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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - 1 Corinthians 15:32


    CHAPTERS: 1 Corinthians 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16     
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58

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    King James Bible - 1 Corinthians 15:32

    If after the manner of men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, what advantageth it me, if the dead rise not? let us eat and drink; for to morrow we die.

    World English Bible

    If I fought with
    animals at Ephesus for human purposes, what does it profit me? If the dead are not raised, then "let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die."

    Douay-Rheims - 1 Corinthians 15:32

    If (according to man) I fought with beasts at Ephesus, what doth it profit me, if the dead rise not again? Let us eat and drink, for to morrow we shall die.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    If after the manner of
    men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, what advantage is it to me, if the dead rise not? let us eat and drink; for to-morrow we die.

    Greek Textus Receptus


    ει
    1487 COND κατα 2596 PREP ανθρωπον 444 N-ASM εθηριομαχησα 2341 5656 V-AAI-1S εν 1722 PREP εφεσω 2181 N-DSF τι 5101 I-NSN μοι 3427 P-1DS το 3588 T-NSN οφελος 3786 N-NSN ει 1487 COND νεκροι 3498 A-NPM ουκ 3756 PRT-N εγειρονται 1453 5743 V-PPI-3P φαγωμεν 5315 5632 V-2AAS-1P και 2532 CONJ πιωμεν 4095 5632 V-2AAS-1P αυριον 839 ADV γαρ 1063 CONJ αποθνησκομεν 599 5719 V-PAI-1P

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (32) -
    Ro 6:19 Ga 3:15

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 15:32

    Si como hombre batall en Efeso contra las bestias, ¿qu me aprovecha? Si los muertos no resucitan, comamos y bebamos, que maana moriremos.

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - 1 Corinthians 15:32

    Verse 32. If, after the manner of
    men, &c.] Much learned criticism has been employed on this verse, to ascertain whether it is to be understood literally or metaphorically. Does the apostle mean to say that he had literally fought with wild beasts at Ephesus? or, that he had met with brutish, savage men, from whom he was in danger of his life? That St. Paul did not fight with wild beasts at Ephesus, may be argued, 1. From his own silence on this subject, when enumerating his various sufferings, 2 Cor. xi. 23, &c. 2. From the silence of his historian, Luke, who, in the acts of this apostle, gives no intimation of this kind; and it certainly was too remarkable a circumstance to be passed over, either by Paul in the catalogue of his own sufferings, or by Luke in his history. 3. From similar modes of speech, which are employed metaphorically, and are so understood. 4. From the improbability that a Roman citizen, as Paul was, should be condemned to such a punishment, when in other cases, by pleading his privilege, he was exempted from being scourged, &c. And, 5.

    From the positive testimony of Tertullian and Chrysostom, who deny the literal interpretation.

    On the other hand, it is strongly argued that the apostle is to be literally understood; and that he did, at some particular time, contend with wild beasts at Ephesus, from which he was miraculously delivered. 1. That the phrase kata anqrwpon signifies as men used to do, and never means according to the manner of men, as implying their purpose, or, to use their forms of speech, &c. 2. From the circumstances of the case in Ephesus usually referred to, viz. the insurrection by Demetrius and his fellow craftsmen; where, though Paul would have been in danger had he gone into the theater, he was in little or none, as he did not adventure himself. 3.

    From his having endured much greater conflicts at Lystra and at Philippi than at Ephesus, at the former of which he was stoned to death, and again miraculously raised to life: see the notes on Acts xiv. 19, &c. And yet he calls not those greater dangers by this name. 4. That it cannot refer to the insurrection of Demetrius and his fellows, for St. Paul had no contention with them, and was scarcely in any danger, though Gaius and Aristarchus were: see the whole of Acts 19. And, 5. As we do not read of any other imminent danger to which he was exposed at Ephesus, and that already mentioned is not sufficient to justify the expression, I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, therefore we must conclude that he was at some time, not directly mentioned by his historian or himself, actually exposed to wild beasts at Ephesus. 6. That this is the case he refers to, 2 Cor. i. 8-10: For we would not, brethren, have you if ignorant of our trouble which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, kaq uperbolhn ebarhqhmen uper dunamiv, insomuch that we despaired even of life. But we had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God which raiseth the dead; who delivered us from so great a death: for these expressions refer to some excessive and unprecedented danger, from which nothing less than a miraculous interference could have saved him; and that it might have been an actual exposure to wild beasts, or any other danger equally great, or even greater.

