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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Leviticus 11:13


    CHAPTERS: Leviticus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27     

    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47

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    King James Bible - Leviticus 11:13

    And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,

    World English Bible

    "'These you shall detest among the birds; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the vulture, and the black vulture,

    Douay-Rheims - Leviticus 11:13

    Of birds these are they which you must not eat, and which are to be avoided by you: The eagle, and the griffon, and the osprey,

    Webster's Bible Translation

    And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,

    Original Hebrew

    ואת
    853 אלה 428 תשׁקצו 8262 מן 4480 העוף 5775 לא 3808 יאכלו 398 שׁקץ 8263 הם 1992 את 853 הנשׁר 5404 ואת 853 הפרס 6538 ואת 853 העזניה׃ 5822

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 11:13

    Y de las aves, éstas tendréis en abominación; no se comerán, serán abominación: el águila, el quebrantahuesos, el esmerejón,

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Leviticus 11:13

    Verse 13. And these-among the fowls-the
    eagle] rŤn nesher, from nashar, to lacerate, cut, or tear to pieces; hence the eagle, a most rapacious bird of prey, from its tearing the flesh of the animals it feeds on; and for this purpose birds of prey have, in general, strong, crooked talons and a hooked beak. The eagle is a cruel bird, exceedingly ravenous, and almost insatiable.

    The ossifrage] Or bone-breaker, from os, a bone, and frango, I break, because it not only strips off the flesh, but breaks the bone in order to extract the marrow. In Hebrew it is called srp peres, from paras, to break or divide in two, and probably signifies that species of the eagle anciently known by the name of ossifraga, and which we render ossifrage.

    Ospray] hynz[ ozniyah, from z[ azan, to be strong, vigorous; generally supposed to mean the black eagle, such as that described by Homer, Iliad.lib. xxi., ver. 252.

    aietou oimatĆ ecwn melanov, tou qhrhthrov, Ćov qĆ ama kartistov te kai wkistov petehnwn.

    "Having the rapidity of the black eagle, that bird of prey, at once the swiftest and the strongest of the feathered race." Among the Greeks and Romans the eagle was held sacred, and is represented as carrying the thunderbolts of Jupiter. This occurs so frequently, and is so well known, that references are almost needless. See Scheuchzer.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 13. And these [are they which] ye shall have in abomination among the fowls , etc.] No description or sign is given of fowls, as of beasts and fishes, only the names of those not to be eaten; which, according to Maimonides, are twenty four; so that all the rest but these are clean fowls, and might be eaten; wherefore the same writer observes f260 , that, “whoever was expert in these kinds, and in their names, might eat of every fowl which was not of them, and there was no need of an inquiry:” but what creatures are intended by these is not now easy to know; very different are the sentiments both of the Jews and Christians concerning them; and indeed it does not much concern us Christians to know what are meant by them, but as curiosity may lead us to such an inquiry, not thinking ourselves bound by these laws; but it is of moment with the Jews to know them, who think they are; wherefore, to supply this deficiency, they venture to give some signs by which clean and unclean fowls may be known, and they are three; such are clean who have a superfluous claw, and also a craw, and a crop that is uncovered by the hand f261 ; and on the contrary they are unclean, and not to be eaten, as says the Targum of Jonathan, which have no superfluous talon, or no craw, or a crop not uncovered: they shall not be eaten, they [are] an abomination ; and they are those that follow: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray ; about the first of these there is no difficulty, all agree the eagle is intended; which has its name either from the nature of its sight, or from the casting of its feathers, or from its tearing with its bill: it is a bird of prey, a very rapacious creature, and sometimes called the bird of Jupiter, and sacred to the gods; and these may be the reasons why forbid to be eaten, as well as because its flesh is hard, and not fit for food, and unwholesome; “the ossifrage” or “bone breaker” has its name from its tearing its prey and breaking its bones for the marrow, as the word “peres” here used signifies, ( Micah 3:3) it is said to dig up bodies in burying places to eat what it finds in the bones f262 : this is thought to be of the eagle kind, as it is reckoned by Pliny f263 , though Aristotle speaks of it as very different from the eagle, as larger than that, and of an ash colour; and is so kind to the eagle’s young, that when they are cast out by that, it takes them and brings them up: the “ospray” is the “halioeetus”, or sea eagle, as the Septuagint version and several others render it; which Aristotle describes as having a large and thick neck, crooked wings, and a broad tail, and resides about the sea and shores: Pliny speaks of it as having a very clear sight, and, poising itself on high, having sight of a fish in the sea, will rush down at once and fetch it out of the water; and he also reports that she will take her young before they are fledged, and oblige them to look directly against the rays of the sun, and if any of them wink, or their eyes water, she casts them out of her nest as a spurious brood. Aristotle f267 , who relates the same, says she kills them.

    The name of this creature, in the Hebrew text, seems to be taken from its strength; wherefore Bochart is of opinion, that the “melanoeetos”, or black eagle, which, though the least of eagles as to its size, exceeds all others in strength, as both Aristotle and Pliny say; and therefore, as the latter observes, is called by the Romans “valeria”, from its strength.

    Maimonides f271 says of these two last fowls, which we render the ossifrage and the ospray, that they are not to be found on the continent, but in the desert places of the isles of the sea very far off, even those which are at the end of the habitable world.


    Matthew Henry Commentary

    What animals were clean and unclean.

    --These laws seem to have been intended, 1. As a test of the people' obedience, as Adam was forbidden to eat of the tree of knowledge; an to teach them self-denial, and the government of their appetites. 2. To keep the Israelites distinct from other nations. Many also of thes forbidden animals were objects of superstition and idolatry to the heathen. 3. The people were taught to make distinctions between the holy and unholy in their companions and intimate connexions. 4. The la forbad, not only the eating of the unclean beasts, but the touching of them. Those who would be kept from any sin, must be careful to avoi all temptations to it, or coming near it. The exceptions are very minute, and all were designed to call forth constant care and exactnes in their obedience; and to teach us to obey. Whilst we enjoy ou Christian liberty, and are free from such burdensome observances, we must be careful not to abuse our liberty. For the Lord hath redeeme and called his people, that they may be holy, even as he is holy. We must come out, and be separate from the world; we must leave the company of the ungodly, and all needless connexions with those who ar dead in sin; we must be zealous of good works devoted followers of God and companions of his people.

    Ceremonial purification.

    --After the laws concerning clean and unclean food, come the law concerning clean and unclean persons. Man imparts his depraved natur to his offspring, so that, excepting as the atonement of Christ and the sanctification of the Spirit prevent, the original blessing, "Increas and multiply," Ge 1:28, is become to the fallen race a direful curse and communicates sin and misery. Let those women who have receive mercy from God in child-bearing, with all thankfulness own God' goodness to them; and this shall please the Lord better tha sacrifices __________________________________________________________________


    Original Hebrew

    ואת 853 אלה 428 תשׁקצו 8262 מן 4480 העוף 5775 לא 3808 יאכלו 398 שׁקץ 8263 הם 1992 את 853 הנשׁר 5404 ואת 853 הפרס 6538 ואת 853 העזניה׃ 5822


    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47

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