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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - 1 Corinthians 11:10


    CHAPTERS: 1 Corinthians 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16     
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    King James Bible - 1 Corinthians 11:10

    For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels.

    World English Bible

    For this cause the woman ought to have authority on her
    head, because of the angels.

    Douay-Rheims - 1 Corinthians 11:10

    Therefore ought the woman to have a
    power over her head, because of the angels.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    For this cause ought the woman to have
    power on her head, because of the angels.

    Greek Textus Receptus


    δια
    1223 PREP τουτο 5124 D-ASN οφειλει 3784 5719 V-PAI-3S η 3588 T-NSF γυνη 1135 N-NSF εξουσιαν 1849 N-ASF εχειν 2192 5721 V-PAN επι 1909 PREP της 3588 T-GSF κεφαλης 2776 N-GSF δια 1223 PREP τους 3588 T-APM αγγελους 32 N-APM

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (10) -
    Ec 5:6 Mt 18:10 Heb 1:14

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 11:10

    Por lo cual, la mujer debe tener potestad sobre su cabeza, por causa de los ngeles.

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - 1 Corinthians 11:10

    Verse 10. For this cause ought the
    woman to have power on her head because of the angels.] There are few portions in the sacred writings that have given rise to such a variety of conjectures and explanations, and are less understood, than this verse, and 1 Cor. xv. 29. Our translators were puzzled with it; and have inserted here one of the largest marginal readings found any where in their work; but this is only on the words power on her head, which they interpret thus: that is, a covering, in sign that she is under the power of her husband. But, admitting this marginal reading to be a satisfactory solution so far as it goes, it by no means removes all the difficulty. Mr. Locke ingenuously acknowledged that he did not understand the meaning of the words; and almost every critic and learned man has a different explanation. Some have endeavoured to force out a meaning by altering the text. The emendation of Mr. Toup, of Cornwall, is the most remarkable: he reads exiousa, going out, instead of exousian, power; wherefore the woman, when she goes out, should have a veil on her head. Whatever ingenuity there may appear in this emendation, the consideration that it is not acknowledged by any MS., or version, or primitive writer, is sufficient proof against it. Dr. Lightfoot, Schoettgen, and Bishop Pearce, have written best on the subject, in which they allow that there are many difficulties. The latter contends, 1. That the original should be read, Wherefore the woman ought to have A power upon her head, that is, the power of the husband over the wife; the word power standing for the sign or token of that power which was a covering or veil.

    Theophylact explains the word, to tou exousiazesqai sumbolon, toutesti, to kalumma, "the symbol of being under power, that is, a veil, or covering." And Photius explains it thus: thv upotaghv sumbolon to epi thv kefalhv kalumma ferein; to wear a veil on the head is a symbol of subjection. It is no unusual thing, in the Old and New Testament, for the signs and tokens of things to be called by the names of the things themselves, for thus circumcision is called the covenant, in Gen. xvii. 10, 13, though it was only the sign of it.

    2. The word angels presents another difficulty. Some suppose that by these the apostle means the fallen angels, or devils; others, the governors of the Church; and others, those who were deputed among the Jews to espouse a virgin in the name of a lover. All these senses the learned bishop rejects, and believes that the apostle uses the word angels, in its most obvious sense, for the heavenly angels; and that he speaks according to the notion which then prevailed among Jews, that the holy angels interested themselves in the affairs of men, and particularly were present in their religious assemblies, as the cherubim, their representation, were present in their temple. Thus we read in Eccles. v. 6: Neither say thou before the ANGEL, it was an error; and in 1 Tim. v. 21: I charge thee before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect ANGELS, &c. Parallel to these is what Agrippa says in his oration to the Jews, Josephus, War, b. ii. chap. 16: I protest before God, your holy temple, and all the ANGELS of heaven, &c. All which passages suppose, or were spoken to those who supposed, that the angels know what passes here upon earth. The notion, whether just or not, prevailed among the Jews; and if so, St. Paul might speak according to the common opinion.

    3. Another difficulty lies in the phrase dia touto, wherefore, which shows that this verse is a conclusion from what the apostle was arguing before; which we may understand thus: that his conclusion, from the foregoing argument, ought to have the more weight, upon account of the presence, real or supposed, of the holy angels, at their religious meetings. See Bishop Pearce, in loc.

    The learned bishop is not very willing to allow that the doctrine of the presence of angelic beings in religious assemblies is legitimate; but what difficulty can there be in this, if we take the words of the apostle in another place: Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation? He i. 14. And perhaps there is no time in which they can render more essential services to the followers of God than when they are engaged in Divine ordinances. On the whole, the bishop's sense of the passage and paraphrase stands thus: "And because of this superiority in the man, I conclude that the woman should have on her head a veil, the mark of her husband's power over her, especially in the religious assemblies, where the angels are supposed to be invisibly present." The ancient versions make little alteration in the common reading, and the MSS. leave the verse nearly as it stands in the common printed editions.

    The Armenian has a word that answers to umbram, a shade or covering.

