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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Matthew 1:18


    CHAPTERS: Matthew 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28     

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    King James Bible - Matthew 1:18

    Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost.

    World English Bible

    Now the birth of Jesus Christ was like this; for after his mother, Mary, was engaged to Joseph, before they came together, she was found pregnant by the Holy Spirit.

    Douay-Rheims - Matthew 1:18

    Now the generation of Christ was in this wise. When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with
    child, of the Holy Ghost.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    Now the birth of Jesus Christ was in this manner: When his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with
    child by the Holy Spirit.

    Greek Textus Receptus


    του
    3588 T-GSM δε 1161 CONJ ιησου 2424 N-GSM χριστου 5547 N-GSM η 3588 T-NSF γεννησις 1083 N-NSF ουτως 3779 ADV ην 2258 5713 V-IXI-3S μνηστευθεισης 3423 5685 V-APP-GSF γαρ 1063 CONJ της 3588 T-GSF μητρος 3384 N-GSF αυτου 846 P-GSM μαριας 3137 N-GSF τω 3588 T-DSM ιωσηφ 2501 N-PRI πριν 4250 ADV η 2228 PRT συνελθειν 4905 5629 V-2AAN αυτους 846 P-APM ευρεθη 2147 5681 V-API-3S εν 1722 PREP γαστρι 1064 N-DSF εχουσα 2192 5723 V-PAP-NSF εκ 1537 PREP πνευματος 4151 N-GSN αγιου 40 A-GSN

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (18) -
    Lu 1:27-38

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 1:18

    ¶ Y el nacimiento de Jess, el Cristo, fue así: Que siendo María su madre desposada con Jos, antes que se juntasen, se hall que había concebido del Espíritu Santo.

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Matthew 1:18

    Verse 18.
    Espoused to Joseph] The word mnhsteuqeishv, from mnhsteuw, to contract, or betroth, refers to the previous marriage agreement, in which the parties mutually bound themselves to each other; without which, no woman was ever married among the Jews. Among the Hindoos, a woman is espoused often a whole year, and even longer before the marriage takes place.

    Before they came together] The woman was espoused at her own, or her father's house; and, generally, some time elapsed before she was taken home to the house of her husband: Deut. xx. 7; Judg. xiv. 7, 8.

    This custom has been immemorially observed among the inhabitants of Ireland, who have not only this, but many Asiatic customs, which, added to various authentic historic proofs, are collateral evidences that they received the Christian religion, not from the popes of Rome, but through the means of Asiatic missionaries.

    Among the Jews, the espousal, though the marriage had not been consummated, was considered as perfectly legal and binding on both sides; and hence a breach of this contract was considered as a case of adultery, and punished exactly in the same way. See Deut. xxii. 25, 28. Nor could a contract of this kind, though there was no cohabitation, be broken but by a regular divorce, as Mr. Selden, in his Uxor Hebraica, has proved at large from the Jewish rabbins.

