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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Matthew 3:7


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    King James Bible - Matthew 3:7

    But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

    World English Bible

    But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for his baptism, he said to them, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

    Douay-Rheims - Matthew 3:7

    And seeing many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them: Ye brood of vipers, who hath shewed you to flee from the wrath to come?

    Webster's Bible Translation

    But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said to them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

    Greek Textus Receptus


    ιδων
    1492 5631 V-2AAP-NSM δε 1161 CONJ πολλους 4183 A-APM των 3588 T-GPM φαρισαιων 5330 N-GPM και 2532 CONJ σαδδουκαιων 4523 N-GPM ερχομενους 2064 5740 V-PNP-APM επι 1909 PREP το 3588 T-ASN βαπτισμα 908 N-ASN αυτου 846 P-GSM ειπεν 2036 5627 V-2AAI-3S αυτοις 846 P-DPM γεννηματα 1081 N-VPN εχιδνων 2191 N-GPF τις 5101 I-NSM υπεδειξεν 5263 5656 V-AAI-3S υμιν 5213 P-2DP φυγειν 5343 5629 V-2AAN απο 575 PREP της 3588 T-GSF μελλουσης 3195 5723 V-PAP-GSF οργης 3709 N-GSF

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (7) -
    Mt 5:20; 12:24; 15:12; 16:6,11,12; 22:15,23,34; 23:13 *etc:

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 3:7

    ¶ Y viendo l muchos de los fariseos y de los saduceos, que venían a su bautismo, les decía: Generacin de víboras, ¿quin os ha enseado a huir de la ira que vendr?

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Matthew 3:7

    Verse 7.
    Pharisees] A very numerous sect among the Jews, who, in their origin, were, very probably, a pure and holy people. It is likely that they got the name of Pharisees, i.e. Separatists, (from rp pharash, to separate,) from their separating themselves from the pollution of the Jewish national worship; and hence, the word in the Anglo-saxon version is , holy persons who stand apart, or by themselves: but, in process of time, like all religious sects and parties, they degenerated: they lost the spirit of their institution, they ceased to recur to first principles, and had only the form of godliness, when Jesus Christ preached in Judea; for he bore witness, that they did make the outside of the cup and platter clean-they observed the rules of their institution, but the spirit was gone.

    Sadducees] A sect who denied the existence of angels and spirits, consequently all Divine influence and inspiration, and also the resurrection of the dead. The Sadducees of that time were the Materialists and Deists of the Jewish nation. When the sect of the Pharisees arose cannot be distinctly ascertained; but it is supposed to have been some time after the Babylonish captivity. The sect of the Sadducees were the followers of one Sadok, a disciple of Antigonus Sochaeus, who flourished about three centuries before Christ. There was a third sect among the Jews, called the Essenes or Essenians, of whom I shall have occasion to speak on Matthew xix. 12.

    Come to his baptism] The AEthiopic version adds the word privately here, the translator probably having read laqra in his copy, which gives a very remarkable turn to the passage. The multitudes, who had no worldly interest to support, no character to maintain by living in their usual way, came publicly, and openly acknowledged that they were SINNERS; and stood in need of mercy. The others, who endeavoured to secure their worldly interests by making a fair show in the flesh, are supposed to have come privately, that they might not be exposed to reproach; and that they might not lose their reputation for wisdom and sanctity, which their consciences, under the preaching of the Baptist, told them they had no right to. See below.

    O generation of vipers] gennhmata ecidnwn. A terribly expressive speech. A serpentine brood, from a serpentine stock. As their fathers were, so were they, children of the wicked one. This is God's estimate of a SINNER, whether he wade in wealth, or soar in fame. The Jews were the seed of the serpent, who should bruise the heel of the woman's seed, and whose head should be bruised by him.

    Who hath warned you] Or, privately shown you. tiv epedixen- from upo, under, and deiknumai, to show. Does not this seem to allude to the reading of the AEthiopic noticed above? They came privately: and John may be supposed to address them thus: "Did any person give you a private warning? No, you received your convictions under the public ministry of the word. The multitudes of the poor and wretched, who have been convinced of sin, have publicly acknowledged their crimes, and sought mercy-God will unmask you-you have deceived the people-you have deceived yourselves-you must appear just what you are; and, if you expect mercy from God, act like the penitent multitude, and bring forth FRUIT worthy of repentance. Do not begin to trifle with your convictions, by thinking, that because you are descendants of Abraham, therefore you are entitled to God's favour; God can, out of these stones (pointing probably to those scattered about in the desert, which he appears to have considered as an emblem of the Gentiles) raise up a faithful seed, who, though not natural descendants of your excellent patriarch, yet shall be his worthy children, as being partakers of his faith, and friends of his God." It should be added, that the Greek word also signifies plain or ample information. See on Luke vi. 47.

