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  • PARALLEL HISTORY BIBLE - Isaiah 33:5


    CHAPTERS: Isaiah 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66     
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24

    TEXT: BIB   |   AUDIO: MISLR - MISC - DAVIS   |   VIDEO: BIB


    ENGLISH - HISTORY - INTERNATIONAL

    HELPS: KJS - KJV - ASV - DBY - DOU - WBS - YLT - HEB - BBE - WEB - NAS - SEV - TSK - CRK - WES - MHC - GILL - JFB

    LXX- Greek Septuagint - Isaiah 33:5

    αγιος 40 ο 3588 3739 θεος 2316 ο 3588 3739 κατοικων 2730 5723 εν 1722 1520 υψηλοις 5308 ενεπλησθη σιων 4622 κρισεως 2920 και 2532 δικαιοσυνης 1343

    Douay Rheims Bible

    The Lord is magnified, for he hath dwelt on
    high: he hath filled Sion with judgment and justice.

    King James Bible - Isaiah 33:5

    The LORD is exalted; for he dwelleth on
    high: he hath filled Zion with judgment and righteousness.

    World English Bible

    Yahweh is exalted, for he dwells on
    high. He has filled Zion with justice and righteousness.

    Early Church Father Links

    Npnf-101 vi.I_1.XVIII Pg 9

    World Wide Bible Resources


    Isaiah 33:5

    Early Christian Commentary - (A.D. 100 - A.D. 325)

    Anf-01 viii.iv.lvi Pg 34
    Gen. xviii. 20–23.

    (and so on,2143

    2143 Comp. Note 2, p. 223.

    for I do not think fit to write over again the same words, having written them all before, but shall of necessity give those by which I established the proof to Trypho and his companions. Then I proceeded to what follows, in which these words are recorded:) “ ‘And the Lord went His way as soon as He had left communing with Abraham; and [Abraham] went to his place. And there came two angels to Sodom at even. And Lot sat in the gate of Sodom;’2144

    2144


    Anf-02 vi.iv.ii.xi Pg 13.1


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxvii Pg 5
    Dan. xii. 4; 7.

    But Jeremiah also says, “In the last days they shall understand these things.”4153

    4153


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxiv Pg 45
    Isa. xi. 8, 9.

    And, indeed, we are aware (without doing violence to the literal sense of the passage, since even these noxious animals have actually been unable to do hurt where there has been faith) that under the figure of scorpions and serpents are portended evil spirits, whose very prince is described4457

    4457 Deputetur.

    by the name of serpent, dragon, and every other most conspicuous beast in the power of the Creator.4458

    4458 Penes Creatorem.

    This power the Creator conferred first of all upon His Christ, even as the ninetieth Psalm says to Him: “Upon the asp and the basilisk shalt Thou tread; the lion and the dragon shalt Thou trample under foot.”4459

    4459


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiii Pg 31
    Isa. xlix. 12.

    Concerning whom He says again: “Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold, all these have gathered themselves together.”3933

    3933


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiii Pg 31
    Isa. xlix. 12.

    Concerning whom He says again: “Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold, all these have gathered themselves together.”3933

    3933


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxxv Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxxv Pg 2
    Ps. xxiv. 7.

    as if it referred likewise to Hezekiah, and others of you [expound it] of Solomon; but neither to the latter nor to the former, nor, in short, to any of your kings, can it be proved to have reference, but to this our Christ alone, who appeared without comeliness, and inglorious, as Isaiah and David and all the Scriptures said; who is the Lord of hosts, by the will of the Father who conferred on Him [the dignity]; who also rose from the dead, and ascended to heaven, as the Psalm and the other Scriptures manifested when they announced Him to be Lord of hosts; and of this you may, if you will, easily be persuaded by the occurrences which take place before your eyes. For every demon, when exorcised in the name of this very Son of God —who is the First-born of every creature, who became man by the Virgin, who suffered, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate by your nation, who died, who rose from the dead, and ascended into heaven —is overcome and subdued. But though you exorcise any demon in the name of any of those who were amongst you—either kings, or righteous men, or prophets, or patriarchs—it will not be subject to you. But if any of you exorcise it in [the name of] the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, it will perhaps be subject to you. Now assuredly your exorcists, I have said,2281

    2281 Chap. lxxvi.

    make use of craft when they exorcise, even as the Gentiles do, and employ fumigations and incantations.2282

    2282 κατάδεσμοι, by some thought to be verses by which evil spirits, once expelled, were kept from returning. Plato (Rep.) speaks of incantations by which demons were summoned to the help of those who practised such rites; but Justin refers to them only as being expelled. Others regard them as drugs.

    But that they are angels and powers whom the word of prophecy by David [commands] to lift up the gates, that He who rose from the dead, Jesus Christ, the Lord of hosts, according to the will of the Father, might enter, the word of David has likewise showed; which I shall again recall to your attention for the sake of those who were not with us yesterday, for whose benefit, moreover, I sum up many things I said yesterday. And now, if I say this to you, although I have repeated it many times, I know that it is not absurd so to do. For it is a ridiculous thing to see the sun, and the moon, and the other stars, continually keeping the same course, and bringing round the different seasons; and to see the computer who may be asked how many are twice two, because he has frequently said that they are four, not ceasing to say again that they are four; and equally so other things, which are confidently admitted, to be continually mentioned and admitted in like manner; yet that he who founds his discourse on the prophetic Scriptures should leave them and abstain from constantly referring to the same Scriptures, because it is thought he can bring forth something better than Scripture. The passage, then, by which I proved that God reveals that there are both angels and hosts in heaven is this: ‘Praise the Lord from the heavens: praise Him in the highest. Praise Him, all His angels: praise Him, all His hosts.’ ”2283

    2283


    Anf-01 viii.ii.li Pg 3
    Ps. xxiv. 7.