    What advantageth it me, if the dead rise not?] I believe the common method of pointing this verse is erroneous; I propose to read it thus: If, after the manner of men, I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, what doth it advantage me? If the dead rise not, let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die.

    What the apostle says here is a regular and legitimate conclusion from the doctrine, that there is no resurrection: For if there be no resurrection, then there can be no judgment-no future state of rewards and punishments; why, therefore, should we bear crosses, and keep ourselves under continual discipline? Let us eat and drink, take all the pleasure we can, for tomorrow we die; and there is an end of us for ever. The words, Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die, are taken from Isa. xxii. 13, as they stand now in the Septuagint; and are a pretty smooth proverbial saying, which might be paralleled from the writings of several epicurean heathens, fagwmen kai piwmen? aurion gar apoqnhskomen. The words of Isaiah are twmn rjm yk wtr lwka akol reshatho, ki machar namuth: "In eating and drinking, for to-morrow we die ;" i.e. Let us spend our time in eating and drinking, &c. See a similar speech by Trimalchio in Petronius Arbiter, Satiric. cap. xxxvii:- Heu, heu nos miseros! quam totus homuncio nil est! Sic erimus cuncti, postquam nos auferet orcus.

    Ergo vivamus, dum licet esse bene.

    Alas! alas! what wretches we are! all mankind are a worthless pack: thus shall we all be, after death hath taken us away. Therefore, while we may, let us enjoy life.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 32. If after the manner of men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus , etc.] This is one of the particulars of the jeopardy and danger of life he had been in: some understand this in a figurative sense, and think that by beasts are meant Satan, the roaring lion, and his principalities and powers; or men of savage dispositions, persecuting principles, and cruel practices; as Herod is called a fox, by Christ, and Nero a lion, by the apostle; and suppose his fighting with them at Ephesus designs his disputations with the hardened and unbelieving Jews, his concern with exorcists, the seven sons of Sceva, and the troubles he met with through Demetrius the silversmith, and others of the same craft; the reason of such an interpretation is, because Luke makes no mention of anything of this kind, that befell the apostle in his history of the Acts of the Apostles: but to this it may be replied, that Luke does not relate everything that befell him and the rest; and his omission of this is no sufficient argument against it; besides, a literal sense not to be departed from, unless there is a necessity for it; and especially when it is suitable to the context, and to the thread and reasoning of the discourse, as it is certainly here; the literal sense best agrees with the apostles argument. There were two sorts of usages among the Romans in their theatres; sometimes they cast men naked to the wild beasts, to be devoured by them, as wicked servants, deadly enemies, and the vilest of men f326 ; and so the Syriac version renders the words here, if as among men, atwyjl tydta , I am cast to the beasts: and seems to represent it as a supposed case, and not as matter of fact, in which the difficulty about Lukes omission is removed, and the argument in a literal sense is just and strong: sometimes they put men armed into the theatre to fight with beasts f327 , and if they could conquer them and save themselves it was well, if not, they fell a prey to them; it is this last custom that is here referred to: and if regard is had to what befell thee apostle at Ephesus, when Demetrius and his craftsmen made the uproar mentioned in ( Acts 19:21-41) this could not be in reality, but only in the purpose and design of men; and certain it is, that though he was not then had to the theatre, yet Demetrius and his men intended to have hurried him there, as they did Gaius and Aristarchus his companions; and he himself was desirous of going thither, had he not been prevented by the disciples, and by the Asiarchs his friends, who had the command of the theatre where these practices were used; and then the sense is this, if after the manner of men, or in the intention and design of men, and as much as in them lay, I have fought with beasts at Ephesus; though if this epistle was written, as it is said to be, before that commotion by Demetrius, no respect can be had to that; but rather to something in fact before, at the same place, when the apostle did actually fight with beasts, and was wonderfully and providentially preserved; and may he what he refers to, in ( Corinthians 1:8-10) when he despaired of life, had the sentence of death in himself, and yet was delivered; and then his sense is, if after the manner of brutish men, the Romans, I have fought with beasts at Ephesus: which I was obliged to do, or deny the Gospel preached; what advantageth it me, if the dead rise not ? instead of its being a glorious action, it was a fool hardy one; and if he had died in it, what profit could he have had by it, if he rose not again; or if there is no resurrection of the dead? instead of incurring such dangers, and running such risks, it would be more eligible to sit down and say with the Epicureans, let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die ; which words seem to be taken out of ( Isaiah 22:13) and are used in favour of the doctrine of the resurrection, showing that the denial of it opens a door to all manner of licentiousness; and are not spoken as allowing or approving of such a conduct; nor as his own words, but as representing a libertine, and pointing out what such an one would say, and might justly infer from such a tenet, that there is no resurrection of the dead.

