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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Acts 28:4


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    King James Bible - Acts 28:4

    And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

    World English Bible

    When the natives saw the creature
    hanging from his hand, they said one to another, "No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he has escaped from the sea, yet Justice has not allowed to live."

    Douay-Rheims - Acts 28:4

    And when the barbarians saw the beast
    hanging on his hand, they said one to another: Undoubtedly this man is a murderer, who though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance doth not suffer him to live.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    And when the barbarians saw the animal hang on his
    hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

    Greek Textus Receptus


    ως
    5613 ADV δε 1161 CONJ ειδον 1492 5627 V-2AAI-3P οι 3588 T-NPM βαρβαροι 915 A-NPM κρεμαμενον 2910 5734 V-PMP-ASN το 3588 T-ASN θηριον 2342 N-ASN εκ 1537 PREP της 3588 T-GSF χειρος 5495 N-GSF αυτου 846 P-GSM ελεγον 3004 5707 V-IAI-3P προς 4314 PREP αλληλους 240 C-APM παντως 3843 ADV φονευς 5406 N-NSM εστιν 2076 5748 V-PXI-3S ο 3588 T-NSM ανθρωπος 444 N-NSM ουτος 3778 D-NSM ον 3739 R-ASM διασωθεντα 1295 5685 V-APP-ASM εκ 1537 PREP της 3588 T-GSF θαλασσης 2281 N-GSF η 3588 T-NSF δικη 1349 N-NSF ζην 2198 5721 V-PAN ουκ 3756 PRT-N ειασεν 1439 5656 V-AAI-3S

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (4) -
    :2

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 28:4

    Y cuando los brbaros vieron la bestia venenosa colgando de su mano, decían los unos a los otros: Ciertamente este hombre es homicida, que escapado del mar, el castigo no lo deja vivir.

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Acts 28:4

    Verse 4. The
    venomous beast] to qhrion, The venomous animal; for qhria is a general name among the Greek writers for serpents, vipers, scorpions, wasps, and such like creatures. Though the viper fastened on Paul's hand, it does not appear that it really bit him; but the Maltese supposed that it had, because they saw it fasten on his hand.

    Vengeance suffereth not to live.] These heathens had a general knowledge of retributive justice; and they thought that the stinging of the serpent was a proof that Paul was a murderer. There is a passage in Bamidbar Rabba, fol. 239, that casts some light on this place. "Although the Sanhedrin is ceased, yet are not the four deaths ceased. For he that deserves stoning either falls from his house, or a wild beast tears and devours him. He that deserves burning either falls into the fire, or a serpent bites him. He that deserves cutting of with the sword is either betrayed into the power of a heathen kingdom, or the robbers break in upon him. He that deserves strangling is either suffocated in the water, or dies of a quinsy." See Lightfoot.

    As these people were heathens, it is not likely that they had any correct notion of the justice of the true God; and therefore it is most probable that they used the word dikh, not to express the quality or attribute of any being, but the goddess Dik, or vindictive Justice, herself, who is represented as punishing the iniquities of men.

    Hesiod makes a goddess of what the Maltese called dikh, or Justice: - h de te parqenov esti dikh, diov ekgegauia, kudnh t aidoih te qeoiv, oi olumpon ecousin? kai r opot an tiv min blapth skoliwv onotazwn.

    autika par dii patri kaqezomenh kroniwni ghruet anqrwpwn adikon noon? Hesiod. Opera, ver. 254.

    JUSTICE, unspotted maid, derived from Jove, Renown'd and reverenced by the gods above: When mortals violate her sacred laws, When judges hear the bribe and not the cause, Close by her parent god, behold her stand, And urge the punishment their sins demand. COKE.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 4. And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast , etc.] The viper is called Therion, a beast, it being of the viviparous kind; and hence comes Theriaca, or Venice treacle, the foundation of which composition is vipers flesh; and it is called venomous, because it is of all serpents the most venomous: this when the country people saw hang on his hand , having wrapped itself about it, they said among themselves, no doubt this man is a murderer : they might see he was a prisoner by his chain, or might learn it from some of the company, and therefore took it for granted he had been guilty of some crime; and by the vipers fastening on him, they concluded it was murder he was guilty of; for the same notion might obtain among them, as among the Jews, that a murderer that could not be legally convicted, was sometimes punished this way. Says R. Simeon ben Shetach f1329 , may I never see the consolation, if I did not see one run after his friend into a desert place; and I ran after him, and I saw the sword in his hand, and the blood dropping, and he that was slain panting; and I said to him, O wicked man, who has slain this? either I or thou; but what shall I do? for thy blood is not delivered into my hand; for the law says, by the mouth of two or three witnesses he shall surely die (( Deuteronomy 17:6)): may he that knows the thoughts take vengeance on that man that slew his friend; they say, they did not remove from thence, jn ab d[ , till a serpent came, and bit him, and he died.