    The wrath to come?] The desolation which was about to fall on the Jewish nation for their wickedness, and threatened in the last words of their own Scriptures. See Mal. iv. 6. Lest I come and smite the earth rah ta (et ha-arets, this very land) with a curse. This wrath or curse was coming: they did not prevent it by turning to God, and receiving the Messiah, and therefore the wrath of God came upon them to the uttermost. Let him that readeth understand.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 7. But when he saw many of the Pharisees , etc.] This being the first place in which mention is made of the Pharisees and Sadducees, it may not be amiss to give some account of them once for all, and to begin with the Pharisees, and first with their name. Some derive this word from Urp pharatz to divide, to make a breach, from whence Phares had his name ( Genesis 38:29) so Jerom f164 , who observes, that the Pharisees, who separated themselves from the people as righteous persons, were called divisi, the divided. And in another place, because the Pharisees were divided from the Jews on account of some superfluous observations, they also took their name from their disagreement.

    Origen seems to refer to this etymology of the word, when he says, the Pharisees, according to their name, were dihrhmenoi tinev kai stasiwdeiv , certain divided and seditious persons.

    And true it is, that this sect often meddled with the affairs of the government, and were very ambitious of being concerned therein. Josephus observes of queen Alexandra, that she governed others, and the Pharisees governed her; hence, though they were in great esteem with the people, they were rather dreaded than loved by the government. Others derive this name from rp Pharas to expand, or stretch out; either because they made broad their phylacteries, and enlarged the borders of their garments; or because they exposed themselves to public notice, did all they could to be seen of men, prayed in the corners of the streets, had a trumpet blown before them when they gave alms, chose the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues, greetings in the markets, and to be called of men Rabbi: all which to be sure are their just characters. Others derive it from the same word, as signifying to explain or expound; because it was one part of their work, and in which they excelled, to expound the law; but this cannot be the reason of their general name, because there were women Pharisees as well as men, who cannot be thought to be employed in that work. The more generally received opinion is, that this name is taken from the above word, as signifying to separate; because they separated themselves from the men and manners of the world, to the study of the law, and to a greater degree of holiness, at least in pretence, than other persons. They were strict observers of the traditions of the elders; are said, to hold both fate and free will; they owned the resurrection of the dead, and that there were angels and spirits, in which they differed from the Sadducees. Or rather they have their name from srp , which signifies a reward; they being stiff defenders of the doctrine of rewards and punishments in a future state, which the Sadducees denied.

    The Talmudic writers say, there were seven sorts of them, and if it would not be too tedious to the reader, I would give the names of them; and the rather, because some of them seem to tally with the complexion and conduct of the Pharisees mentioned in the scriptures. There were then, 1. ymky wrp the Shechemite Pharisee, who does as Shechem did; is circumcised, not on Gods account, or for his glory, or because circumcision is a command of his, but for his own profit and advantage, and that he may get honour from men. 2. ypqyn wrp the dashing Pharisee; who walks gently, the heel of one foot touching the great toe of the other; and scarce lifts up his feet from the earth, so that he dashes them against the stones, and would be thought hereby to be in deep meditation. 3. yazyq wrp the Pharisee letting blood; who makes as if he shut his eyes, that he may not look upon women, and so runs and dashes his head against the wall, till the blood gushes out, as though a vein was opened. 4. aykwdm wrp the depressed Pharisee; who went double, or bowed down, or as others render the phrase, the mortar Pharisee; either because he wore a garment like a mortar, with the mouth turned downwards; or a hat resembling such a vessel; so that he could not look upward, nor on either side, only downward, or right forward. 5. hn[aw ytbwj hm wrp the Pharisee, that said, what is my duty and I will do it? the gloss upon it is, teach me what is my duty, and I will do it: Lo! this is his excellency, if he is not expert in the prohibitions and niceties of the commands, and comes to learn; or thus, what is more to be done and I have not done it? so that he shows himself, or would appear as if he had performed all. 6. hary wrp the Pharisee of fear; who does what he does from fear of punishment. 7. hbha wrp the Pharisee of love; who does what he does from love; which the gloss explains thus: for the love of the reward of the commandment, and not for the love of the commandment of his Creator; though they say of all these there is none to be beloved, but the Pharisee of love.

