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  • ADAM CLARKE'S BIBLE COMMENTARY -
    MARK 1

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    THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK

    -Usherian year of the World, 4030. -Alexandrian year of the World, 5528.-Antiochian year of the World, 5518.
    - Constantinopolitan AEra of the World, 5534. -Rabbinical year of the World, 3786.
    -Year of the Julian Period, 4740. -AEra of the Seleucidae, 338.
    -Year of the Christian AEra, 26.
    - Year of the CCI. Olympiad, 2.
    -Year of the building of Rome, 769.-Year of the Julian AEra, 71.
    -Year of the Caesarean AEra of Antioch, 74.-Year of the Spanish AEra, 64.
    -Year of the Paschal Cycle or Dionysian Period, 27.
    -Year of the Christian Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number, 8.-Year of the Rabbinical Lunar Cycle, 5.
    -Year of the Solar Cycle, 7.-Dominical Letter, F. -Epact, 17.
    -Year of the Emperor Tiberius, 14.- Consuls, C. Calvisius Sabinus, and Cn. Corn. Lentulus Getulicus, from January 1 to July 1; and Q. Marcius Barca and T. Rustius Nummus Gallus, for the remainder of the year. The reason why two sets of Consuls appear in this Chronology is this: the Consuls were changed every year in July; therefore, taking in the whole year, four Consuls necessarily appear: two for the first six months, and two for the latter half of the year.

    CHAPTER I

    The mission, preaching, and success of John Baptist, 1-5. His manner of life, 6. Proclaims Christ, and baptizes him in Jordan, 7-11. The temptation of Christ, 12, 13. John being put in prison, Christ begins to preach, 14, 15. He calls Andrew and Simon, 16-18. James and John, 19, 20. Teaches in Capernaum, 21, 22. Casts out a demon, 23-28. Goes into the house of Simon, and heals his mother-in-law, 29-31. Heals many diseased persons, 32-34. Goes to the desert, and is followed by his disciples, 35-37.Preaches in different towns and synagogues of Galilee, and casts cut devils, 38, 39. Cleanses a leper, who publishes abroad his miraculous cure, 40-45.

    NOTES ON CHAP. I

    Verse 1. "The beginning of the Gospel" - It is with the utmost propriety that Mark begins the Gospel dispensation by the preaching of John the Baptist, he being the forerunner of Jesus Christ, and the first proclaimer of the incarnated Messiah. Gospel-for the meaning of the word see the preface to Matthew. Son of God] To point out his Divine origin; and thus glancing at his miraculous conception. This was an essential character of the Messiah. See Matthew xvi. 16; xxvi. 63; Luke xxii. 67, &c.

    Verse 2. "As it is written in the prophets" - Rather, As it is written by Isaiah the prophet. I think this reading should be adopted, instead of that in the common text. It is the reading of the Codex Bezae, Vatican, and several other MSS. of great repute. It is found also in the Syriac, Persic, Coptic, Armenian, Gothic, Vulgate, and Itala versions, and in several of the fathers. As this prophecy is found both in Isaiah and Malachi, probably the reading was changed to taiv profhtaiv, the prophets, that it might comprehend both. In one of ASSEMAN'S Syriac copies, both Isaiah and Malachi are mentioned. See all the authorities in Griesbach, 2d edit.; and see the parallel place in Matthew, Matt. iii. 3, where the Prophet Isaiah is mentioned, which seems fully to establish the authority of this reading.

    Verse 3. "The voice of one crying" - See on Matt. iii. 1-3.

    Verse 4. "John" - The original name is nearly lost in the Greek iwannhv, and in the Latin Johannes, and almost totally so in the English John. The original name is njwhy Yehochanan, compounded of nj hwhy Yehovah chanan, the grace or mercy of Jehovah: a most proper and significant name for the forerunner of the God of ALL GRACE. It was John's business to proclaim the Gospel of the grace of God, and to point out that Lamb or sacrifice of God which takes away the sin of the world.

    "For the remission of sins." - Or, toward the remission-eiv afesin. They were to repent, and be baptized in reference to the remission of sins.

