc. And that you may not suppose that these predictions refer to such sufferings as await them from so many wars with strangers,5026

    5026 Allophylis.

    consider the nature (of the sufferings).  In a prophecy of wars which were to be waged with legitimate arms, no one would think of enumerating stones as weapons, which are better known in popular crowds and unarmed tumults.  Nobody measures the copious streams of blood which flow in war by bowlfuls, nor limits it to what is shed upon a single altar. No one gives the name of sheep to those who fall in battle with arms in hand, and while repelling force with force, but only to those who are slain, yielding themselves up in their own place of duty and with patience, rather than fighting in self-defence. In short, as he says, “they roll as sacred stones,” and not like soldiers fightStones are they, even foundation stones, upon which we are ourselves edified—“built,” as St. Paul says, “upon the foundation of the apostles,”5027

    5027


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxix Pg 13
    Zech. ix. 15, 16 (Septuagint).

    etc. And that you may not suppose that these predictions refer to such sufferings as await them from so many wars with strangers,5026

    5026 Allophylis.

    consider the nature (of the sufferings).  In a prophecy of wars which were to be waged with legitimate arms, no one would think of enumerating stones as weapons, which are better known in popular crowds and unarmed tumults.  Nobody measures the copious streams of blood which flow in war by bowlfuls, nor limits it to what is shed upon a single altar. No one gives the name of sheep to those who fall in battle with arms in hand, and while repelling force with force, but only to those who are slain, yielding themselves up in their own place of duty and with patience, rather than fighting in self-defence. In short, as he says, “they roll as sacred stones,” and not like soldiers fightStones are they, even foundation stones, upon which we are ourselves edified—“built,” as St. Paul says, “upon the foundation of the apostles,”5027

    5027


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xxi Pg 26
    Joel iii. 16; Amos i. 2.

    And that it is from that region which is towards the south of the inheritance of Judah that the Son of God shall come, who is God, and who was from Bethlehem, where the Lord was born [and] will send out His praise through all the earth, thus3705

    3705 As Massuet observes, we must either expunge “sciut” altogether, or read “sic” as above.

    says the prophet Habakkuk: “God shall come from the south, and the Holy One from Mount Effrem. His power covered the heavens over, and the earth is full of His praise. Before His face shall go forth the Word, and His feet shall advance in the plains.”3706

    3706


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 65
    Joel iii. 16.

    and, “In Judah is God known;”4306

    4306


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 62
    Ps. xlv. 3, 4.

    And whatever other things of a like nature are spoken regarding Him, these indicated that beauty and splendour which exist in His kingdom, along with the transcendent and pre-eminent exaltation [belonging] to all who are under His sway, that those who hear might desire to be found there, doing such things as are pleasing to God. Again, there are those who say, “He is a man, and who shall know him?”4303

    4303


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxviii Pg 0


    Anf-02 iv.ii.ii.x Pg 3.1


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.vii Pg 15
    Ps. xlv. 2, 3.

    For the Father, after making Him a little lower than the angels, “will crown Him with glory and honour, and put all things under His feet.”3193

    3193


    Anf-03 iv.ix.ix Pg 32
    Ps. xlv. 3, clause 1 (in LXX. Ps. xliv. 4).

    But what do you read above concerning the Christ? “Blooming in beauty above the sons of men; grace is outpoured in thy lips.”1277

    1277


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xiv Pg 3
    Ps. xlv. 3.

    But what do you read about Christ just before? “Thou art fairer than the children of men; grace is poured forth upon Thy lips.”3287

    3287


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xviii Pg 11
    Ps. xlv. 3.

    or by Isaiah as “taking away the spoils of Samaria and the power of Damascus,”6012

    6012


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxix Pg 13
    Zech. ix. 15, 16 (Septuagint).

    etc. And that you may not suppose that these predictions refer to such sufferings as await them from so many wars with strangers,5026

    5026 Allophylis.

    consider the nature (of the sufferings).  In a prophecy of wars which were to be waged with legitimate arms, no one would think of enumerating stones as weapons, which are better known in popular crowds and unarmed tumults.  Nobody measures the copious streams of blood which flow in war by bowlfuls, nor limits it to what is shed upon a single altar. No one gives the name of sheep to those who fall in battle with arms in hand, and while repelling force with force, but only to those who are slain, yielding themselves up in their own place of duty and with patience, rather than fighting in self-defence. In short, as he says, “they roll as sacred stones,” and not like soldiers fightStones are they, even foundation stones, upon which we are ourselves edified—“built,” as St. Paul says, “upon the foundation of the apostles,”5027