    When this sect first began, and who was the first author of it, is not easy to say; it is certain there were great numbers of them in the times of John the Baptist, and of Christ, and for some time after. The Jews say f169 , that when the temple was destroyed the second time, the Pharisees increased in Israel.

    Next let us consider the Sadducees, who they were, and from whence they sprung. These have their name not from qydx Saddik righteous f170 , or qdx Sedek righteousness, being self justitiaries; for though they were, yet this would not have distinguished them from the Pharisees, who were likewise such; but from qwdx Sadok or Saduk, a disciple of Antigonus, a man of Socho f171 . The occasion of this new sect was this; Antigonus, among the instructions he gave to his scholars, had this saying; be not as servants who serve their master for the sake of reward; but be ye as servants that serve their master not for the sake of reward, and let the fear of God be upon you.

    Which, when Sadok and a fellow scholar, whose name was Baithos, or Baithus, heard, not rightly understanding him, concluded that there was no future state of rewards and punishments; which notion they broached and had their followers, who from the one were called Sadducees, and sometimes from the other Baithuseans: these men held the Scriptures only, rejecting the traditions of the elders; they denied fate, and ascribed all to free will; they affirmed that there is no resurrection of the dead; that the soul dies with the body; that there is no future state after this life, and that there are neither angels nor spirits. Now when John saw or observed many of both these sects come to his baptism; not merely to see it administered, led thither by the novelty of the thing; but to submit to it, to which they might be induced by that very great character of a very holy good man, which John had got among the people; and they were desirous of being thought so too, and therefore desired to be baptized by him; but he knowing the men and their manners, said unto them ; addressed them in a very severe style, quite contrary to their expectation, and the opinion the people had of them, O generation of vipers! It seems their parents before them were vipers, and they their offspring were like them, in hypocrisy and malice. The viper appears very beautiful outwardly, but is full of poison; it looks harmless and innocent, as if it neither could nor would do any hurt, its teeth being hid, but is a most deadly and hurtful creature: so these men, though they made specious pretences to religion and holiness, yet were full of the deadly poison of hypocrisy, malice, and error. A very disagreeable salutation this must be to men, who were desirous of being reckoned very religious, and who boasted of, and trusted in, their being the seed of Abraham; when they were the children of the devil, the seed of the old serpent, and the offspring of the worst of men, and in whom was verified the proverb, like father like son. John proceeds and asks, saying, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? who has suggested this to you? from whom have ye received this hint? who has pointed out the way to you to escape divine vengeance, or the ruin which will quickly come upon you? for by wrath to come is not meant hell fire, everlasting destruction, from which baptism could not save them; but temporal calamity and destruction, the wrath which in a little time came upon that nation to the uttermost, for rejecting the Messiah, and the Gospel dispensation; from which they might have been saved, had they given credit to Jesus as the Messiah, though only with a bare assent; and had they entered into the kingdom of heaven, or Messiah, the Gospel dispensation, by receiving its doctrines, and submitting to its ordinances, though only externally.