    REPENTANCE prepared the soul for it, and BAPTISM was the type or pledge of it. See on Matt. iii. 2.

    Verse 5. "All the land" - See on Matt. iii. 4-6.

    "Confessing their sins." - It was an invariable custom among the Jews to admit no proselyte to baptism, till he had, in the most solemn manner, declared that he forever had renounced all idolatrous worship, all heathenish superstitions, and promised an entire and unreserved submission to the law of Moses. This was necessary for a proselyte adult-a child dedicated to God by baptism must be brought up in this faith.

    Verse 6. "John was clothed, &c." - See the note on Matt. iii. 4.

    Verse 7. "The latchet of whose shoes" - The shoe of the ancients was properly only a sole tied round the foot and ankle with strings or thongs. See on Matt. iii. 11.

    Verse 8. "I indeed have baptized you with water" - As if he had said: This baptism is not to be rested in; it is only an emblem of that which you must receive from him who is mightier than I. It is he only who can communicate the Holy Spirit; and water baptism is nothing, but as it points out, and leads to, the baptism of the Holy Ghost. The subject of these two verses is not found in Matthew nor John; but is mentioned with some varying circumstances by Luke, Luke iii. 16.

    Verse 9. - 11. See the subject of these verses which contain the account of our Lord's baptism, explained. Matt. iii. 13- 17.

    Verse 12. "The Spirit driveth him" - ekballei, putteth him forth. St. Matthew says, Matt. iv. 1, anhcqh, was brought up. See this important subject of our Lord's temptation explained at large, Matt. iv. 1-11.

    Verse 13. "With the wild beasts" - This is a curious circumstance, which is mentioned by none of the other evangelists; and seems to intimate that he was in the most remote, unfrequented, and savage part of the desert; which, together with the diabolic influence, tended to render the whole scene the more horrid. Perhaps this very circumstance is mentioned, as emblematical of that savage and brutal cruelty with which he was persecuted to death by the Jews and Gentiles, instigated thereto by the malice of Satan.

    Verse 14. "Preaching the Gospel of the kingdom" - See the notes on Matt. iii. 2; and on the office of the preacher, or herald, at the end of that chapter.

    Verse 15. "The time is fulfilled" - That is, the time appointed for sending the Messiah; and particularly the time specified by Daniel, Dan. ix. 24-27.

    Here are four points worthy of deep attention, in the preaching of the Son of God.

    1. Every thing that is done is according to a plan laid by the Divine wisdom, and never performed till the time appointed was filled up.

    2. That the kingdom and reign of sin are to be destroyed, and the kingdom of grace and heaven established in their place.

    3. That the kingdom of God, and his reign by grace, begins with repentance for past sins.

    4. That this reign of grace is at hand; and that nothing but an obstinate perseverance in sin and impenitence can keep any soul out of it; and that now is the accepted time to enter in.

    Verse 16. "As he walked by the sea, &c." - See on Matt. iv. 18- 22.

    Andrew his brother] Instead of the common reading, adelfon autou, his brother, the best MSS. and versions have adelfou tou simwnov, the brother of Simon, which should be received into the text. The most eminent critics approve of this reading.

    Verse 21. "Capernaum" - See Matt. iv. 13.

    "He entered into the synagogue" - Their synagogues-en taiv sunagwgaiv autwn, according to the Syriac, which has the word in the plural.

    Verse 22. "As one that had authority" - From God, to do what he was doing; and to teach a pure and beneficent system of truth.

    "And not as the scribes." - Who had no such authority, and whose teaching was not accompanied by the power of God to the souls of the people:

    1. because the matter of the teaching did not come from God; and 2. because the teachers themselves were not commissioned by the Most High. See the note on Matt. vii. 28.

    Verse 23. "A man with an unclean spirit" - This demoniac is only mentioned by Mark and Luke, Luke iv. 33. It seems the man had lucid intervals; else he could not have been admitted into the synagogue. Unclean or impure spirit-a common epithet for those fallen spirits: but here it may mean, one who filled the heart of him he possessed with LASCIVIOUS thoughts, images, desires, and propensities. By giving way to the first attacks of such a spirit, he may soon get in, and take full possession of the whole soul.