    The AEthiopic, her head should be veiled. The common editions of the Vulgate have potestatem, power; but in an ancient edition of the Vulgate, perhaps one of the first, if not the first, ever printed, 2 vols. fol., sine ulla nota anni, &c.: the verse stands thus: Ideo debet mulier velamen habere super caput suum: et propter angelos. My old MS. translation seems to have been taken from a MS. which had the same reading: Wherefore the woman schal haue a veyl on her heuyd; and for aungels. Some copies of the Itala have also velamen, a veil.

    In his view of this text, Kypke differs from all others; and nothing that so judicious a critic advances should be lightly regarded. 1. He contends that exousian occurs nowhere in the sense of veil, and yet he supposes that the word kalumma, veil is understood, and must in the translation of the passage be supplied. 2. He directs that a comma be placed after exousian, and that it be construed with ofeilei, ought; after which he translates the verse thus: Propterea mulier potestati obnoxia est, ita ut velamen in capite habeat propter angelos; On this account the woman is subject to power, so that she should have a veil on her head, because of the angels. 3. He contends that both the Latins and Greeks use debere and ofeilein elegantly to express that to which one is obnoxious or liable. So Horace:- - Tu, nisi ventis Debes ludibrium, cave. Carm. lib. i. Od. xiv. ver. 15.

    Take heed lest thou owe a laughing stock to the winds; i.e. lest thou become the sport of the winds; for to these thou art now exposing thyself.

    So Dionys. Hal. Ant. lib. iii., page 205: kai pollhn ofeilontev aiscunhn aphlqon ek thv agorav? They departed from the market, exposed to great dishonour. So Euripides, ofeilw soi blabhn? I am exposed to thy injury.

    4. He contends that the words taken in this sense agree perfectly with the context, and with dia touto, wherefore, in this verse, "Because the man was not created for the woman, but the woman for the man, therefore she is subject to his authority, and should have a veil on her head as a token of that subjection; and particularly before the holy angels, who are present in the congregations of the saints." For Dr. Lightfoot's opinion, that by angels we are to understand the paranymphs, or messengers who came on the part of others, to look out for proper spouses for their friends, I must refer to his works, vol. ii. fol., p. 772. The reader has now before him every thing that is likely to cast light on this difficult subject, and he must either adopt what he judges to be best, or else think for himself.

    After all, the custom of the Nazarite may cast some light upon this place.

    As Nazarite means one who has separated himself by vow to some religious austerity, wearing his own hair, &c.; so a married woman was considered a Nazarite for life; i.e. separated from all others, and joined to one husband, who is her lord: and hence the apostle, alluding to this circumstance, says, The woman ought to have power on her head, i.e. wear her hair and veil, for her hair is a proof of her being a Nazarite, and of her subjection to her husband, as the Nazarite was under subjection to the Lord, according to the rule or law of his order. See notes on Numbers vi. 5- 7.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 10. For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head , etc.] The generality of interpreters, by power, understand the veil, or covering on the womans head, as a sign of the mans power over her, and her subjection to him; which Dr. Hammond endeavours to confirm, by observing that the Hebrew word dydr , which signifies a womans veil, or hood, comes from a root which signifies power and dominion; but in that he is mistaken, for the word is derived not from hdr , to rule, govern, or exercise power and authority, but from ddr , to expand, stretch out, or draw over, as a womans veil is drawn over her head and face. The Greek word exousia more properly signifies the power she had of putting on and off her covering as she pleased, according as times, places, and persons; made it necessary: because of the angels ; various are the senses given of these words, some taking them in a proper, others in a figurative sense: some in a proper sense of angels, and these either good or bad. Tertullian understands them of evil angels, and that a woman should cover her head in time of worship, lest they should lust after her; though much rather the reason should be, lest they should irritate and provoke lust in others: but it is better to understand them of good angels, who attend the assemblies of the saints, and observe the air and behaviour of the worshippers; wherefore women should cover their heads with respect to them, and not give offence to those pure spirits, by an indecent appearance: it is agreeable to the notions of the Jews, that angels attend public prayers, and at the expounding of the word; they often speak of an angel, twlpth l[ hnwmmh that is appointed over prayers; hence Tertullian seems to have took his notion of an angel of prayer: and of angels being present at expounding of the Scriptures, take the following story f223 ; it happened to Rabban Jochanan ben Zaccai, that he was riding upon an ass, and as he was journeying, R. Eleazar ben Arach was leading an ass after him; he said to him, Rabbi, teach me one chapter in the work of Mercavah (Ezekiels vision); he replied to him, not so have I taught you, nor in the Mercavah a single man, unless he was a wise man by his own industry; he answered him, Rabbi, give me leave to say one thing before thee, which thou hast taught me; immediately Rabban Jochanan ben Zaccai alighted from his ass and veiled himself, and sat upon a stone under an olive tree; he said to him, Rabbi, why dost thou alight off from the ass? he replied, is it possible that thou shouldst expound in the work of Mercavah, and the Shekinah be with us, wntwa ywlm trh ykalmw , and the ministering angels join us, and I ride upon an ass?

