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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Mark 7:4

    CHAPTERS: Mark 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16     

    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37




    King James Bible - Mark 7:4

    And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables.

    World English Bible

    They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of
    cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.)

    Douay-Rheims - Mark 7:4

    And when they come from the market, unless they be washed, they eat not: and many other things there are that have been delivered to them to observe, the washings of
    cups and of pots, and of brazen vessels, and of beds.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there are, which they have received to hold, as the washing of
    cups, and pots, and of brazen vessels, and tables.

    Greek Textus Receptus

    2532 CONJ απο 575 PREP αγορας 58 N-GSF εαν 1437 COND μη 3361 PRT-N βαπτισωνται 907 5672 V-AMS-3P ουκ 3756 PRT-N εσθιουσιν 2068 5719 V-PAI-3P και 2532 CONJ αλλα 243 A-NPN πολλα 4183 A-NPN εστιν 2076 5748 V-PXI-3S α 3739 R-APN παρελαβον 3880 5627 V-2AAI-3P κρατειν 2902 5721 V-PAN βαπτισμους 909 N-APM ποτηριων 4221 N-GPN και 2532 CONJ ξεστων 3582 N-GPM και 2532 CONJ χαλκιων 5473 N-GPN και 2532 CONJ κλινων 2825 N-GPF

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (4) -
    Job 9:30,31 Ps 26:6 Isa 1:16 Jer 4:14 Mt 27:24 Lu 11:38,39

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 7:4

    Y volviendo de la plaza, si no se lavaren, no comen. Y muchas otras cosas hay, que tomaron para guardar, como las lavaduras de los vasos de beber , y de los jarros, y de los vasos de metal, y de los lechos.)

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Mark 7:4

    Verse 4. And when they come] This clause is added by our translators, to
    fill up the sense; but it was probably a part of the original: for ean elqwsi is the reading of the Codex Bezae, Vulgate, Armenian, and most of the Itala. The clause in my old MS. Bible is read thus: And thei turninge agein fro chepinge. The words seem essentially necessary to a proper understanding of the text; and, if not admitted on the above authority, they must be supplied in italics, as in our common translation.

    Except they wash] Or dip; for baptiswntai may mean either. But instead of the word in the text, the famous Codex Vaticanus; (B,) eight others, and Euthymius, have pantiswntai, sprinkle. However, the Jews sometimes washed their hands previously to their eating: at other times, they simply dipped or plunged them into the water.

    Of cups] pothriwn; any kind of earthen vessels.

    Pots] Of measures-xestwn, from the singular xesthv, a measure for liquids, formed from the Latin sextarius, equal to a pint and a half English. See this proved by Wetstein on this place. My old MS. renders it cruetis.

    Of brazen vessels] calkiwn. These, if polluted, were only to be washed, or passed through the fire; whereas the earthen vessels were to be broken.

    And of tables.] Beds, couches-kai klinwn. This is wanting in BL, two others, and the Coptic. It is likely it means no more than the forms, or seats, on which they sat to eat. A bed or a couch was defiled, if any unclean person sat or leaned on it-a man with an issue-a leper-a woman with child, &c. As the word baptismouv, baptisms, is applied to all these, and as it is contended that this word, and the verb whence it is derived, signify dipping or immersion alone, its use in the above cases refutes that opinion and shows that it was used, not only to express dipping or immersion, but also sprinkling and washing. The cups and pots were washed; the beds and forms perhaps sprinkled; and the hands dipped up to the wrist.