    And how also He should come again out of heaven with glory, hear what was spoken in reference to this by the prophet Jeremiah.1874

    1874


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxvii Pg 8
    Ps. xxiv. 7.

    and again, when He says: ‘The Lord says to my Lord, Sit at My right hand, till I make Thine enemies Thy footstool.’2455

    2455


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 89
    Ps. xxiv. 7.

    proclaimed beforehand His resurrection from the dead through the Father’s power, and His reception into heaven. And when they expressed themselves thus, “His going forth is from the height of heaven, and His returning even to the highest heaven; and there is no one who can hide himself from His heat,”4328

    4328


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxvi Pg 4
    Ps. xxiv.

    Accordingly, it is shown that Solomon is not the Lord of hosts; but when our Christ rose from the dead and ascended to heaven, the rulers in heaven, under appointment of God, are commanded to open the gates of heaven, that He who is King of glory may enter in, and having ascended, may sit on the right hand of the Father until He make the enemies His footstool, as has been made manifest by another Psalm. For when the rulers of heaven saw Him of uncomely and dishonoured appearance, and inglorious, not recognising Him, they inquired, ‘Who is this King of glory?’ And the Holy Spirit, either from the person of His Father, or from His own person, answers them, ‘The Lord of hosts, He is this King of glory.’ For every one will confess that not one of those who presided over the gates of the temple at Jerusalem would venture to say concerning Solomon, though he was so glorious a king, or concerning the ark of testimony, ‘Who is this King of glory?’


    Anf-03 v.x.x Pg 9
    Ps. xxiv. 7.

    if you have also heard from Amos, “Who buildeth up to the heavens his way of ascent, and is such as to pour forth his abundance (of waters) over the earth;”8281

    8281 Amos ix. 6.

    know that both that way of ascent was thereafter levelled with the ground, by the footsteps of the Lord, and an entrance thereafter opened up by the might of Christ, and that no delay or inquest will meet Christians on the threshold, since they have there to be not discriminated from one another, but owned, and not put to the question, but received in.  For though you think heaven still shut, remember that the Lord left here to Peter and through him to the Church, the keys of it, which every one who has been here put to the question, and also made confession, will carry with him. But the devil stoutly affirms that we must confess there, to persuade us that we must deny here. I shall send before me fine documents, to be sure,8282

    8282 In support of my cause.

    I shall carry with me excellent keys, the fear of them who kill the body only, but do nought against the soul: I shall be graced by the neglect of this command:  I shall stand with credit in heavenly places, who could not stand in earthly: I shall hold out against the greater powers, who yielded to the lesser:  I shall deserve to be at length let in, though now shut out. It readily occurs to one to remark further, “If it is in heaven that men must confess, it is here too that they must deny.” For where the one is, there both are. For contraries always go together. There will need to be carried on in heaven persecution even, which is the occasion of confession or denial. Why, then, do you refrain, O most presumptuous heretic, from transporting to the world above the whole series of means proper to the intimidation of Christians, and especially to put there the very hatred for the name, where Christ rules at the right hand of the Father? Will you plant there both synagogues of the Jewsfountains of persecution—before which the apostles endured the scourge, and heathen assemblages with their own circus, forsooth, where they readily join in the cry, Death to the third race?8283

    8283 More literally, “How long shall we suffer the third race!”  The Christians are meant; the first race being the heathen, and the second the Jews.—Tr.

    But ye are bound to produce in the same place both our brothers, fathers, children, mothers-in-law, daughters-in-law and those of our household, through whose agency the betrayal has been appointed; likewise kings, governors, and armed authorities, before whom the matter at issue must be contested. Assuredly there will be in heaven a prison also, destitute of the sun’s rays or full of light unthankfully, and fetters of the zones perhaps, and, for a rack-horse, the axis itself which whirls the heavens round. Then, if a Christian is to be stoned, hail-storms will be near; if burned, thunderbolts are at hand; if butchered, the armed Orion will exercise his function; if put an end to by beasts, the north will send forth the bears, the Zodiac the bulls and the lions. He who will endure these assaults to the end, the same shall be saved. Will there be then, in heaven, both an end, and suffering, a killing, and the first confession? And where will be the flesh requisite for all this? Where the body which alone has to be killed by men?  Unerring reason has commanded us to set forth these things in even a playful manner; nor will any one thrust out the bar consisting in this objection (we have offered), so as not to be compelled to transfer the whole array of means proper to persecution, all the powerful instrumentality which has been provided for dealing with this matter, to the place where he has put the court before which confession should be made. Since confession is elicited by persecution, and persecution ended in confession, there cannot but be at the same time, in attendance upon these, the instrumentality which determines both the entrance and the exit, that is, the beginning and the end.  But both hatred for the name will be here, persecution breaks out here, betrayal brings men forth here, examination uses force here, torture rages here, and confession or denial completes this whole course of procedure on the earth. Therefore, if the other things are here, confession also is not elsewhere; if confession is elsewhere, the other things also are not here.  Certainly the other things are not elsewhere; therefore neither is confession in heaven. Or, if they will have it that the manner in which the heavenly examination and confession take place is different, it will certainly be also incumbent on them to devise a mode of procedure of their own of a very different kind, and opposed to that method which is indicated in the Scriptures.  And we may be able to say, Let them consider (whether what they imagine to exist does so), if so be that this course of procedure, proper to examination and confession on earth—a course which has persecution as the source in which it originates, and which pleads dissension in the state—is preserved to its own faith, if so be that we must believe just as is also written, and understand just as is spoken.  Here I endure the entire course (in question), the Lord Himself not appointing a different quarter of the world for my doing so. For what does He add after finishing with confession and denial?  “Think not that I am come to send peace on earth, but a sword,”—undoubtedly on the earth. “For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law. And a man’s foes shall be they of his own household.”8284

    8284


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxxv Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxvi Pg 4
    Ps. xxiv.