    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 7-12 - To make application to the souls of the hearers, is the life of preaching; so it was of John's preaching. The Pharisees laid their chief stress on outward observances, neglecting the weightier matter of the moral law, and the spiritual meaning of their legal ceremonies Others of them were detestable hypocrites, making their pretences to holiness a cloak for iniquity. The Sadducees ran into the opposit extreme, denying the existence of spirits, and a future state. The were the scornful infidels of that time and country. There is a wrat to come. It is the great concern of every one to flee from that wrath God, who delights not in our ruin, has warned us; he warns by the written word, by ministers, by conscience. And those are not worthy of the name of penitents, or their privileges, who say they are sorry for their sins, yet persist in them. It becomes penitents to be humble an low in their own eyes, to be thankful for the least mercy, patien under the greatest affliction, to be watchful against all appearance of sin, to abound in every duty, and to be charitable in judgin others. Here is a word of caution, not to trust in outward privileges There is a great deal which carnal hearts are apt to say withi themselves, to put aside the convincing, commanding power of the wor of God. Multitudes, by resting in the honours and mere advantages of their being members of an outward church, come short of heaven. Here in a word of terror to the careless and secure. Our corrupt hearts cannot be made to produce good fruit, unless the regenerating Spirit of Chris graft the good word of God upon them. And every tree, however high i gifts and honours, however green in outward professions an performances, if it bring not forth good fruit, the fruits meet for repentance, is hewn down and cast into the fire of God's wrath, the fittest place for barren trees: what else are they good for? If not fi for fruit, they are fit for fuel. John shows the design and intentio of Christ's appearing, which they were now speedily to expect. N outward forms can make us clean. No ordinances, by whomsoeve administered, or after whatever mode, can supply the want of the baptism of the Holy Ghost and of fire. The purifying and cleansin power of the Holy Spirit alone can produce that purity of heart, an those holy affections, which accompany salvation. It is Christ wh baptizes with the Holy Ghost. This he did in the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit sent upon the apostles, Ac 2:4. This he does in the grace and comforts of the Spirit, given to those that ask him, Lu 11:13; Jo 7:38, 39; see Ac 11:16. Observe here, the outward church is Christ' floor, Isa 21:10. True believers are as wheat, substantial, useful, an valuable; hypocrites are as chaff, light and empty, useless an worthless, carried about with every wind; these are mixed, good an bad, in the same outward communion. There is a day coming when the wheat and chaff shall be separated. The last judgment will be the distinguishing day, when saints and sinners shall be parted for ever In heaven the saints are brought together, and no longer scattered they are safe, and no longer exposed; separated from corrupt neighbour without, and corrupt affections within, and there is no chaff amon them. Hell is the unquenchable fire, which will certainly be the portion and punishment of hypocrites and unbelievers. Here life an death, good and evil, are set before us: according as we now are in the field, we shall be then in the floor.


    Greek Textus Receptus


    ιδων
    1492 5631 V-2AAP-NSM δε 1161 CONJ πολλους 4183 A-APM των 3588 T-GPM φαρισαιων 5330 N-GPM και 2532 CONJ σαδδουκαιων 4523 N-GPM ερχομενους 2064 5740 V-PNP-APM επι 1909 PREP το 3588 T-ASN βαπτισμα 908 N-ASN αυτου 846 P-GSM ειπεν 2036 5627 V-2AAI-3S αυτοις 846 P-DPM γεννηματα 1081 N-VPN εχιδνων 2191 N-GPF τις 5101 I-NSM υπεδειξεν 5263 5656 V-AAI-3S υμιν 5213 P-2DP φυγειν 5343 5629 V-2AAN απο 575 PREP της 3588 T-GSF μελλουσης 3195 5723 V-PAP-GSF οργης 3709 N-GSF

    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    3:7 {The
    Pharisees and Sadducees} (twn farisaiwn kai saddoukaiwn). These two rival parties do not often unite in common action, but do again in #Mt 16:1. "Here a strong attraction, there a strong repulsion, made them for the moment forget their differences" (McNeile). John saw these rival ecclesiastics "coming for baptism" (erchomenous epi to baptisma). Alford speaks of "the Pharisees representing hypocritical superstition; the Sadducees carnal unbelief." One cannot properly understand the theological atmosphere of Palestine at this time without an adequate knowledge of both Pharisees and Sadducees. The books are numerous besides articles in the Bible dictionaries. I have pictured the Pharisees in my first (1916) Stone Lectures, _The Pharisees and Jesus_. John clearly grasped the significance of this movement on the part of the Pharisees and Sadducees who had followed the crowds to the Jordan. He had welcomed the multitudes, but right in the presence of the crowds he exposes the hypocrisy of the ecclesiastics. {Ye offspring of vipers} (gennemata ecidnwn). Jesus (#Mt 12:34; 23:33) will use the same language to the Pharisees. Broods of snakes were often seen by John in the rocks and when a fire broke out they would scurry (phugein) to their holes for safety. "The coming wrath" was not just for Gentiles as the Jews supposed, but for all who were not prepared for the kingdom of heaven (#1Th 1:10). No doubt the Pharisees and Sadducees winced under the sting of this powerful indictment.


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