    5027


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxix Pg 13
    Zech. ix. 15, 16 (Septuagint).

    etc. And that you may not suppose that these predictions refer to such sufferings as await them from so many wars with strangers,5026

    5026 Allophylis.

    consider the nature (of the sufferings).  In a prophecy of wars which were to be waged with legitimate arms, no one would think of enumerating stones as weapons, which are better known in popular crowds and unarmed tumults.  Nobody measures the copious streams of blood which flow in war by bowlfuls, nor limits it to what is shed upon a single altar. No one gives the name of sheep to those who fall in battle with arms in hand, and while repelling force with force, but only to those who are slain, yielding themselves up in their own place of duty and with patience, rather than fighting in self-defence. In short, as he says, “they roll as sacred stones,” and not like soldiers fightStones are they, even foundation stones, upon which we are ourselves edified—“built,” as St. Paul says, “upon the foundation of the apostles,”5027

    5027


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xxi Pg 26
    Joel iii. 16; Amos i. 2.

    And that it is from that region which is towards the south of the inheritance of Judah that the Son of God shall come, who is God, and who was from Bethlehem, where the Lord was born [and] will send out His praise through all the earth, thus3705

    3705 As Massuet observes, we must either expunge “sciut” altogether, or read “sic” as above.

    says the prophet Habakkuk: “God shall come from the south, and the Holy One from Mount Effrem. His power covered the heavens over, and the earth is full of His praise. Before His face shall go forth the Word, and His feet shall advance in the plains.”3706

    3706


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 65
    Joel iii. 16.

    and, “In Judah is God known;”4306

    4306


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 62
    Ps. xlv. 3, 4.

    And whatever other things of a like nature are spoken regarding Him, these indicated that beauty and splendour which exist in His kingdom, along with the transcendent and pre-eminent exaltation [belonging] to all who are under His sway, that those who hear might desire to be found there, doing such things as are pleasing to God. Again, there are those who say, “He is a man, and who shall know him?”4303

    4303


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxviii Pg 0


    Anf-02 iv.ii.ii.x Pg 3.1


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.vii Pg 15
    Ps. xlv. 2, 3.

    For the Father, after making Him a little lower than the angels, “will crown Him with glory and honour, and put all things under His feet.”3193

    3193


    Anf-03 iv.ix.ix Pg 32
    Ps. xlv. 3, clause 1 (in LXX. Ps. xliv. 4).

    But what do you read above concerning the Christ? “Blooming in beauty above the sons of men; grace is outpoured in thy lips.”1277

    1277


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xiv Pg 3
    Ps. xlv. 3.

    But what do you read about Christ just before? “Thou art fairer than the children of men; grace is poured forth upon Thy lips.”3287

    3287


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xviii Pg 11
    Ps. xlv. 3.

    or by Isaiah as “taking away the spoils of Samaria and the power of Damascus,”6012

    6012


    Npnf-201 iii.xv.ix Pg 24


    Npnf-201 iv.vi.i.xxxviii Pg 12


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiv Pg 16
    Ps. cxiii. 5–8.

    that is, in His own kingdom. And likewise earlier, in the book of Kings,3948

    3948 The books of “Samuel” were also called the books of “Kings.”

    Hannah the mother of Samuel gives glory to God in these words: “He raiseth the poor man from the ground, and the beggar, that He may set him amongst the princes of His people (that is, in His own kingdom), and on thrones of glory” (even royal ones).3949

    3949


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiii Pg 33
    Isa. xlix. 21.

    Will such a Christ not be (the Christ) of the prophets? And what will be the Christ of the Marcionites? Since perversion of truth is their pleasure, he could not be (the Christ) of the prophets.


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 143


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xxxv Pg 5
    Ps. xxii. 16.

    And indeed David, the king and prophet, who uttered these things, suffered none of them; but Jesus Christ stretched forth His hands, being crucified by the Jews speaking against Him, and denying that He was the Christ. And as the prophet spoke, they tormented Him, and set Him on the judgment-seat, and said, Judge us. And the expression, “They pierced my hands and my feet,” was used in reference to the nails of the cross which were fixed in His hands and feet. And after He was crucified they cast lots upon His vesture, and they that crucified Him parted it among them. And that these things did happen, you can ascertain from the Acts of Pontius Pilate.1838

    1838 ἄκτων. These Acts of Pontius Pilate, or regular accounts of his procedure sent by Pilate to the Emperor Tiberius, are supposed to have been destroyed at an early period, possibly in consequence of the unanswerable appeals which the Christians constantly made to them. There exists a forgery in imitation of these Acts. See Trollope.