    Accordingly, it is shown that Solomon is not the Lord of hosts; but when our Christ rose from the dead and ascended to heaven, the rulers in heaven, under appointment of God, are commanded to open the gates of heaven, that He who is King of glory may enter in, and having ascended, may sit on the right hand of the Father until He make the enemies His footstool, as has been made manifest by another Psalm. For when the rulers of heaven saw Him of uncomely and dishonoured appearance, and inglorious, not recognising Him, they inquired, ‘Who is this King of glory?’ And the Holy Spirit, either from the person of His Father, or from His own person, answers them, ‘The Lord of hosts, He is this King of glory.’ For every one will confess that not one of those who presided over the gates of the temple at Jerusalem would venture to say concerning Solomon, though he was so glorious a king, or concerning the ark of testimony, ‘Who is this King of glory?’


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xvii Pg 14
    Ps. xxiv. 10.

    From Him also is besought “the spirit of wisdom,”5960

    5960


    Anf-01 v.iii.ix Pg 10
    Isa. xxxv. 4.

    <index subject1="Sabbath" subject2="how to be kept" title="62" id="v.iii.ix-p10.2"/>Let us therefore no longer keep the Sabbath after the Jewish manner, and rejoice in days of idleness; for “he that does not work, let him not eat.”688

    688 2 Thess. iii. 10.

    For say the [holy] oracles, “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread.”689

    689


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.x Pg 6
    Isa. xxxv. 4.

    Be strong is not vainly repeated, nor is fear not vainly added; because with the renewal of the limbs there was to be, according to the promise, a restoration also of bodily energies: “Arise, and take up thy couch;” and likewise moral courage3765

    3765 Animi vigorem.

    not to be afraid of those who should say, “Who can forgive sins, but God alone?” So that you have here not only the fulfilment of the prophecy which promised a particular kind of healing, but also of the symptoms which followed the cure.  In like manner, you should also recognise Christ in the same prophet as the forgiver of sins. “For,” he says, “He shall remit to many their sins, and shall Himself take away our sins.”3766

    3766


    Anf-03 iv.ix.ix Pg 70
    See Isa. xxxv. 4, 5, 6.

    and so on; which works not even you deny that Christ did, inasmuch as you were wont to say that, “on account of the works ye stoned Him not, but because He did them on the Sabbaths.”1312

    1312


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 91


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 106


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xiv Pg 14
    Isa. lxi. 1, 2.



    Anf-01 ix.iii.xxiii Pg 3
    Isa. lxi. 2.

    ), being truly blind, inasmuch as they affirm they have found out the mysteries of Bythus, yet not understanding that which is called by Isaiah the acceptable year of the Lord, nor the day of retribution. For the prophet neither speaks concerning a day which includes the space of twelve hours, nor of a year the length of which is twelve months. For even they themselves acknowledge that the prophets have very often expressed themselves in parables and allegories, and [are] not [to be understood] according to the mere sound of the words.


    Anf-01 v.iii.x Pg 7
    Isa. lxii. 2; 12.

    This was first fulfilled in Syria; for “the disciples were called Christians at Antioch,”700

    700


    Anf-02 vi.iv.i.xxi Pg 115.1


    Anf-03 iv.ix.xi Pg 4
    Comp. Isa. lxi. 2.

    which will be subsequent. From which ruin none will be freed but he who shall have been frontally sealed1366

    1366 Or possibly, simply, “sealed”—obsignatus.

    with the passion of the Christ whom you have rejected. For thus it is written: “And the Lord said unto me, Son of man, thou hast seen what the elders of Israel do, each one of them in darkness, each in a hidden bed-chamber: because they have said, The Lord seeth us not; the Lord hath derelinquished the earth. And He said unto me, Turn thee again, and thou shalt see greater enormities which these do. And He introduced me unto the thresholds of the gate of the house of the Lord which looketh unto the north; and, behold, there, women sitting and bewailing Thammuz.  And the Lord said unto me, Son of man, hast thou seen? Is the house of Judah moderate, to do the enormities which they have done? And yet thou art about to see greater affections of theirs. And He introduced me into the inner shrine of the house of the Lord; and, behold, on the thresholds of the house of the Lord, between the midst of the porch and between the midst of the altar,1367

    1367 Inter mediam elam et inter medium altaris: i.e., probably ="between the porch and the altar,” as the Eng. ver. has.

    as it were twenty and five men have turned their backs unto the temple of the Lord, and their faces over against the east; these were adoring the sun. And He said unto me, Seest thou, son of man? Are such deeds trifles to the house of Judah, that they should do the enormities which these have done? because they have filled up (the measure of) their impieties, and, behold, are themselves, as it were, grimacing; I will deal with mine indignation,1368

    1368 So Oehler points, and Tischendorf in his edition of the LXX. points not very differently. I incline to read: “Because they have filled up the measure of their impieties, and, behold (are) themselves, as it were, grimacing, I will,” etc.

    mine eye shall not spare, neither will I pity; they shall cry out unto mine ears with a loud voice, and I will not hear them, nay, I will not pity. And He cried into mine ears with a loud voice, saying, The vengeance of this city is at hand; and each one had vessels of extermination in his hand. And, behold, six men were coming toward the way of the high gate which was looking toward the north, and each one’s double-axe of dispersion was in his hand: and one man in the midst of them, clothed with a garment reaching to the feet,1369

    1369


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiv Pg 38
    Isa. lxi. 2.