    Verse 24. "What have we to do with thee" - Or, What is it to us and to thee? or, What business hast thou with us? That this is the meaning of the original, ti hmin kai soi, Kypke has sufficiently shown. There is a phrase exactly like it in 2 Sam. xvi. 10. What have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah? hywrx ynb µklw yl hm ma li v'lacem beney Tseruiah, What business have ye with me, or, Why do ye trouble me, ye sons of Tseruiah? The Septuagint translate the Hebrew just as the evangelist does here, ti emoi kai umin; it is the same idiom in both places, as there can be no doubt that the demoniac spoke in Hebrew, or in the Chaldeo-Syriac dialect of that language, which was then common in Judea. See on Matt. viii. 29.

    "Art thou come to destroy us?" - We may suppose this spirit to have felt and spoken thus: "Is this the time of which it hath been predicted, that in it the Messiah should destroy all that power which we have usurped and exercised over the bodies and souls of men? Alas! it is so. I now plainly see who thou art-the Holy One of God, who art come to destroy unholiness, in which we have our residence, and through which we have our reign in the souls of men." An unholy spirit is the only place where Satan can have his full operation, and show forth the plenitude of his destroying power.

    Verse 25. "And Jesus rebuked him" - A spirit of this cast will only yield to the sovereign power of the Son of God. All watchings, fasting, and mortifications, considered in themselves, will do little or no good.

    Uncleanness, of every description, will only yield to the rebuke of God.

    Verse 26. "And when the unclean spirit had torn him" - And had thrown him down in the midst, Luke iv. 35, kai sparaxan, and convulsed him.

    Never was there a person possessed by an unclean spirit who did not suffer a convulsion, perhaps a total ruin of nature by it. Sins of uncleanness, as the apostle intimates, are against the body; they sap the foundation of life, so that there are very few of this class, whether male or female, that live out half their days: they generally die martyrs to their lusts. When the propensities of the flesh are most violent in a person who is determined to serve God, it is often a proof that these are the last efforts of the impure spirit, who has great rages because he knows his time is but short.

    Verse 27. "What thing is this?" - Words of surprise and astonishment.

    "And what new doctrine" - I have added the particle and, from the Syriac, as it helps the better to distinguish the members of the sentence; but there is a vast diversity in the MSS. on this verse. See Griesbach.

    "For with authority" - They had never heard such a gracious doctrine, and never saw any teaching supported by miracles before. How much must this person be superior to men!-they are brought into subjection by unclean spirits; this person subjects unclean spirits to himself.

    Verse 28. "And immediately his fame spread abroad" - The miracle which he had performed was-1. great; 2. evidenced much benevolence in the worker of it; and 3. was very public, being wrought in the synagogue. The many who saw it published it wherever they went; and thus the fame of Christ, as an incomparable teacher, and unparalleled worker of miracles, became soon spread abroad through the land.

    The word, euqewv, immediately, occurs more frequently in this evangelist than in any other writer of the new covenant: it is very often superfluous, and may often be omitted in the translation, without any prejudice to the sense of the passage in which it is found. It seems to be used by St. Mark, as our ancient writers used forsooth, and such like words.

    Verse 29. See this account of the healing of Peter's mother- in-law explained at large, Matt. viii. 14-17.

    Verse 32. "When the sun did set" - See on Matt. viii. 14.

    Verse 34. "Because they knew him" - To be the Christ, is added here by several ancient and respectable MSS. and versions; but it appears to be only a gloss.

    Verse 35. "In the morning a great while before day" - By prwi, the morning, is to be understood the whole space of three hours, which finished the fourth watch of the night.

    "And there prayed." - Not that he needed any thing, for in him dwelt all the fullness of the Godhead bodily; but that he might be a pattern to us. Every thing that our blessed Lord did he performed either as our pattern, or as our sacrifice.

    Verse 36. "And Simon-followed after him." - katediwxan, followed him eagerly. They had now begun to taste the good word of God, and thought they could never hear too much of it. Many possess this spirit when first converted to God. O! what a pity that they should ever lose it! The soul that relishes God's word is ever growing in grace by it.