    <index subject1="Christ Jesus" subject2="testimony of Scripture regarding Him: of Zechariah" title="175" id="viii.ii.xxxv-p6.2"/>And we will cite the prophetic utterances of another prophet, Zephaniah,1839

    1839 The reader will notice that these are not the words of Zephaniah, but of Zechariah (ix. 9), to whom also Justin himself refers them in the Dial. Tryph., c. 53. [Might be corrected in the text, therefore, as a clerical slip of the pen.]

    to the effect that He was foretold expressly as to sit upon the foal of an ass and to enter Jerusalem. The words are these: “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.”1840

    1840


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xcvii Pg 5
    That is, Ps. xxii. 16–18.

    Psalm thus refers to the suffering and to the cross in a parable of mystery: ‘They pierced my hands and my feet; they counted all my bones. They considered and gazed on me; they parted my garments among themselves, and cast lots upon my vesture.’ For when they crucified Him, driving in the nails, they pierced His hands and feet; and those who crucified Him parted His garments among themselves, each casting lots for what he chose to have, and receiving according to the decision of the lot. And this very Psalm you maintain does not refer to Christ; for you are in all respects blind, and do not understand that no one in your nation who has been called King or Christ has ever had his hands or feet pierced while alive, or has died in this mysterious fashion—to wit, by the cross—save this Jesus alone.


    Anf-03 iv.ix.viii Pg 55
    See Ps. xxii. 16 (xxi. 17 in LXX.)

    And the suffering of this “extermination” was perfected within the times of the lxx hebdomads, under Tiberius Cæsar, in the consulate of Rubellius Geminus and Fufius Geminus, in the month of March, at the times of the passover, on the eighth day before the calends of April,1245

    1245 i.e., March 25.

    on the first day of unleavened bread, on which they slew the lamb at even, just as had been enjoined by Moses.1246

    1246


    Anf-03 iv.ix.x Pg 9
    Ps. xxii. 16 (xxi. 17 in LXX.).

    and, “They put into my drink gall, and in my thirst they slaked me with vinegar;”1320

    1320


    Anf-03 iv.ix.x Pg 49
    Ver. 16 (17 in LXX.).

    —which is the peculiar atrocity of the cross; and again when He implores the aid of the Father, “Save me,” He says, “out of the mouth of the lion”—of course, of death—“and from the horn of the unicorns my humility,”1353

    1353


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xix Pg 10
    Ps. xxii. 16.

    which is the special cruelty of the cross.  And again, when He implores His Father’s help, He says, “Save me from the lion’s mouth,” that is, the jaws of death, “and my humiliation from the horns of the unicorns;” in other words, from the extremities of the cross, as we have shown above. Now, David himself did not suffer this cross, nor did any other king of the Jews; so that you cannot suppose that this is the prophecy of any other’s passion than His who alone was so notably crucified by the nation.  Now should the heretics, in their obstinacy,3364

    3364 Hæretica duritia.

    reject and despise all these interpretations, I will grant to them that the Creator has given us no signs of the cross of His Christ; but they will not prove from this concession that He who was crucified was another (Christ), unless they could somehow show that this death was predicted as His by their own god, so that from the diversity of predictions there might be maintained to be a diversity of sufferers,3365

    3365 Passionum, literally sufferings, which would hardly give the sense.

    and thereby also a diversity of persons.  But since there is no prophecy of even Marcion’s Christ, much less of his cross, it is enough for my Christ that there is a prophecy merely of death. For, from the fact that the kind of death is not declared, it was possible for the death of the cross to have been still intended, which would then have to be assigned to another (Christ), if the prophecy had had reference to another. Besides,3366

    3366 Nisi.

    if he should be unwilling to allow that the death of my Christ was predicted, his confusion must be the greater3367

    3367 Quo magis erubescat.

    if he announces that his own Christ indeed died, whom he denies to have had a nativity, whilst denying that my Christ is mortal, though he allows Him to be capable of birth. However, I will show him the death, and burial, and resurrection of my Christ all3368

    3368 Et—et—et.

    indicated in a single sentence of Isaiah, who says, “His sepulture was removed from the midst of them.” Now there could have been no sepulture without death, and no removal of sepulture except by resurrection. Then, finally, he added: “Therefore He shall have many for his inheritance, and He shall divide the spoil of the many, because He poured out His soul unto death.”3369

    3369


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xlii Pg 22
    Ps. xxii. 16.

    Indeed, the details of the whole event are therein read: “Dogs compassed me about; the assembly of the wicked enclosed me around. All that looked upon me laughed me to scorn; they did shoot out their lips and shake their heads, (saying,) He hoped in God, let Him deliver Him.”5141

    5141


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xlii Pg 23
    Ps. xxii. 16, 7, 8.