    Blessed are they that weep, for they shall laugh.”3970

    3970


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 141


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xxii Pg 7
    Isa. lii. 11.

    For already had the Lord, according to the preceding words (of the prophet), revealed His Holy One with His arm, that is to say, Christ by His mighty power, in the eyes of the nations, so that all the3405

    3405 Universæ.

    nations and the utmost parts of the earth have seen the salvation, which was from God. By thus departing from Judaism itself, when they exchanged the obligations and burdens of the law for the liberty of the gospel, they were fulfilling the psalm, “Let us burst their bonds asunder, and cast away their yoke from us;” and this indeed (they did) after that “the heathen raged, and the people imagined vain devices;” after that “the kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers took their counsel together against the Lord, and against His Christ.”3406

    3406


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xviii Pg 22
    Isa. lii. 11; quoted in 2 Cor. vi. 17.

    (The apostle says further:) “Be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess,”6023

    6023


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 141


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xxii Pg 7
    Isa. lii. 11.

    For already had the Lord, according to the preceding words (of the prophet), revealed His Holy One with His arm, that is to say, Christ by His mighty power, in the eyes of the nations, so that all the3405

    3405 Universæ.

    nations and the utmost parts of the earth have seen the salvation, which was from God. By thus departing from Judaism itself, when they exchanged the obligations and burdens of the law for the liberty of the gospel, they were fulfilling the psalm, “Let us burst their bonds asunder, and cast away their yoke from us;” and this indeed (they did) after that “the heathen raged, and the people imagined vain devices;” after that “the kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers took their counsel together against the Lord, and against His Christ.”3406

    3406


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xviii Pg 22
    Isa. lii. 11; quoted in 2 Cor. vi. 17.

    (The apostle says further:) “Be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess,”6023

    6023


    Anf-01 viii.iv.c Pg 6
    It is not easy, says Maranus, to say in what Scripture Christ is so called. [Clearly he refers to the Dayspring (St. Luke i. 78) as the LXX. render many texts of the O.T. See Zech. iii. 8.] Perhaps Justin had in his mind the passage, “This the day which the Lord hath made” (Ps. cxviii. 24). Clem. Alex. teaches that Christ is here referred to.

    and the East, and a Sword, and a Stone, and a Rod, and Jacob, and Israel); and that He became man by the Virgin, in order that the disobedience which proceeded from the serpent might receive its destruction in the same manner in which it derived its origin. For Eve, who was a virgin and undefiled, having conceived the word of the serpent, brought forth disobedience and death. But the Virgin Mary received faith and joy, when the angel Gabriel announced the good tidings to her that the Spirit of the Lord would come upon her, and the power of the Highest would overshadow her: wherefore also the Holy Thing begotten of her is the Son of God;2333

    2333


    Anf-03 iv.ix.xiv Pg 19
    See Zech. iii. “The mystery of His name” refers to the meaning of “Jeshua,” for which see c. ix. above.

    First, He was clad in “sordid attire,” that is, in the indignity of passible and mortal flesh, when the devil, withal, was opposing himself to Him—the instigator, to wit, of Judas the traitor1462

    1462


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.vii Pg 22
    See Zech. iii.

    If I may offer, moreover, an interpretation of the two goats which were presented on “the great day of atonement,”3200

    3200


    Anf-03 v.vi.iii Pg 6
    Comp. Cant. ii. 15.

    a destroyer of the vineyard of Christ. Have no fellowship897

    897


    Anf-02 vi.iv.v.viii Pg 30.1


    Npnf-201 iii.xv.ix Pg 22


    Npnf-201 iv.vi.i.xxxviii Pg 12


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxxiii Pg 3
    Or better, “His.” This quotation from Ps. cx. is put very differently from the previous quotation of the same Psalm in chap. xxxii. [Justin often quotes from memory. Kaye, cap. viii.]

    enemies. In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’ Who does not admit, then, that Hezekiah is no priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek? And who does not know that he is not the redeemer of Jerusalem? And who does not know that he neither sent a rod of power into Jerusalem, nor ruled in the midst of his enemies; but that it was God who averted from him the enemies, after he mourned and was afflicted? But our Jesus, who has not yet come in glory, has sent into Jerusalem a rod of power, namely, the word of calling and repentance [meant] for all nations over which demons held sway, as David says, ‘The gods of the nations are demons.’ And His strong word has prevailed on many to forsake the demons whom they used to serve, and by means of it to believe in the Almighty God because the gods of the nations are demons.2278

    2278 This last clause is thought to be an interpolation.

    And we mentioned formerly that the statement, ‘In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee from the womb,’ is made to Christ.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxii Pg 4
    Ps. cx.

    ‘The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of Thy strength out of Sion: rule Thou also in the midst of Thine enemies. With Thee shall be, in the day, the chief of Thy power, in the beauties of Thy saints. From the womb, before the morning star, have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. The Lord is at Thy right hand: He has crushed kings in the day of His wrath: He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill [with] the dead bodies.2031

    2031 πληρώσει πτώματα; Lat. version, implebit ruinas. Thirlby suggested that an omission has taken place in the mss. by the transcriber’s fault.

    He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall He lift up the head.’