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 20-34 - All that are by
    faith united to Christ, are by his resurrection assure of their own. As through the sin of the first Adam, all men becam mortal, because all had from him the same sinful nature, so, throug the resurrection of Christ, shall all who are made to partake of the Spirit, and the spiritual nature, revive, and live for ever. There wil be an order in the resurrection. Christ himself has been the first-fruits; at his coming, his redeemed people will be raised befor others; at the last the wicked will rise also. Then will be the end of this present state of things. Would we triumph in that solemn an important season, we must now submit to his rule, accept his salvation and live to his glory. Then shall we rejoice in the completion of his undertaking, that God may receive the whole glory of our salvation that we may for ever serve him, and enjoy his favour. What shall thos do, who are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? Perhap baptism is used here in a figure, for afflictions, sufferings, an martyrdom, as Mt 20:22, 23. What is, or will become of those who have suffered many and great injuries, and have even lost their lives, for this doctrine of the resurrection, if the dead rise not at all Whatever the meaning may be, doubtless the apostle's argument wa understood by the Corinthians. And it is as plain to us tha Christianity would be a foolish profession, if it proposed advantage to themselves by their faithfulness to God; and to have our fruit to holiness, that our end may be everlasting life. But we must not liv like beasts, as we do not die like them. It must be ignorance of God that leads any to disbelieve the resurrection and future life. Thos who own a God and a providence, and observe how unequal things are in the present life, how frequently the best men fare worst, cannot doub as to an after-state, where every thing will be set to rights. Let u not be joined with ungodly men; but warn all around us, especiall children and young persons, to shun them as a pestilence. Let us awak to righteousness, and not sin.


    Greek Textus Receptus


    ει
    1487 COND κατα 2596 PREP ανθρωπον 444 N-ASM εθηριομαχησα 2341 5656 V-AAI-1S εν 1722 PREP εφεσω 2181 N-DSF τι 5101 I-NSN μοι 3427 P-1DS το 3588 T-NSN οφελος 3786 N-NSN ει 1487 COND νεκροι 3498 A-NPM ουκ 3756 PRT-N εγειρονται 1453 5743 V-PPI-3P φαγωμεν 5315 5632 V-2AAS-1P και 2532 CONJ πιωμεν 4095 5632 V-2AAS-1P αυριον 839 ADV γαρ 1063 CONJ αποθνησκομεν 599 5719 V-PAI-1P

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    32. After the manner of
    men (kata anqrwpon). As men ordinarily do, for temporal reward; and not under the influence of any higher principle or hope.