    She was found with child] Her situation was the most distressing and humiliating that can be conceived. Nothing but the fullest consciousness of her own integrity, and the strongest confidence in God, could have supported her in such trying circumstances, where her reputation, her honour, and her life were at stake. What conversation passed between her and Joseph, on this discovery, we are not informed; but the issue proves that it was not satisfactory to him: nor could he resolve to consider her as his wife, till God had sent his angel to bear the most unequivocal testimony to the virgin's innocence. His whole conduct, on this occasion, was exceedingly benevolent and humane. He might at once have taken the advantage of the law, Deut. xxii. 23, 24, and had her stoned to death.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 18. Now the birth of Jesus Christ , etc.] The Evangelist having finished the genealogy of Christ, proceeds to give an account of his birth, which includes both his conception and bringing forth; and which he says was on this wise , outwv so, after this manner, and which was very wonderful and astonishing; when as, gar, for his mother Mary was found with child , not of man, no, not of Joseph her husband; Christ had no real father as man, Joseph was only, as was supposed, his father; but of the Holy Ghost , according to ( Luke 1:35). The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, etc. and this was done that the human nature of Christ might be clear of original pollution; that so being the immediate produce of the Holy Ghost and without sin, it might be fit for union with the Son of God, and for the office of Mediator he had undertook. When Mary is said to be found with child , the meaning is, it appeared by evident signs, it was observed by Joseph particularly, who might know not only that she was with child, but with child of the Holy Ghost; by conversation with her, who might relate to him what passed between the Angel and her, ( Luke 1:28,36) though it looks as if as yet he did not know this, or at least was not fully satisfied about it; since he had a mind to have put her away, before he was assured of the truth of it, by the appearance of an angel to him. Now Marys being with child, and its being known, were facts, at the time when she was espoused to Joseph , and thereby the outward credit both of Mary and Jesus were secured; for had this appeared before the espousals, the Jews would have fixed a brand of infamy on them both; and both the espousals and her being found with child, were before they came together ; that is, before they cohabited together as man and wife, before he brought her home to his own house and bed. The espousals were before they thus came together. It was usual with the Jews first to espouse or betroth, and then to marry, or rather consummate the marriage, by bringing the woman home to her husbands house, between which there was some space of time. The account and manner of betrothing is given by Maimonides in the following words. Before the giving of the law, if a man met a woman in the street, if he would, he might take her, and bring her into his house and marry her between him and herself, and she became his wife; but when the law was given, the Israelites were commanded, that if a man would take a woman he should obtain her before witnesses, and after that she should be his wife, according to ( Deuteronomy 22:13) and these takings are an affirmative command of the law, and are called yswrya wa ywdyq espousals or betrothings in every place; and a woman who is obtained in such a way is called tsrwam wa tdwqm espoused or betrothed; and when a woman is obtained, and becomes tdwqm espoused, although she is not yet hl[bn married, nor has entered into her husbands house, yet she is a mans wife.

    And such a distinction between a married woman and a betrothed virgin, which was Marys case, may be observed in ( Deuteronomy 22:22,23) moreover, her being found or appearing to be with child, was before they came together; which it is likely, as Dr. Lightfoot observes, was about three months from her conception, when she was returned from her cousin Elizabeth. It is probable that as soon as she was espoused to Joseph, or quickly after, she went and paid her visit to Elizabeth, with whom she stayed about three months, and then returned home, ( Luke 1:56). Upon her return home, she appears to be with child, with which she had gone three months, a proper time for the discovery of such a matter, ( Genesis 38:24) and which is assigned by the Jewish doctors for this purpose. In the Misna such a case as this is put, If two men should espouse two women, and at the time of their entrance into the bride chamber, the one should be taken for the other they separate them for three months, because they may prove with child; that is, as Bartenora observes upon it, they separate them that they may not return to their husbands; and that if they should be with child, they may distinguish between a legitimate and an illegitimate offspring; and that the children which they may bring forth may not be ascribed to the wrong persons.

    Now Mary being gone three months from the time of her espousals to Joseph, and he and she not being yet come together, it was a clear case, that the child she was gone three months with, was none of his; hence it follows, Ver. 19. Then Joseph her husband , etc.] To whom she had been betrothed, and who was her husband, and she his wife according to the Jewish law, ( Deuteronomy 22:23,24) though not yet come together, being a just man , observant of the law of God, particularly that which respected adultery, being wholly good and chaste, like the Patriarch of the same name; a character just the reverse of that which the Jews give him, in their scandalous book of the life of Jesus; where, in the most malicious manner, they represent him as an unchaste and an unrighteous person: and not willing to make her a public example , or to deliver her, i.e. to the civil magistrate, according to Munsters Hebrew edition. The Greek word signifies to punish by way of example to others, to deter them from sinning; and with the ancients it denoted the greatest and severest punishment.

    Here it means either bringing her before the civil magistrate, in order to her being punished according to the law in ( Deuteronomy 22:23,24) which requires the person to be brought out to the gate of the city and stoned with stones, which was making a public example indeed; or divorcing her in a very public manner, and thereby expose her to open shame and disgrace. To prevent which, he being tender and compassionate, though strictly just and good, was minded to put her away privily : he deliberately consulted and determined within himself to dismiss her, or put her away by giving her a bill of divorce, in a very private manner; which was sometimes done by putting it into the womans hand or bosom, (see Deuteronomy 24:1). In Munsters Hebrew Gospel it is rendered, it was in his heart to forsake her privately.