    Of what use now is (your tampering with) the testimony of His garments? If you take it as a booty for your false Christ, still all the Psalm (compensates) the vesture of Christ.5142

    5142 We append the original of these obscure sentences: “Quo jam testimonium vestimentorum? Habe falsi tui prædam; totus psalmus vestimenta sunt Christi.” The general sense is apparent. If Marcion does suppress the details about Christ’s garments at the cross, to escape the inconvenient proof they afford that Christ is the object of prophecies, yet there are so many other points of agreement between this wonderful Psalm and St. Luke’s history of the crucifixion (not expunged, as it would seem, by the heretic), that they quite compensate for the loss of this passage about the garments (Oehler).

    But, behold, the very elements are shaken. For their Lord was suffering. If, however, it was their enemy to whom all this injury was done, the heaven would have gleamed with light, the sun would have been even more radiant, and the day would have prolonged its course5143

    5143


    Anf-03 iv.ix.xiii Pg 18
    Ps. xxii. 16, 17 (xxi. 17, 18, in LXX.); and lxix. 21 (lxviii. 22 in LXX.).

    These things David did not suffer, so as to seem justly to have spoken of himself; but the Christ who was crucified.  Moreover, the “hands and feet,” are not “exterminated,”1397

    1397 i.e., displaced, dislocated.

    except His who is suspended on a “tree.”  Whence, again, David said that “the Lord would reign from the tree:”1398

    1398 See c. x. above.

    for elsewhere, too, the prophet predicts the fruit of this “tree,” saying “The earth hath given her blessings,”1399

    1399


    Anf-02 ii.iv.ix Pg 71.1


    Npnf-201 iii.xii.xi Pg 17


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xxxv Pg 5
    Ps. xxii. 16.

    And indeed David, the king and prophet, who uttered these things, suffered none of them; but Jesus Christ stretched forth His hands, being crucified by the Jews speaking against Him, and denying that He was the Christ. And as the prophet spoke, they tormented Him, and set Him on the judgment-seat, and said, Judge us. And the expression, “They pierced my hands and my feet,” was used in reference to the nails of the cross which were fixed in His hands and feet. And after He was crucified they cast lots upon His vesture, and they that crucified Him parted it among them. And that these things did happen, you can ascertain from the Acts of Pontius Pilate.1838

    1838 ἄκτων. These Acts of Pontius Pilate, or regular accounts of his procedure sent by Pilate to the Emperor Tiberius, are supposed to have been destroyed at an early period, possibly in consequence of the unanswerable appeals which the Christians constantly made to them. There exists a forgery in imitation of these Acts. See Trollope.

    <index subject1="Christ Jesus" subject2="testimony of Scripture regarding Him: of Zechariah" title="175" id="viii.ii.xxxv-p6.2"/>And we will cite the prophetic utterances of another prophet, Zephaniah,1839

    1839 The reader will notice that these are not the words of Zephaniah, but of Zechariah (ix. 9), to whom also Justin himself refers them in the Dial. Tryph., c. 53. [Might be corrected in the text, therefore, as a clerical slip of the pen.]

    to the effect that He was foretold expressly as to sit upon the foal of an ass and to enter Jerusalem. The words are these: “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.”1840

    1840


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xcvii Pg 5
    That is, Ps. xxii. 16–18.

    Psalm thus refers to the suffering and to the cross in a parable of mystery: ‘They pierced my hands and my feet; they counted all my bones. They considered and gazed on me; they parted my garments among themselves, and cast lots upon my vesture.’ For when they crucified Him, driving in the nails, they pierced His hands and feet; and those who crucified Him parted His garments among themselves, each casting lots for what he chose to have, and receiving according to the decision of the lot. And this very Psalm you maintain does not refer to Christ; for you are in all respects blind, and do not understand that no one in your nation who has been called King or Christ has ever had his hands or feet pierced while alive, or has died in this mysterious fashion—to wit, by the cross—save this Jesus alone.


    Anf-03 iv.ix.viii Pg 55
    See Ps. xxii. 16 (xxi. 17 in LXX.)

    And the suffering of this “extermination” was perfected within the times of the lxx hebdomads, under Tiberius Cæsar, in the consulate of Rubellius Geminus and Fufius Geminus, in the month of March, at the times of the passover, on the eighth day before the calends of April,1245

    1245 i.e., March 25.

    on the first day of unleavened bread, on which they slew the lamb at even, just as had been enjoined by Moses.1246

    1246


    Anf-03 iv.ix.x Pg 9
    Ps. xxii. 16 (xxi. 17 in LXX.).

    and, “They put into my drink gall, and in my thirst they slaked me with vinegar;”1320

    1320


    Anf-03 iv.ix.x Pg 49
    Ver. 16 (17 in LXX.).