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 20
    Ps. cx.

    was a chant in honour of Hezekiah,5599

    5599 In Ezechiam cecinisse.

    because “he went up to the house of the Lord,”5600

    5600


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 23
    Tertullian, as usual, argues from the Septuagint, which in the latter clause of Ps. cx. 3 has ἐκ γαστρὸς πρὸ ἑωσφόρου ἐγέννησά σε; and so the Vulgate version has it. This Psalm has been variously applied by the Jews. Raschi (or Rabbi Sol. Jarchi) thinks it is most suitable to Abraham, and possibly to David, in which latter view D. Kimchi agrees with him.  Others find in Solomon the best application; but more frequently is Hezekiah thought to be the subject of the Psalm, as Tertullian observes. Justin Martyr (in Dial. cum Tryph.) also notices this application of the Psalm. But Tertullian in the next sentence appears to recognize the sounder opinion of the older Jews, who saw in this Ps. cx. a prediction of Messiah.  This opinion occurs in the Jerusalem Talmud, in the tract Berachoth, 5. Amongst the more recent Jews who also hold the sounder view, may be mentioned Rabbi Saadias Gaon, on Dan. vii. 13, and R. Moses Hadarsan [singularly enough quoted by Raschi in another part of his commentary (Gen. xxxv. 8)], with others who are mentioned by Wetstein, On the New Testament, Matt. xxii. 44. Modern Jews, such as Moses Mendelsohn, reject the Messianic sense; and they are followed by the commentators of the Rationalist school amongst ourselves and in Germany. J. Olshausen, after Hitzig, comes down in his interpretation of the Psalm as late as the Maccabees, and sees a suitable accomplishment of its words in the honours heaped upon Jonathan by Alexander son of Antiochus Epiphanes (see 1 Macc. x. 20). For the refutation of so inadequate a commentary, the reader is referred to Delitzch on Ps. cx. The variations of opinion, however, in this school, are as remarkable as the fluctuations of the Jewish writers. The latest work on the Psalms which has appeared amongst us (Psalms, chronologically arranged, by four Friends), after Ewald, places the accomplishment of Ps. cx. in what may be allowed to have been its occasionDavid’s victories over the neighboring heathen.

    are applicable to Hezekiah, and to the birth of Hezekiah. We on our side5602

    5602 Nos.

    have published Gospels (to the credibility of which we have to thank5603

    5603 Debemus.

    them5604

    5604 Istos: that is, the Jews (Rigalt.).

    for having given some confirmation, indeed, already in so great a subject5605

    5605 Utique jam in tanto opere.

    ); and these declare that the Lord was born at night, that so it might be “before the morning star,” as is evident both from the star especially, and from the testimony of the angel, who at night announced to the shepherds that Christ had at that moment been born,5606

    5606 Natum esse quum maxime.

    and again from the place of the birth, for it is towards night that persons arrive at the (eastern) “inn.” Perhaps, too, there was a mystic purpose in Christ’s being born at night, destined, as He was, to be the light of the truth amidst the dark shadows of ignorance. Nor, again, would God have said, “I have begotten Thee,” except to His true Son.  For although He says of all the people (Israel), “I have begotten5607

    5607 Generavi: Sept. ἐγέννησα.

    children,”5608

    5608


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxxiii Pg 3
    Or better, “His.” This quotation from Ps. cx. is put very differently from the previous quotation of the same Psalm in chap. xxxii. [Justin often quotes from memory. Kaye, cap. viii.]

    enemies. In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’ Who does not admit, then, that Hezekiah is no priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek? And who does not know that he is not the redeemer of Jerusalem? And who does not know that he neither sent a rod of power into Jerusalem, nor ruled in the midst of his enemies; but that it was God who averted from him the enemies, after he mourned and was afflicted? But our Jesus, who has not yet come in glory, has sent into Jerusalem a rod of power, namely, the word of calling and repentance [meant] for all nations over which demons held sway, as David says, ‘The gods of the nations are demons.’ And His strong word has prevailed on many to forsake the demons whom they used to serve, and by means of it to believe in the Almighty God because the gods of the nations are demons.2278

    2278 This last clause is thought to be an interpolation.

    And we mentioned formerly that the statement, ‘In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee from the womb,’ is made to Christ.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxii Pg 4
    Ps. cx.

    ‘The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of Thy strength out of Sion: rule Thou also in the midst of Thine enemies. With Thee shall be, in the day, the chief of Thy power, in the beauties of Thy saints. From the womb, before the morning star, have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. The Lord is at Thy right hand: He has crushed kings in the day of His wrath: He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill [with] the dead bodies.2031

    2031 πληρώσει πτώματα; Lat. version, implebit ruinas. Thirlby suggested that an omission has taken place in the mss. by the transcriber’s fault.

    He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall He lift up the head.’


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 20
    Ps. cx.