    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 4. And when they come from the market , etc..] In Beza's most ancient copy, and in one of Stephens's, it is read as we supply, when they come: wherefore this respects not things bought in the market, a sense favoured by all the Oriental versions, for many of them could not be washed; but the persons of the Scribes and Pharisees, who when they came from market, or from any court of judicature, immersed themselves all over in water, according to the true sense of the word baptizw , here used: for, if the Pharisees touched but the garments of the common people, they were defiled, all one as if they had touched a profluvious person, hlybj kyr x w , and needed immersion; and were obliged to it f140 : hence, when they walked the streets, they walked on the sides of the way, that they might not be defiled by touching the common people f141 : wherefore, except they wash, they eat not , or immerse themselves in water, as well as used, ydy tlybj , immersion of the hands, or washing of the hands by immersion; and which, if only intended, is sufficient to support the primary sense of the word, baptizo: and, many other things there be which they have received to hold ; by tradition from their elders; as the washing of cups and pots, brazen, vessels, and of tables : and here the word baptismov , baptism, is rightly used in its proper and primary signification; for all these things were, according to the traditions of the elders, washed by immersion: in a laver, (they say f142 ) which holds forty seahs of water, which are not drawn, every defiled man dips himself, except a profluvious man; and in it yamjh ylkh lk ta ylybjm , they dip all unclean vessels; as cups, pots, and brazen vessels: very particularly brazen vessels are mentioned, because earthen ones that were unclean, were to be broken f143 ; which were all washed before eaten in, even on a sabbath day, and that by dipping f144 : dishes, in which they eat at evening, (i.e. of the sabbath,) they wash them, to eat in in the morning; in the morning they wash them, to eat in at noon; at noon they wash them, to eat in at the minchah; and from the minchah, and forward, they do not wash again: but cups, and jugs, and pots they wash, and it goes through all the day; for there is no fixed time for drinking.

    All such vessels, whether had of a Gentile, or an Israelite, or even a wise man, were to be immersed before used f145 . He that buys a vessel for the use of a feast, of Gentiles, whether molten vessels, or glass vessels lybjm , they dip them, in the waters of the laver; and after that they may eat and drink in them: and such as they use for cold things, as cups, and pots, and jugs, they wash them, lybjmw , and dip them, and they are free for use: and such as they use for hot things, as cauldrons and kettles, (brazen vessels,) they heat them with hot water, and scour them, lybjmw , and immerse them, and they are fit to be used: and things which they use at the fire, as spits and gridirons, they heat them in the fire till the crust (the covering of rust, or dirt) falls off, lybjmw , and dip them, and they may be lawfully made use of. This is the immersion with which they immerse vessels for a feast, bought of Gentiles; and after that they are free for eating and drinking; for the business of uncleanness and purification is only from the words of the Scribes and none are obliged to this immersion, but molten vessels for a feast, bought of Gentiles; but if he borrows of Gentiles, or a Gentile leaves in pawn molten vessels, (made of cast brass, or iron,) he washes, or boils, or heats in the fire, but need not immerse them; and so if he buys vessels of wood, or vessels of stone, he washes, or boils them, but need not dip them; and so earthen vessels need not be immersed; but those that are covered with lead, are as molten vessels, hlybj ykyr x w , and need immersion.

    And not only such that were bought of Gentiles, but even that were made by Jews, and scholars too, were to be immersed in water. Vessels, (they say f146 ,) that are finished in purity, even though a disciple of a wise man makes them, care is to be taken about them, lo! these ought to be immersed: and also tables, at which they eat; and because their posture at them were lying, reclining, or leaning: hence the word klinwn , is used for them here: these were capable of defilement in a ceremonial sense, according to the traditions of the Jews: one of their rules is this f147 ; every vessel of wood, which is made for the use of vessels, and of men, as, j lw h , a table, a bed, etc.. receive defilement.

    And there were several sorts of tables, which, by their laws, were unclean, or might be defiled by the touch of unclean persons, or things: so they say f148 , a table, and sideboard, which are made less, or covered with marble, if there is a space left, in which cups may be set, they may be defiled. R. Judah says, if a space is left, in which may be put pieces, i.e. of bread or flesh: a table of which the first of its feet is taken away is clean; if the second is taken away it is clean; if the third is taken away it may be defiled.

    Again f149 , every vessel of wood, that is divided into two parts, is, clean, excepting a double table, etc.., i.e. a table which consisted of various parts, and were folded together when it was removed: and these were washed by covering them in water; and very nice they were in washing them, that the water might reach every part, and that they might be covered all over; that there might be nothing which might separate between them and the water, and hinder its coming to them: as for instance, pitch being upon a table, whether within or without, divided between that and the water; and when this was the case, it was not rightly washed f150 : but to washing tables by immersion, there is no objection; wherefore, to perplex this matter, and give further trouble, it is insisted on that the word should be rendered beds; and it must be owned that it is so rendered in the Syriac, Persic, and Ethiopic versions, (in the Arabic version the clause is omitted,) and in many modern translations: and we are contented it should be so rendered.