    —which is the peculiar atrocity of the cross; and again when He implores the aid of the Father, “Save me,” He says, “out of the mouth of the lion”—of course, of death—“and from the horn of the unicorns my humility,”1353

    1353


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xix Pg 10
    Ps. xxii. 16.

    which is the special cruelty of the cross.  And again, when He implores His Father’s help, He says, “Save me from the lion’s mouth,” that is, the jaws of death, “and my humiliation from the horns of the unicorns;” in other words, from the extremities of the cross, as we have shown above. Now, David himself did not suffer this cross, nor did any other king of the Jews; so that you cannot suppose that this is the prophecy of any other’s passion than His who alone was so notably crucified by the nation.  Now should the heretics, in their obstinacy,3364

    3364 Hæretica duritia.

    reject and despise all these interpretations, I will grant to them that the Creator has given us no signs of the cross of His Christ; but they will not prove from this concession that He who was crucified was another (Christ), unless they could somehow show that this death was predicted as His by their own god, so that from the diversity of predictions there might be maintained to be a diversity of sufferers,3365

    3365 Passionum, literally sufferings, which would hardly give the sense.

    and thereby also a diversity of persons.  But since there is no prophecy of even Marcion’s Christ, much less of his cross, it is enough for my Christ that there is a prophecy merely of death. For, from the fact that the kind of death is not declared, it was possible for the death of the cross to have been still intended, which would then have to be assigned to another (Christ), if the prophecy had had reference to another. Besides,3366

    3366 Nisi.

    if he should be unwilling to allow that the death of my Christ was predicted, his confusion must be the greater3367

    3367 Quo magis erubescat.

    if he announces that his own Christ indeed died, whom he denies to have had a nativity, whilst denying that my Christ is mortal, though he allows Him to be capable of birth. However, I will show him the death, and burial, and resurrection of my Christ all3368

    3368 Et—et—et.

    indicated in a single sentence of Isaiah, who says, “His sepulture was removed from the midst of them.” Now there could have been no sepulture without death, and no removal of sepulture except by resurrection. Then, finally, he added: “Therefore He shall have many for his inheritance, and He shall divide the spoil of the many, because He poured out His soul unto death.”3369

    3369


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xlii Pg 22
    Ps. xxii. 16.

    Indeed, the details of the whole event are therein read: “Dogs compassed me about; the assembly of the wicked enclosed me around. All that looked upon me laughed me to scorn; they did shoot out their lips and shake their heads, (saying,) He hoped in God, let Him deliver Him.”5141

    5141


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xlii Pg 23
    Ps. xxii. 16, 7, 8.

    Of what use now is (your tampering with) the testimony of His garments? If you take it as a booty for your false Christ, still all the Psalm (compensates) the vesture of Christ.5142

    5142 We append the original of these obscure sentences: “Quo jam testimonium vestimentorum? Habe falsi tui prædam; totus psalmus vestimenta sunt Christi.” The general sense is apparent. If Marcion does suppress the details about Christ’s garments at the cross, to escape the inconvenient proof they afford that Christ is the object of prophecies, yet there are so many other points of agreement between this wonderful Psalm and St. Luke’s history of the crucifixion (not expunged, as it would seem, by the heretic), that they quite compensate for the loss of this passage about the garments (Oehler).

    But, behold, the very elements are shaken. For their Lord was suffering. If, however, it was their enemy to whom all this injury was done, the heaven would have gleamed with light, the sun would have been even more radiant, and the day would have prolonged its course5143

    5143


    Anf-03 iv.ix.xiii Pg 18
    Ps. xxii. 16, 17 (xxi. 17, 18, in LXX.); and lxix. 21 (lxviii. 22 in LXX.).

    These things David did not suffer, so as to seem justly to have spoken of himself; but the Christ who was crucified.  Moreover, the “hands and feet,” are not “exterminated,”1397

    1397 i.e., displaced, dislocated.

    except His who is suspended on a “tree.”  Whence, again, David said that “the Lord would reign from the tree:”1398

    1398 See c. x. above.

    for elsewhere, too, the prophet predicts the fruit of this “tree,” saying “The earth hath given her blessings,”1399

    1399


    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge, Chapter 24

    VERSE 	(5) - 

    Eze 20:47; 34:16,17,20 Jer 39:6; 52:10,24-27 Re 19:20


    PARALLEL VERSE BIBLE

    God Rules.NET