    was a chant in honour of Hezekiah,5599

    5599 In Ezechiam cecinisse.

    because “he went up to the house of the Lord,”5600

    5600


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 23
    Tertullian, as usual, argues from the Septuagint, which in the latter clause of Ps. cx. 3 has ἐκ γαστρὸς πρὸ ἑωσφόρου ἐγέννησά σε; and so the Vulgate version has it. This Psalm has been variously applied by the Jews. Raschi (or Rabbi Sol. Jarchi) thinks it is most suitable to Abraham, and possibly to David, in which latter view D. Kimchi agrees with him.  Others find in Solomon the best application; but more frequently is Hezekiah thought to be the subject of the Psalm, as Tertullian observes. Justin Martyr (in Dial. cum Tryph.) also notices this application of the Psalm. But Tertullian in the next sentence appears to recognize the sounder opinion of the older Jews, who saw in this Ps. cx. a prediction of Messiah.  This opinion occurs in the Jerusalem Talmud, in the tract Berachoth, 5. Amongst the more recent Jews who also hold the sounder view, may be mentioned Rabbi Saadias Gaon, on Dan. vii. 13, and R. Moses Hadarsan [singularly enough quoted by Raschi in another part of his commentary (Gen. xxxv. 8)], with others who are mentioned by Wetstein, On the New Testament, Matt. xxii. 44. Modern Jews, such as Moses Mendelsohn, reject the Messianic sense; and they are followed by the commentators of the Rationalist school amongst ourselves and in Germany. J. Olshausen, after Hitzig, comes down in his interpretation of the Psalm as late as the Maccabees, and sees a suitable accomplishment of its words in the honours heaped upon Jonathan by Alexander son of Antiochus Epiphanes (see 1 Macc. x. 20). For the refutation of so inadequate a commentary, the reader is referred to Delitzch on Ps. cx. The variations of opinion, however, in this school, are as remarkable as the fluctuations of the Jewish writers. The latest work on the Psalms which has appeared amongst us (Psalms, chronologically arranged, by four Friends), after Ewald, places the accomplishment of Ps. cx. in what may be allowed to have been its occasionDavid’s victories over the neighboring heathen.

    are applicable to Hezekiah, and to the birth of Hezekiah. We on our side5602

    5602 Nos.

    have published Gospels (to the credibility of which we have to thank5603

    5603 Debemus.

    them5604

    5604 Istos: that is, the Jews (Rigalt.).

    for having given some confirmation, indeed, already in so great a subject5605

    5605 Utique jam in tanto opere.

    ); and these declare that the Lord was born at night, that so it might be “before the morning star,” as is evident both from the star especially, and from the testimony of the angel, who at night announced to the shepherds that Christ had at that moment been born,5606

    5606 Natum esse quum maxime.

    and again from the place of the birth, for it is towards night that persons arrive at the (eastern) “inn.” Perhaps, too, there was a mystic purpose in Christ’s being born at night, destined, as He was, to be the light of the truth amidst the dark shadows of ignorance. Nor, again, would God have said, “I have begotten Thee,” except to His true Son.  For although He says of all the people (Israel), “I have begotten5607

    5607 Generavi: Sept. ἐγέννησα.

    children,”5608

    5608


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxv Pg 7
    Isa. xlii. 5–13.

    And when I repeated this, I said to them, “Have you perceived, my friends, that God says He will give Him whom He has established as a light of the Gentiles, glory, and to no other; and not, as Trypho said, that God was retaining the glory to Himself?”


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xxi Pg 26
    Joel iii. 16; Amos i. 2.

    And that it is from that region which is towards the south of the inheritance of Judah that the Son of God shall come, who is God, and who was from Bethlehem, where the Lord was born [and] will send out His praise through all the earth, thus3705

    3705 As Massuet observes, we must either expunge “sciut” altogether, or read “sic” as above.

    says the prophet Habakkuk: “God shall come from the south, and the Holy One from Mount Effrem. His power covered the heavens over, and the earth is full of His praise. Before His face shall go forth the Word, and His feet shall advance in the plains.”3706

    3706


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 65
    Joel iii. 16.

    and, “In Judah is God known;”4306

    4306


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xxi Pg 26
    Joel iii. 16; Amos i. 2.

    And that it is from that region which is towards the south of the inheritance of Judah that the Son of God shall come, who is God, and who was from Bethlehem, where the Lord was born [and] will send out His praise through all the earth, thus3705

    3705 As Massuet observes, we must either expunge “sciut” altogether, or read “sic” as above.

    says the prophet Habakkuk: “God shall come from the south, and the Holy One from Mount Effrem. His power covered the heavens over, and the earth is full of His praise. Before His face shall go forth the Word, and His feet shall advance in the plains.”3706

    3706


    Anf-03 v.iii.vii Pg 11
    “De enthymesi;” for this word Tertullian gives animationem (in his tract against Valentinus, ix.), which seems to mean, “the mind in operation.” (See the same treatise, x. xi.) With regard to the other word, Jerome (on Amos. iii.) adduces Valentinus as calling Christ ἔκτρωμα, that is, abortion.

    Unhappy Aristotle! who invented for these men dialectics, the art of building up and pulling down; an art so evasive in its propositions,1920

    1920 Sententiis.

    so far-fetched in its conjectures, so harsh, in its arguments, so productive of contentions—embarrassing1921

    1921 Molestam.

    even to itself, retracting everything, and really treating of1922

    1922 Tractaverit, in the sense of conclusively settling.

    nothing! Whence spring those “fables and endless genealogies,”1923

    1923


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxii Pg 4
    Ps. l. (in E. V.).

    Accordingly He neither takes sacrifices from you nor commanded them at first to be offered because they are needful to Him, but because of your sins. For indeed the temple, which is called the temple in Jerusalem, He admitted to be His house or court, not as though He needed it, but in order that you, in this view of it, giving yourselves to Him, might not worship idols. And that this is so, Isaiah says: ‘What house have ye built Me? saith the Lord. Heaven is My throne, and earth is My footstool.’2004

    2004


    Anf-02 vi.iii.i.ix Pg 16.1


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xi Pg 4
    Cod. Sin. has, “have dug a pit of death.” See Jer. ii. 12, 13.

    Is my holy hill Zion a desolate rock? For ye shall be as the fledglings of a bird, which fly away when the nest is removed.”1594


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxiv Pg 7
    Jer. ii. 13.



    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxl Pg 2
    Jer. ii. 13.