    And a little after, R. Joshua and R. Jose the priest were walking on the road, they said, yea, let us expound in the work of Mercavah; R. Joshua opened and expounded, and that day was the solstice of Tammuz, and the heavens were thickened with clouds, and there appeared the form of a bow in the cloud, and the ministering angels gathered together, [wml yabw , and came to hear: as the children of men gather together, and come to see the rejoicings of the bridegroom and bride.

    Moreover, this veiling of the woman in public worship because of angels, may be an imitation of the good angels, who when they sung the praises of God, and adored and glorified his perfections, covered their faces and their feet with their wings, ( Isaiah 6:1-3). Many understanding these words in a figurative sense, and in this also they are not agreed; some by angels think young men are meant, who, for their gracefulness and comeliness, are compared to angels; others good men in general, that attend religious worship; others ministers of the word, called angels often in the book of the Revelations; which last seems to be most agreeable of any of these senses; and the women were to cover their heads, that they might not offend either of these, or stir up any impure desires in them; see ( Ecclesiastes 5:6) but as these words follow the account given of the creation of the woman from the man, and for his sake; this may have no reference to her conduct in public worship, but to the power she had of using her covering, or taking it off, or putting it on, at the time of her espousals to a man; which was sometimes done by proxy, or messengers, whom the Jews call yjwl , angels f224 ; their canon is, a man may espouse (a wife) by himself, wjwlbw , or by his angel, or messenger; and a woman may be espoused by herself, or by her angel, or messenger: wherefore because of these angels, or messengers, that came to espouse her to such, she had power over her head to take off her veil, and show herself, if she thought fit; or to keep it on, as expressing her modesty; or just as she pleased, when she by them was espoused to a man, for whose sake she was made; which sense, after Dr. Lightfoot, many learned men have given into, and seems probable.


    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 2-16 - Here begin particulars respecting the public assemblies, ch. 1Co 14. I the abundance of spiritual gifts bestowed on the Corinthians, some abuses had crept in; but as Christ did the will, and sought the honou of God, so the Christian should avow his subjection to Christ, doin his will and seeking his glory. We should, even in our dress and habit avoid every thing that may dishonour Christ. The woman was made subjec to man, because made for his help and comfort. And she should d nothing, in Christian assemblies, which looked like a claim of being equal. She ought to have "power," that is, a veil, on her head, becaus of the angels. Their presence should keep Christians from all that is wrong while in the worship of God. Nevertheless, the man and the woma were made for one another. They were to be mutual comforts an blessings, not one a slave, and the other a tyrant. God has so settle matters, both in the kingdom of providence and that of grace, that the authority and subjection of each party should be for mutual help an benefit. It was the common usage of the churches, for women to appea in public assemblies, and join in public worship, veiled; and it wa right that they should do so. The Christian religion sanctions nationa customs wherever these are not against the great principles of trut and holiness; affected singularities receive no countenance from an thing in the Bible.


    Greek Textus Receptus


    δια
    1223 PREP τουτο 5124 D-ASN οφειλει 3784 5719 V-PAI-3S η 3588 T-NSF γυνη 1135 N-NSF εξουσιαν 1849 N-ASF εχειν 2192 5721 V-PAN επι 1909 PREP της 3588 T-GSF κεφαλης 2776 N-GSF δια 1223 PREP τους 3588 T-APM αγγελους 32 N-APM

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    10.
    Power on her head (exousian). Not in the primary sense of liberty or permission, but authority. Used here of the symbol of power, i.e., the covering upon the head as a sign of her husband's authority. So Rev., a sign of authority.

    Because of the angels. The holy angels, who were supposed by both the Jewish and the early Christian Church to be present in worshipping assemblies. More, however, seems to be meant than "to avoid exciting disapproval among them." The key-note of Paul's thought is subordination according to the original divine order. Woman best asserts her spiritual equality before God, not by unsexing herself, but by recognizing her true position and fulfilling its claims, even as do the angels, who are ministering as well as worshipping spirits (Heb. i. 4). She is to fall in obediently with that divine economy of which she forms a part with the angels, and not to break the divine harmony, which especially asserts itself in worship, where the angelic ministers mingle with the earthly worshippers; nor to ignore the example of the holy ones who keep their first estate, and serve in the heavenly sanctuary. 116


    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    11:10 {Ought} (ofeilei). Moral obligation therefore (dia touto, rests on woman in the matter of dress that does not (ouk ofeilei in verse #7) rest on the man. {To have a sign of authority} (exousian ecein). He means semeion exousias (symbol of authority) by exousian, but it is the sign of authority of the man over the woman. The veil on the woman's head is the symbol of the authority that the man with the uncovered head has over her. It is, as we see it, more a sign of subjection (hypotages, #1Ti 2:10) than of authority (exousias). {Because of the angels} (dia tous aggelous). this startling phrase has caused all kinds of conjecture which may be dismissed. It is not preachers that Paul has in mind, nor evil angels who could be tempted (#Ge 6:1f.), but angels present in worship (cf. #1Co 4:9; Ps 138:1) who would be shocked at the conduct of the women since the angels themselves veil their faces before Jehovah (#Isa 6:2).


    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34

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