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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Leviticus 11:18


    CHAPTERS: Leviticus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27     

    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47

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    King James Bible - Leviticus 11:18

    And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle,

    World English Bible

    the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey,

    Douay-Rheims - Leviticus 11:18

    And the swan, and the bittern, and the porphyrion,

    Webster's Bible Translation

    And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier-eagle,

    Original Hebrew

    ואת
    853 התנשׁמת 8580 ואת 853 הקאת 6893 ואת 853 הרחם׃ 7360

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 11:18

    y el calamón, y el cisne, y el pelícano,

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Leviticus 11:18

    Verse 18. The swan] tmŤnt tinshemeth. The Septuagint translate the word by porfuriwna, the porphyrion,
    purple or scarlet bird. Could we depend on this translation, we might suppose the flamingo or some such bird to be intended. Some suppose the goose to be meant, but this is by no means likely, as it cannot be classed either among ravenous or unclean fowls. Bochart thinks the owl is meant.

    The pelican] taq kaath. As taq kaah signifies to vomit up, the name is supposed to be descriptive of the pelican, who receives its food into the pouch under its lower jaw, and, by pressing it on its breast with its bill, throws it up for the nourishment of its young. Hence the fable which represents the pelican wounding her breast with her bill, that she might feed her young with her own blood; a fiction which has no foundation but in the above circumstance. Bochart thinks the bittern is meant, vol. iii., col. 292.

    The gier eagle] µjr racham. As the root of this word signifies tenderness and affection, it is supposed to refer to some bird remarkable for its attachment to its young; hence some have thought that the pelican is to be understood. Bochart endeavours to prove that it means the vulture, probably that species called the golden vulture. - Bochart, vol. iii., col. 303.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 18. And the swan , etc.] This is a bird well known to us, but it is a question whether it is intended by the word here used; for though it is so rendered in the Vulgate Latin, it is differently rendered by many others: the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem call it “otia”, which seems to be the same with the “otus” of Aristotle f299 , who says it is like an owl, having a tuft of feathers about its ears (from whence it has its name); and some call it “nycticorax”, or the owl; and here, by Bochart f300 , and others, the owl called “noctua” is thought to be meant; and with which agrees the account some Jewish writers give of it, as Aben Ezra and Baal Hatturim, who say it is a bird, which every one that sees is astonished at it, as other birds are at the owl, are frightened at the sight of it, and stupefied. But as the same word is used ( Leviticus 11:30) among the creeping things, for a mole, what Jarchi observes is worthy of consideration, that this is “calve (chauve) souris” (the French word for a bat), and is like unto a mouse, and flies in the night; and that which is spoken of among the creeping things is like unto it, which hath no eyes, and they call it “talpa”, a mole. The Septuagint version renders it by “porphyrion”, the redshank; and so Ainsworth; and is thought to be called by the Hebrew name in the text, from the blowing of its breath in drinking; for it drinks biting, as Aristotle says f301 : and the pelican ; which has its name in Hebrew from vomiting; being said by Aben Ezra and Baal Hatturim to be a bird that vomits its food; and it is observed by several naturalists f302 , of the pelican, that it swallows down shellfish, and after they have lain some time in its stomach, it vomits them up again; where having been heated, the shells open, and it picks out the meat: and the gier eagle ; or vulture eagle, the “gypoeetos” of Aristotle f303 , and who says it is called also “oripelargos”, or the mountain stork; and which Pliny also makes to be an eagle of the vulture kind. Dr. Shaw says f305 , that near Cairo there are several flocks of the “ach bobba” (white father, differing little from the stork but in its colour), the “percnopterus” or “oripelargos”, which like the ravens about London feed upon carrion, and nastiness that is thrown without the city; this the Arabs call “rachama”, the same with µjr , ( Leviticus 11:18) and hmjr in ( Deuteronomy 14:17) and whatever bird is here meant, it must be one that is tender toward its young, as its name signifies, as Aben Ezra and Baal Hatturim observe; and though both the eagle and the vulture are rapacious birds, yet have a great regard to their young; of the eagle (see Deuteronomy 32:11) and the vulture, with the Egyptians, was an “hieroglyphic” of a tender mother, or any merciful person; it being reported of it, that during the one hundred twenty days its young are under its care, it very rarely flies from them, being so solicitous of nourishing them; and that by making incisions in its thigh, it lets out a bloody flow of milk, when it has nothing else to support them f306 . The Talmudists say, that the bird “racham”, as it is here called, is the same with “serakrak”, and is by the Targum of Jonathan, and in the Syriac version, here rendered “serakraka”, so called from qrç , which signifies to “squall”; and, according to Munster f308 , is thought by some to be the “pica”, magpie, or rather the jay; and Dr. Shaw observes, that by a small transmutation of letters, that and the “shagarag” of the Arabs are the same; which he says is of the size and shape of a jay, though with a smaller bill, and shorter legs; the back is brownish; the head, neck, and belly, of a light green; and upon the wings and tail there are several spots or ringlets of a deep blue; it makes a “squalling” noise; and, he adds, it has no small affinity both in voice and plumage with the jay. The Septuagint version renders the word by the “swan”; which if not intended by the first word in this text, may by this, being kind to its young, though otherwise reckoned a cruel and unmerciful bird, as Bochart observes; some think the woodpecker is meant, so called from its love to its parents f311 .

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    What
    animals were clean and unclean.

    --These laws seem to have been intended, 1. As a test of the people' obedience, as Adam was forbidden to eat of the tree of knowledge; an to teach them self-denial, and the government of their appetites. 2. To keep the Israelites distinct from other nations. Many also of thes forbidden animals were objects of superstition and idolatry to the heathen. 3. The people were taught to make distinctions between the holy and unholy in their companions and intimate connexions. 4. The la forbad, not only the eating of the unclean beasts, but the touching of them. Those who would be kept from any sin, must be careful to avoi all temptations to it, or coming near it. The exceptions are very minute, and all were designed to call forth constant care and exactnes in their obedience; and to teach us to obey. Whilst we enjoy ou Christian liberty, and are free from such burdensome observances, we must be careful not to abuse our liberty. For the Lord hath redeeme and called his people, that they may be holy, even as he is holy. We must come out, and be separate from the world; we must leave the company of the ungodly, and all needless connexions with those who ar dead in sin; we must be zealous of good works devoted followers of God and companions of his people.

    Ceremonial purification.

    --After the laws concerning clean and unclean food, come the law concerning clean and unclean persons. Man imparts his depraved natur to his offspring, so that, excepting as the atonement of Christ and the sanctification of the Spirit prevent, the original blessing, "Increas and multiply," Ge 1:28, is become to the fallen race a direful curse and communicates sin and misery. Let those women who have receive mercy from God in child-bearing, with all thankfulness own God' goodness to them; and this shall please the Lord better tha sacrifices __________________________________________________________________


    Original Hebrew

    ואת 853 התנשׁמת 8580 ואת 853 הקאת 6893 ואת 853 הרחם׃ 7360


    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47

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