    And these beds design either the couches they lay, or leaned upon at meals; or the beds they slept in at nights: these were capable of being polluted, in a ceremonial sense; for of such pollution, and such washing, are we to understand these traditions: for those things regard not the bare washing of them when naturally unclean, when they ought to be washed; and it is the custom of all people to wash them when this is the case. A bed, and bedstead, are capable of such pollution as soon as they are shaved with a fish skin, or are completed without polishing f151 ; that is, as soon as they are finished; and there are several ways by which they are defiled. A bed is defiled, tm amj , by one that is defiled with the dead f152 ; that is, who has touched a dead body, and he sits upon the bed, or touches it, he defiles it. Again, a bed that is made to lie upon, is defiled, s rdm , by treading f153 ; that is, it is defiled if a man, or a woman, that has a gonorrhoea, or a menstruous woman, or one in childbirth, or a leper, should sit, stand; lie, hang, or lean upon it; yea, if any thing should touch it, which has been touched by any of these. Also, a bed which is not made for to lie upon, but to lay a dead body on, is defiled in the same way; and so are even the pillow and bolster f154 . Now these were to be washed when they had received any defilement, and that by immersion. Their canons run thus: hjm , a bed, that is wholly defiled, if hlybjh , he dips it, part by part, it is pure f155 ; again f156 , hjmh ta wb lybjh , if he dips the bed in it, (the pool of water,) although its feet are plunged into the thick clay (at the bottom of the pool), it is clean.

    If it should be insisted upon, that it ought to be shown and proved, that the very bolsters and pillows on which they lay and leaned, were washed in this way, we are able to do it: yt s khw rkh , a pillow, or a bolster of skin, when a man lifts up the ends, or mouths of them, out of the water, the water which is within them will be drawn; what shall he do? lybjm , he must dip them, and lift them up by their fringes f157 .

    In short, it is a rule with the Jews, that wheresoever, in the law, washing of the flesh, or of clothes, is mentioned, it means nothing else than the dipping of the whole body in water for if any man wash himself all over, except the top of his little finger, he is still in his uncleanness f158 .

    So that the evangelist uses the words baptizw and baptismov , most properly, without departing from their primary and literal sense; nor could he have used words more appropriate and fit. Various rules, concerning these things, may be seen in the treatises Celim and Mikvaot. Hence it appears, with what little show of reason, and to what a vain purpose this passage is so often appealed to, to lessen the sense of the word baptizw , baptizo; as if it did not signify to dip, but a sort of washing, short of dipping; though what that washing is, is not easy to say, since vessels and clothes are in common washed by putting them into water, and covering them with it: this passage therefore is of no service to those who plead for sprinkling, or pouring water in baptism, in opposition to immersion; nor of any disservice, but of real use to those who practise immersion, and must confirm them in it. Nor need they have recourse to a various reading, which one of the manuscripts in the Bodleian Library furnishes with, which is, unless they are sprinkled; which reading must be wrong, not only because, contrary to all other copies, but also to the usages of the Jews in the washing of themselves.

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 1-13 - One great design of Christ's coming was, to set aside the ceremonia law; and to make way for this, he rejects the ceremonies men added to the law of God's making. Those clean hands and that pure heart whic Christ bestows on his disciples, and requires of them, are very different from the outward and superstitious forms of Pharisees of every age. Jesus reproves them for rejecting the commandment of God. It is clear that it is the duty of children, if their parents are poor, to relieve them as far as they are able; and if children deserve to di that curse their parents, much more those that starve them. But if man conformed to the traditions of the Pharisees, they found a devic to free him from the claim of this duty.

    Greek Textus Receptus

    2532 CONJ απο 575 PREP αγορας 58 N-GSF εαν 1437 COND μη 3361 PRT-N βαπτισωνται 907 5672 V-AMS-3P ουκ 3756 PRT-N εσθιουσιν 2068 5719 V-PAI-3P και 2532 CONJ αλλα 243 A-NPN πολλα 4183 A-NPN εστιν 2076 5748 V-PXI-3S α 3739 R-APN παρελαβον 3880 5627 V-2AAI-3P κρατειν 2902 5721 V-PAN βαπτισμους 909 N-APM ποτηριων 4221 N-GPN και 2532 CONJ ξεστων 3582 N-GPM και 2532 CONJ χαλκιων 5473 N-GPN και 2532 CONJ κλινων 2825 N-GPF

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    Wash themselves (baptiswntai). Two of the most important manuscripts, however, read rJantiswntai, sprinkled themselves. See Rev., in margin. This reading is adopted by Westcott and Hort. The American Revisers insist on bathe, instead of wash, already used as a translation of niywntai (verse 3). The scope of this work does not admit of our going into the endless controversy to which this word has given rise. It will be sufficient to give the principal facts concerning its meaning and usage.