    Verse 37. "All men seek for thee." - Some to hear; some to be healed; some to be saved; and some, perhaps, through no good motive. There are all sorts of followers in the train of Christ; but how few walk steadily, and persevere unto the end!

    Verse 38. "The next towns" - kwmopoleiv properly signifies such towns as resembled cities for magnitude and number of inhabitants, but which were not walled as were cities. The Codex Bezae, most of the versions, and all the Itala, read, Let us go into the neighbouring villages, AND INTO THE CITIES.

    "For therefore came I forth." - eiv touto, for this purpose am I come forth-to preach the Gospel to every creature, that all might hear, and fear, and return unto the Lord. The towns and the villages will not come to the preacher-the preacher must go to them, if he desires their salvation. In this, also, Jesus has left his ministering servants an example, that they should follow his steps. Let no minister of God think he has delivered his own soul, till he has made an offer of salvation to every city and village within his reach.

    Verse 39. "And he preached" - He continued preaching-hn khrusswn: this is the proper meaning of the words: he never slackened his pace-he continued proclaiming the glad tidings of salvation to all-there was no time to be lost-immortal souls were perishing for lack of knowledge; and the grand adversary was prowling about, seeking whom he might devour. This zealous, affectionate, and persevering diligence of Christ should be copied by all his servants in the ministry; it is not less necessary now than it was then. Thousands, thousands of Christians, so called, are perishing for lack of knowledge. O God, send forth more and more faithful labourers into thy vineyard!

    Verse 40. "There came a leper" - See the notes on Matt. viii. 2, &c.

    Should any be inclined to preach on this cleansing of the leper, Mark is the best evangelist to take the account from, because he is more circumstantial than either Matthew or Luke.

    I. Consider this leper.

    1. He heard of Jesus and his miracles.

    2. He came to him for a cure, conscious of his disease.

    3. He earnestly besought him to grant the mercy he needed.

    4. He fell down on his knees, (with his face to the earth, Luke v. 12,) thus showing his humbled state, and the distress of his soul.

    5. He appealed to his love-if thou wilt; with a full conviction of his ability-thou canst; in order to get healed.

    II. Consider Jesus.

    1. He is moved with tender compassion towards him: this is the alone source of all human salvation.

    2. He stretches forth his hand, showing thus his readiness to relieve him.

    3. He touches him; though this was prohibited by the law, and rendered him who did it in any common case legally unclean.

    4. He proves at once his infinite love and unlimited power, by his word and by his act; I will-be thou cleansed; and immediately his leprosy was removed. But see on Matt. viii. 2.

    Verse 43. "Straitly charged" - See the reason for this, Matt. viii. 4. This verse is wanting in two copies of the Itala.

    Verse 45. "Began to publish it much" - Began to publish polla, many things; probably all that he had heard about our Lord's miraculous works.

    "And to blaze abroad the matter" - That is, his own healing; thinking he could never speak too much, nor too well, of him who had thus mercifully and miraculously cleansed him.

    Jesus could no more openly enter into the city] A city of Galilee, probably Chorazin or Bethsaida, in which he did not appear, for fear of exciting the jealousy of the secular government, or the envy and malice of the Jewish rulers.

    "And they came to him from every quarter." - So generally had the poor man, who was cleansed of his leprosy, spread abroad his fame. And can we suppose that, of all these people who came to him from all parts, and to whom he preached the glad tidings of the kingdom, by the power and authority of God, few or none were saved? This is a common opinion; but every person who seriously considers it must see that it is unfounded.

    Without doubt, Christ had thousands that were brought to God by his ministry; though, in general, only those are mentioned who were constant attendants on his person. It would be strange, if, while God manifested in the flesh was preacher, there should be few brought to the knowledge of themselves, and of the truth! In this respect he does not permit his faithful ministers to labour in vain. The Son of man sowed the seed of the kingdom; and it afterwards produced a plentiful harvest. Multitudes of Jews were converted by the preaching of the Gospel; and the first Christian Church was founded at Jerusalem.

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