    So the Jews observe, that when the execution of capital punishments was taken away from them, yet such who deserved them were punished by God in a way equivalent to them: so for instance, if a man committed a crime, for which he deserved to be burnt, either he fell into the fire, or wkwn jn , a serpent bit him f1330 ; or if he deserved to be strangled, either he was drowned in a river, or died of a quinsy. There is a kind of an asp which the Egyptians call Thermuthis, which they reckon sacred, and worship: this they say will not hurt good men, but destroys the wicked; and if so, says the historian, then dikh , vengeance, or justice has honoured this creature, to be so sharp sighted as to discern the good from the bad; and they say, Isis sends it to the most wicked f1331 . Agreeably to which these men reason, whom though he hath escaped the sea : has not been drowned there, when shipwrecked, yet vengeance suffereth not to live . The Greek word Dice rendered vengeance, is the name of a goddess among the Heathens, said to be the daughter of Jupiter and Themis f1332 . She is represented as sitting by her father Jupiter; and when anyone does injury to another, informs him of it f1333 . She is painted sorrowful, and with a contracted forehead, a grave countenance, and a rough aspect, to strike terror in unrighteous persons, and give confidence to righteous ones f1334 , agreeably to her name, which signifies justice. This deity the barbarians supposed pursued Paul; and though she let him escape the sea, she will not suffer him to live any longer; for they looked upon the vipers fastening on him, as to be sent by her, so to be immediate death to him.


    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 1-10 - God can make strangers to be friends; friends in distress. Those wh are despised for homely manners, are often more friendly than the mor polished; and the conduct of heathens, or persons called barbarians condemns many in civilized nations, professing to be Christians. The people thought that Paul was a murderer, and that the viper was sent by Divine justice, to be the avenger of blood. They knew that there is God who governs the world, so that things do not come to pass by chance, no, not the smallest event, but all by Divine direction; an that evil pursues sinners; that there are good works which God wil reward, and wicked works which he will punish. Also, that murder is dreadful crime, one which shall not long go unpunished. But the thought all wicked people were punished in this life. Though some ar made examples in this world, to prove that there is a God and Providence, yet many are left unpunished, to prove that there is judgment to come. They also thought all who were remarkably afflicte in this life were wicked people. Divine revelation sets this matter in a true light. Good men often are greatly afflicted in this life, for the trial and increase of their faith and patience. Observe Paul' deliverance from the danger. And thus in the strength of the grace of Christ, believers shake off the temptations of Satan, with holy resolution. When we despise the censures and reproaches of men, an look upon them with holy contempt, having the testimony of ou consciences for us, then, like Paul, we shake off the viper into the fire. It does us no harm, except we are kept by it from our duty. God hereby made Paul remarkable among these people, and so made way for the receiving of the gospel. The Lord raises up friends for his people in every place whither he leads them, and makes them blessings to those in affliction.


    Greek Textus Receptus


    ως
    5613 ADV δε 1161 CONJ ειδον 1492 5627 V-2AAI-3P οι 3588 T-NPM βαρβαροι 915 A-NPM κρεμαμενον 2910 5734 V-PMP-ASN το 3588 T-ASN θηριον 2342 N-ASN εκ 1537 PREP της 3588 T-GSF χειρος 5495 N-GSF αυτου 846 P-GSM ελεγον 3004 5707 V-IAI-3P προς 4314 PREP αλληλους 240 C-APM παντως 3843 ADV φονευς 5406 N-NSM εστιν 2076 5748 V-PXI-3S ο 3588 T-NSM ανθρωπος 444 N-NSM ουτος 3778 D-NSM ον 3739 R-ASM διασωθεντα 1295 5685 V-APP-ASM εκ 1537 PREP της 3588 T-GSF θαλασσης 2281 N-GSF η 3588 T-NSF δικη 1349 N-NSF ζην 2198 5721 V-PAN ουκ 3756 PRT-N ειασεν 1439 5656 V-AAI-3S

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    4.
    Justice (Dikh). Personified.

    Suffereth not (ouk eiasen). The aorist tense: did not suffer. His death is regarded as fixed by the divine decree.


    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    28:4 {The beast} (to qerion). Diminutive of qer and so little beast. See on Mr 1:13. Aristotle and the medical writers apply the word to venomous serpents, the viper in particular (Knowling), as Luke does here. Vincent calls attention to the curious history of our word "_treacle_" for molasses (Latin _theriaca_) from qeriake, an antidote made from the flesh of vipers. Coverdale translates #Jer 8:22: "There is no more treacle in Gilead." Jeremy Taylor: "We kill the viper and make treacle of him." {Hanging from his hand} (kremamenon ek tes ceiros autou). Vivid picture of the snake dangling from Paul's hand. Present middle participle of kremamai, late form for kremannumi, to hang up, to suspend (cf. #Ga 3:13). {No doubt} (pantws). Literally, By all means, old adverb. Cf. #21:22; Lu 4:23; 1Co 9:22. Only by Luke and Paul in the N.T. "They _knew_ that he was a prisoner being taken to Rome on some grave charge, and _inferred_ that the charge was murder" (Page). {Though he hath escaped} (diaswqenta). First aorist passive participle of diaswzw (same verb used in #24:43,44; 28:1), so-called concessive use of the participle (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1129). {Yet Justice} (dike). An abstraction personified like the Latin _Justitia_ (Page). The natives speak of dike as a goddess, but we know nothing of such actual worship in Malta, though the Greeks worshipped abstractions as in Athens. {Hath not suffered} (ouk eiasen). Did not suffer. They look on Paul as a doomed man as good as dead. These people thought that calamity was proof of guilt, poor philosophy and worse theology.


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