    But they are cisterns broken, and holding no water, which your own teachers have digged, as the Scripture also expressly asserts, ‘teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.’2483

    2483


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xxv Pg 6
    Jer. ii. 13.

    out of earthly trenches, and drink putrid water out of the mire, fleeing from the faith of the Church lest they be convicted; and rejecting the Spirit, that they may not be instructed.


    Anf-02 vi.iii.i.ix Pg 23.1


    Anf-03 iv.ix.xiii Pg 32
    ὑδατος ζωῆς in the LXX. here (ed. Tischendorf, who quotes the Cod. Alex. as reading, however, ὑδατος ζῶντος). Comp. Rev. xxii. 1, 17, and xxi. 6; John vii. 37–39. (The reference, it will be seen, is still to Jer. ii. 10–13; but the writer has mixed up words of Amos therewith.)

    and they have digged for themselves worn-out tanks, which will not be able to contain water.” Undoubtedly, by not receiving Christ, the “fount of water of life,” they have begun to have “worn-out tanks,” that is, synagogues for the use of the “dispersions of the Gentiles,”1411

    1411


    Anf-01 viii.ix.xiii Pg 2
    Jer. ii. 19, etc. (LXX.)

    From manuscript of the writings of Justin.


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxviii Pg 29
    Jer. ii. 19.

    God thus determining all things beforehand for the bringing of man to perfection, for his edification, and for the revelation of His dispensations, that goodness may both be made apparent, and righteousness perfected, and that the Church may be fashioned after the image of His Son, and that man may finally be brought to maturity at some future time, becoming ripe through such privileges to see and comprehend God.4416

    4416 [If we but had the original, this would doubtless be found in all respects a noble specimen of primitive theology.]



    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxvii Pg 19
    This is Massuet’s conjectural emendation of the text, viz., archetypum for arcætypum. Grabe would insert per before arcæ, and he thinks the passage to have a reference to 1 Pet. iii. 20. Irenæus, in common with the other ancient Fathers, believed that the fallen angels were the “sons of God” who commingled with “the daughters of men,” and thus produced a race of spurious men. [Gen. vi. 1, 2, 3, and Josephus.]

    the formation of Adam. And it was He who rained fire and brimstone from heaven, in the days of Lot, upon Sodom and Gomorrah, “an example of the righteous judgment of God,”4370

    4370


    Anf-02 vi.iv.vi.xi Pg 6.1


    Anf-03 v.viii.x Pg 5
    Gen. vi. 3, Sept.

    but then He is also heard saying by Joel, “I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh.”7355

    7355


    Anf-03 iv.iv.xx Pg 9
    Ps. xcvi. 5. The LXX. in whose version ed. Tisch. it is Ps. xcv. read δαιμόνια, like Tertullian. Our version has “idols.”

    But this has been laid by me rather as a foundation for ensuing observations.  However, it is a defect of custom to say, “By Hercules, So help me the god of faith;”329

    329 Mehercule. Medius Fidius. I have given the rendering of the latter, which seems preferred by Paley (Ov. Fast. vi. 213, note), who considers it = me dius (i.e., Deus) fidius juvet.  Smith (Lat. Dict. s.v.) agrees with him, and explains it, me deus fidius servet. White and Riddle (s.v.) take the me (which appears to be short) as a “demonstrative” particle or prefix, and explain, “By the God of truth!” “As true as heaven,” “Most certainly.”

    while to the custom is added the ignorance of some, who are ignorant that it is an oath by Hercules. Further, what will an oath be, in the name of gods whom you have forsworn, but a collusion of faith with idolatry? For who does not honour them in whose name he swears?


    Anf-02 vi.ii.ix Pg 10.1


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xx Pg 19
    Isa. vii. 13.

    Wherefore also the Lord Himself gave us a sign, in the depth below, and in the height above, which man did not ask for, because he never expected that a virgin could conceive, or that it was possible that one remaining a virgin could bring forth a son, and that what was thus born should be “God with us,” and descend to those things which are of the earth beneath, seeking the sheep which had perished, which was indeed His own peculiar handiwork, and ascend to the height above, offering and commending to His Father that human nature (hominem) which had been found, making in His own person the first-fruits of the resurrection of man; that, as the Head rose from the dead, so also the remaining part of the body—[namely, the body] of everyman who is found in life—when the time is fulfilled of that condemnation which existed by reason of disobedience, may arise, blended together and strengthened through means of joints and bands3681

    3681


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xxii Pg 18
    Isa. vii. 13.

    He performed the part of one indicating that He whom God promised David that He would raise up from the fruit of his belly (ventris) an eternal King, is the same who was born of the Virgin, herself of the lineage of David. <index subject1="Fruit of the belly and of the loins" title="453" id="ix.iv.xxii-p18.2"/>For on this account also, He promised that the King should be “of the fruit of his belly,” which was the appropriate [term to use with respect] to a virgin conceiving, and not “of the fruit of his loins,” nor “of the fruit of his reins,” which expression is appropriate to a generating man, and a woman conceiving by a man. In this promise, therefore, the Scripture excluded all virile influence; yet it certainly is not mentioned that He who was born was not from the will of man. But it has fixed and established “the fruit of the belly,” that it might declare the generation of Him who should be [born] from the Virgin, as Elisabeth testified when filled with the Holy Ghost, saying to Mary, “Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy belly;”3721

    3721


    Anf-03 iv.ix.ix Pg 4
    See Isa. vii. 13, 14.

    (which is, interpreted, “God with us”1252

    1252


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xviii Pg 17
    Isa. xliii. 23, 24.