    I have fought with beasts (eqhriomachsa). Only here in the New Testament. Figuratively. Paul, as a Roman citizen, would not have been set to fight with beasts in the arena; and such an incident would not have been likely to be passed over by Luke in the Acts. Compare similar metaphors in ch. iv. 9, 2 Tim. iv. 17; Tit. i. 12; Psalm xxii. 12, 13, 20, 21. Some, however, think it is to be taken literally. 129 They refer to the presence at Ephesus of the Asiarchs (Acts xix. 31), who had charge of the public games, as indicating that the tumult took place at the season of the celebration of the games in honor of Diana; to the fact that the young men at Ephesus were famous for their bull-fights; and to the words at Ephesus as indicating a particular incident. On the assumption that he speaks figuratively, the natural reference is to his experience with the ferocious mob at Ephesus. There was a legend that Paul was thrown, first of all, to a lion; then to other beasts, but was left untouched by them all. In the Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans occur these words: "From Syria even unto Rome, I fight with beasts, both by land and sea, both night and day, being bound to ten leopards. I mean a band of soldiers, who, even when they receive benefits, show themselves all the worse" (v.). Compare Epistle to Tralles, 10.: "Why do I pray that I may fight with wild beasts?" So in the Epistle to Smyrna he says: "I would put you on your guard against these monsters in human shape" (qhriwn twn anqrwpomorfwn); and in the Antiochene "Acts of Martyrdom" it is said: "He (Ignatius) was seized by a beastly soldiery, to be led away to Rome as a prey for carnivorous beasts" (ii.).

    Let us eat and drink, etc. Cited, after the Septuagint, from Isa. xxii. 13. It is the exclamation of the people of Jerusalem during the siege by the Assyrians. The traditional founder of Tarsus was Sardanapalus, who was worshipped, along with Semiramis, with licentious rites which resembled those of the Feast of Tabernacles. Paul had probably witnessed this festival, and had seen, at the neighboring town of Anchiale, the statue of Sardanapalus, represented as snapping his fingers, and with the inscription upon the pedestal, "Eat, drink, enjoy thyself. The rest is nothing." Farrar cites the fable of the Epicurean fly, dying in the honey-pot with the words, "I have eaten and drunk and bathed, and I care nothing if I die." Among the inscriptions from the catacombs, preserved in the Vatican are these: "To the divine shade of Titus, who lived fifty-seven years. Here he enjoys everything. Baths and wine ruin our constitutions, but they make life what it is. Farewell, farewell." "While I lived I lived well. My play is now ended - soon yours will be. Farewell and applaud me." Compare Wisdom of Solomon, ii. 1-9.


    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    15:32 {After the manner of men} (kata anqrwpon). Like men, for applause, money, etc. (#4:9ff.; Php 3:7). {If I fought with wild beasts at Ephesus} (ei eqeriomacesa en efeswi). Late verb from qeriomacos, a fighter with wild beasts. Found in inscriptions and in Ignatius. Those who argue for an Ephesian imprisonment for Paul and Ephesus as the place where he wrote the imprisonment epistles (see Duncan's book just mentioned) take the verb literally. There is in the ruins of Ephesus now a place called St. Paul's Prison. But Paul was a Roman citizen and it was unlawful to make such a one be a qeriomacos. If he were cast to the lions unlawfully, he could have prevented it by claiming his citizenship. Besides, shortly after this Paul wrote II Corinthians, but he does not mention so unusual a peril in the list in #2Co 11:23f. The incident, whatever it was, whether literal or figurative language, took place before Paul wrote I Corinthians. {What doth it profit me?} (ti moi to ofelos?). What the profit to me? {Let us eat and drink} (fagwmen kai piwmen). Volitive second aorist subjunctives of esqiw and pinw. Cited from #Isa 22:13. It is the outcry of the people of Jerusalem during the siege of Jerusalem by the Assyrians. At Anchiale near Tarsus is a statue of Sardanapalus with the inscription: "Eat, drink, enjoy thyself. The rest is nothing." this was the motto of the Epicureans. Paul is not giving his own view, but that of people who deny the resurrection.


    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58

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