    In classical Greek the primary meaning is to merse. Thus Polybius (i., 51, 6), describing a naval battle of the Romans and Carthaginians, says, "They sank (ebaptizon) many of the ships." Josephos ("Jewish War," iv., 3, 3), says of the crowds which flocked into Jerusalem at the time of the siege, " They overwhelmed (ebaptisan) the city." In a metaphorical sense Plato uses it of drunkenness: drowned in drink (bebaptismenoi, "Symposium," 176); of a youth overwhelmed (baptizomenon) with the argument of his adversary ("Euthydemus," 277).

    In the Septuagint the verb occurs four times: Isa. xxi. 4, Terror hath frighted me. Septuagint, Iniquity baptizes me (baptizei); 2 Kings v. 15, of Naaman's dipping himself in Jordan (ebaptisato); Judith xii. 7, Judith washing herself (ebaptizeto) at the fountain; Sirach xxxi. 25, being baptized (baptizomenov) from a dead body.

    The New Testament use of the word to denote submersion for a religious purpose, may be traced back to the Levitical washings. See Lev. xi. 32 (of vessels); xi. 40 (of clothes); Num. viii. 6, 7 (sprinkling with purifying water); Exod. xxx. 19, 21 (of washing hands and feet). The word appears to have been at that time the technical term for such washings (compare Luke xi. 38; Heb. ix. 10; Mark vii. 4), and could not therefore have been limited to the meaning immerse. Thus the washing of pots and vessels for ceremonial purification could not have been by plunging them in water, which would have rendered impure the whole body of purifying water. The word may be taken in the sense of washing or sprinkling.

    "The Teaching of the Apostles" (see on Matt. x. 10) throws light on the elastic interpretation of the term, in its directions for baptism. "Baptize - in living (i.e., running) water. But if thou hast not living water, baptize in other water; and if thou canst not in cold, then in warm. But if thou hast neither, pour water upon the head thrice into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit " (Chapter 7.). Pots (xestwn). Another of Mark's Latin words, adapted from the Latin sextarius, a pint measure. Wyc., cruets. Tynd., cruses.

    Brazen vessels (calkiwn). More literally, copper.

    Tables (klinwn). Omitted in some of the best manuscripts and texts, and by Rev. The A.V. is a mistranslation, the word meaning couches. If this belongs in the text, we certainly cannot explain baptismouv as immersion.

    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    7:4 {From the marketplace} (ap' agoras). Ceremonial defilement was inevitable in the mixing with men in public. this agora from ageirw to collect or gather, was a public forum in every town where the people gathered like the courthouse square in American towns. The disciples were already ceremonially defiled. {Wash themselves} (baptiswntai). First aorist middle subjunctive of baptizw, dip or immerse. Westcott and Hort put rantiswntai in the text translated "sprinkle themselves" in the margin of the Revised Version, because Aleph, B, and some of the best cursives have it. Gould terms rantiswntai "a manifest emendation," to get rid of the difficulty of dipping or bathing the whole body. Meyer says: "The statement proceeds by way of climax: before eating they wash the hands always. When they come from market they take a bath before eating." this is not the place to enter into any controversy about the meaning of baptizw, to dip, rantizw, to sprinkle, and eccew, to pour, all used in the New Testament. The words have their distinctive meanings here as elsewhere. Some scribes felt a difficulty about the use of baptiswntai here. The Western and Syrian classes of manuscripts add "and couches" (kai klinwn) at the end of the sentence. Swete considers the immersions of beds (baptismous klinwn) "an incongruous combination." But Gould says: "Edersheim shows that the Jewish ordinance required immersions, baptismous, of these vessels." We must let the Jewish scrupulosity stand for itself, though "and couches" is not supported by Aleph, B L D Bohairic, probably not genuine.

    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37


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