    He says, therefore, “Upon this man will I look, even upon him that is humble, and meek, and who trembles at My words.”4021

    4021


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lvi Pg 34
    Gen. xviii. 20–23.

    (and so on,2143

    2143 Comp. Note 2, p. 223.

    for I do not think fit to write over again the same words, having written them all before, but shall of necessity give those by which I established the proof to Trypho and his companions. Then I proceeded to what follows, in which these words are recorded:) “ ‘And the Lord went His way as soon as He had left communing with Abraham; and [Abraham] went to his place. And there came two angels to Sodom at even. And Lot sat in the gate of Sodom;’2144

    2144


    Anf-02 vi.iv.ii.xi Pg 13.1


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxvii Pg 5
    Dan. xii. 4; 7.

    But Jeremiah also says, “In the last days they shall understand these things.”4153

    4153


    Anf-03 v.viii.xxvi Pg 14
    Isa. li. 9, Sept.

    that is to say, in that innocence which preceded the fall into sin. For how can words of this kind of exhortation and invitation be suitable for that Jerusalem which killed the prophets, and stoned those that were sent to them, and at last crucified its very Lord? Neither indeed is salvation promised to any one land at all, which must needs pass away with the fashion of the whole world. Even if anybody should venture strongly to contend that paradise is the holy land, which it may be possible to designate as the land of our first parents Adam and Eve, it will even then follow that the restoration of paradise will seem to be promised to the flesh, whose lot it was to inhabit and keep it, in order that man may be recalled thereto just such as he was driven from it.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxx Pg 2
    Deut. xxxii. 43.

    and I added what follows of the passage: “ ‘Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people, and let all the angels of God be strengthened in Him: for the blood of His sons He avenges, and will avenge, and will recompense His enemies with vengeance, and will recompense those that hate Him; and the Lord will purify the land of His people.’ And by these words He declares that we, the nations, rejoice with His people, —to wit, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the prophets, and, in short, all of that people who are well-pleasing to God, according to what has been already agreed on between us. But we will not receive it of all your nation; since we know from Isaiah2459

    2459 Isa. lxvi. 24.

    that the members of those who have transgressed shall be consumed by the worm and unquenchable fire, remaining immortal; so that they become a spectacle to all flesh. <index subject1="Israel applied to Chirst" title="265" id="viii.iv.cxxx-p3.2"/>But in addition to these, I wish, sirs,” said I, “to add some other passages from the very words of Moses, from which you may understand that God has from of old dispersed all men according to their kindreds and tongues; and out of all kindreds has taken to Himself your kindred, a useless, disobedient, and faithless generation; and has shown that those who were selected out of every nation have obeyed His will through Christ,—whom He calls also Jacob, and names Israel, —and these, then, as I mentioned fully previously, must be Jacob and Israel. For when He says, ‘Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people,’ He allots the same inheritance to them, and does not call them by the same name;2460

    2460 The reading is, “and calls them by the same name.” But the whole argument shows that the Jews and Gentiles are distinguished by name. [But that Gentiles are also called (Israel) by the same name is the point here.]

    but when He says that they as Gentiles rejoice with His people, He calls them Gentiles to reproach you. For even as you provoked Him to anger by your idolatry, so also He has deemed those who were idolaters worthy of knowing His will, and of inheriting His inheritance.


    Anf-01 ii.ii.xv Pg 7
    Ps. xii. 3–5.



    Anf-01 v.iii.ix Pg 14
    Ps. vi., Ps. xii. (inscrip.). [N.B.—The reference is to the title of these two psalms, as rendered by the LXX. Εἰς τὸ τέλος ὑπὲρ τῆς ὀγδόης.]

    on which our life both sprang up again, and the victory over death was obtained in Christ, whom the children of perdition, the enemies of the Saviour, deny, “whose god is their belly, who mind earthly things,”692

    692


    Anf-02 vi.iv.iv.v Pg 28.1


    Anf-02 vi.iv.vi.i Pg 10.1


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 95
    Isa. ii. 17.

    —it is thus indicated that, after His passion and ascension, God shall cast down under His feet all who were opposed to Him, and He shall be exalted above all, and there shall be no one who can be justified or compared to Him.


    Anf-01 ix.vi.vi Pg 4
    Isa. xii. 4.

    For neither in an ambiguous, nor arrogant, nor boastful manner, does He say these things; but since it was impossible, without God, to come to a knowledge of God, He teaches men, through His Word, to know God. To those, therefore, who are ignorant of these matters, and on this account imagine that they have discovered another Father, justly does one say, “Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God.”3846

    3846


    Anf-03 vi.iv.iii Pg 3
    Ex. iii. 13–16.

    To us it has been revealed in the Son, for the Son is now the Father’s new name. “I am come,” saith He, “in the Father’s name;”8774

    8774


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xii Pg 14
    This evidently refers to 1 Kings xviii. 36, where Elijah invokes God as the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, etc.

    as he does himself confess. John, therefore, having been sent by the founder and maker of this world, how could he testify of that Light, which came down from things unspeakable and invisible? For all the heretics have decided that the Demiurge was ignorant of that Power above him, whose witness and herald John is found to be. Wherefore the Lord said that He deemed him “more than a prophet.”3439

    3439


    Anf-01 ix.iv.vii Pg 25
    1 Kings xviii. 36.


    Anf-02 vi.iv.v.viii Pg 30.1


    Npnf-201 iii.xv.ix Pg 22


    Npnf-201 iv.vi.i.xxxviii Pg 12


    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge, Chapter 33

    VERSE 	(5) - 

    :10; 2:11,17; 12:4; 37:20 Ex 9:16,17; 15:1,6; 18:11 Job 40:9-14


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