SEV Biblia, Chapter 11:3 De entre los animales, todo el de pezuña, y que tiene las pezuñas hendidas, y que rumia, éste comeréis.
Clarke's Bible Commentary - Leviticus 11:3 Verse 3. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed] These two words mean the same thing-a divided hoof, such as that of the ox, where the hoof is divided into two toes, and each toe is cased with horn.
Cheweth the cud] Ruminates; casts up the grass, &c., which had been taken into the stomach for the purpose of mastication. Animals which chew the cud, or ruminate, are provided with two, three or four stomachs.
The ox has four: in the first or largest, called the ventriculus or paunch, the food is collected without being masticated, the grass, &c., being received into it as the beast crops it from the earth. The food, by the force of the muscular coats of this stomach, and the liquors poured in, is sufficiently macerated; after which, formed into small balls, it is thrown up by the oesophagus into the mouth, where it is made very small by mastication or chewing, and then sent down into the second stomach, into which the oesophagus or gullet opens, as well as into the first, ending exactly where the two stomachs meet. This is what is termed chewing the cud. The second stomach, which is called the reticulum, honeycomb, bonnet, or king's hood, has a great number of small shallow cells on its inward surface, of a pentagonal or five-sided form, exactly like the cells in a honey-comb; in this the food is farther macerated, and then pushed onward into the third stomach, called the omasum or many-plies, because its inward surface is covered with a great number of thin membraneous partitions. From this the food passes into the fourth stomach, called the abomasum, or rede. In this stomach it is digested, and from the digested mass the chyle is formed, which, being absorbed by the lacteal vessels, is afterwards thrown into the mass of blood, and becomes the principle of nutrition to all the solids and fluids of the body. The intention of rumination, or chewing the cud, seems to be, that the food may be sufficiently comminuted, that, being more fully acted on by the stomachs, it may afford the greatest possible portion of nutritive juices. The word cud is probably not originally Saxon, though found in that language in the same signification in which it is still used. Junius, with great show of probability, derives it from the Cambro-British chwyd, a vomit, as it is the ball of food vomited, or thrown up, from the first stomach or paunch through the oesophagus into the mouth, which is called by this name.
Those who prefer a Saxon derivation may have it in the verb whence our word chew; and so cud might be considered a contraction of chewed, but this is not so likely as the preceding.
John Gill's Bible Commentary Ver. 3. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven footed , etc.] That is, whose hoof is parted and cloven quite through; for there are some creatures that have partitions in their feet, but not quite through, they are parted above, but underneath are joined together by a skin; wherefore both these phrases are used to describe the beasts lawful to be eaten: the Egyptians seem to have borrowed this law from the Jews, for Chaeremon says f212 , that they abstain from such four footed beasts that have only one hoof, or have many partitions, or have no horns: and so the Targum of Jonathan adds here, “which have horns,” which, though not in the text, agrees well with the creatures allowed by this law to be eaten, (see Deuteronomy 14:4,5) for such are all horned cattle; nor are there any cattle horned forbid to be eaten: and cheweth the cud among the beasts, that shall ye eat : who having no upper teeth cannot thoroughly chew their food at once, and therefore bring it up again out of their stomachs into their mouths and chew it over again, that it may be better prepared for digestion in the stomach, and so yield better nourishment; and this makes the flesh of such creatures fitter for food: and these creatures have more stomachs than one; the ventricles for rumination are four; the first is the paunch, which in oxen is so big as to hold food of fifty pound weight, the second the honeycomb, the third the tripe, the fourth the honey tripe, and to which are helpful the pectoral muscle, the abdomen, with the diaphragm f213 : all this might have a moral and spiritual meaning in it, and may be applied either to ministers of the word; who ought rightly to divide the word of truth, and give to everyone their part, and who should walk uprightly according to it, and who should give themselves up wholly to the meditation of it, and thoroughly digest it; and study to show themselves workmen, that need not to be ashamed; or to private Christians, who have a discerning spirit in spiritual things, and can distinguish not only morality from immorality, but spiritual things from carnal, heavenly things from earthly, the voice of Christ from the voice of a stranger, and the doctrines of Christ from the doctrines of men; and who also walk as they should do, by faith on Christ, in the ways of God, and according to the Gospel; these chew the cud, meditate on the word, feed upon it while delivered, recall it, and have it brought to their remembrance by the divine Spirit, and ponder it in their hearts; (see Psalm 1:1,2).
Matthew Henry Commentary What animals were clean and unclean.
--These laws seem to have been intended, 1. As a test of the people' obedience, as Adam was forbidden to eat of the tree of knowledge; an to teach them self-denial, and the government of their appetites. 2. To keep the Israelites distinct from other nations. Many also of thes forbidden animals were objects of superstition and idolatry to the heathen. 3. The people were taught to make distinctions between the holy and unholy in their companions and intimate connexions. 4. The la forbad, not only the eating of the unclean beasts, but the touching of them. Those who would be kept from any sin, must be careful to avoi all temptations to it, or coming near it. The exceptions are very minute, and all were designed to call forth constant care and exactnes in their obedience; and to teach us to obey. Whilst we enjoy ou Christian liberty, and are free from such burdensome observances, we must be careful not to abuse our liberty. For the Lord hath redeeme and called his people, that they may be holy, even as he is holy. We must come out, and be separate from the world; we must leave the company of the ungodly, and all needless connexions with those who ar dead in sin; we must be zealous of good works devoted followers of God and companions of his people.
--After the laws concerning clean and unclean food, come the law concerning clean and unclean persons. Man imparts his depraved natur to his offspring, so that, excepting as the atonement of Christ and the sanctification of the Spirit prevent, the original blessing, "Increas and multiply," Ge 1:28, is become to the fallen race a direful curse and communicates sin and misery. Let those women who have receive mercy from God in child-bearing, with all thankfulness own God' goodness to them; and this shall please the Lord better tha sacrifices __________________________________________________________________
Original Hebrew כל 3605 מפרסת 6536 פרסה 6541 ושׁסעת 8156 שׁסע 8157 פרסת 6541 מעלת 5927 גרה 1625 בבהמה 929 אתה 853 תאכלו׃ 398