    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 18-25 - Let us look to the circumstances under which the Son of God entere into this lower world, till we learn to despise the vain honours of this world, when compared with piety and holiness. The mystery of Christ's becoming man is to be adored, not curiously inquired into. It was so ordered that Christ should partake of our nature, yet that he should be pure from the defilement of original sin, which has bee communicated to all the race of Adam. Observe, it is the thoughtful not the unthinking, whom God will guide. God's time to come with instruction to his people, is when they are at a loss. Divine comfort most delight the soul when under the pressure of perplexed thoughts Joseph is told that Mary should bring forth the Saviour of the world He was to call his name Jesus, a Saviour. Jesus is the same name with Joshua. And the reason of that name is clear, for those whom Chris saves, he saves from their sins; from the guilt of sin by the merit of his death, and from the power of sin by the Spirit of his grace. I saving them from sin, he saves them from wrath and the curse, and all misery, here and hereafter. Christ came to save his people, not in their sins, but from their sins; and so to redeem them from among men to himself, who is separate from sinners. Joseph did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, speedily, without delay, and cheerfully without dispute. By applying the general rules of the written word, we should in all the steps of our lives, particularly the great turns of them, take direction from God, and we shall find this safe an comfortable __________________________________________________________________


    Greek Textus Receptus


    του
    3588 T-GSM δε 1161 CONJ ιησου 2424 N-GSM χριστου 5547 N-GSM η 3588 T-NSF γεννησις 1083 N-NSF ουτως 3779 ADV ην 2258 5713 V-IXI-3S μνηστευθεισης 3423 5685 V-APP-GSF γαρ 1063 CONJ της 3588 T-GSF μητρος 3384 N-GSF αυτου 846 P-GSM μαριας 3137 N-GSF τω 3588 T-DSM ιωσηφ 2501 N-PRI πριν 4250 ADV η 2228 PRT συνελθειν 4905 5629 V-2AAN αυτους 846 P-APM ευρεθη 2147 5681 V-API-3S εν 1722 PREP γαστρι 1064 N-DSF εχουσα 2192 5723 V-PAP-NSF εκ 1537 PREP πνευματος 4151 N-GSN αγιου 40 A-GSN

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    18.
    Espoused (mnhsteuqeishv: Rev., betrothed; Tyn., maryed). The narrative implies a distinction between betrothal and marriage. From the moment of her betrothal a woman was treated as if actually married. The union could be dissolved only by regular divorce. Breach of faithfulness was regarded as adultery, and was punishable with death (Deuteronomy xxii. 23, 24), and the woman's property became virtually that of her betrothed, unless he had expressly renounced it; but, even in that case, he was her natural heir.

    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    1:18 {The
    birth of Jesus Christ} (tou [iesou] cristou he genesis). In the Greek Jesus Christ comes before birth as the important matter after #1:16. It is not certain whether "Jesus" is here a part of the text as it is absent in the old Syriac and the Old Latin while the Washington Codex has only "Christ." The Vatican Codex has "Christ Jesus." But it is plain that the story of the birth of Jesus Christ is to be told briefly as follows, "on this wise" (houtws), the usual Greek idiom. The oldest and best manuscripts have the same word genealogy (genesis) used in #1:1, not the word for birth (begotten) as in #1:16 (gennesis). "It is in fact the word genesis. The evangelist is about to describe, not the genesis of the heaven and the earth, but the genesis of Him who made the heaven and the earth, and who will yet make a new heaven and a new earth" (Morison).

    {Betrothed to Joseph} (mnesteuqeises twi iwsef). Matthew proceeds to explain his statement in #1:16 which implied that Joseph, though the legal father of Jesus in the royal line, was not the actual father of Mary's Son. Betrothal with the Jews was a serious matter, not lightly entered into and not lightly broken. The man who betrothed a maiden was legally husband (#Ge 29:21; De 22:23f.) and "an informal cancelling of betrothal was impossible" (McNeile). Though they did not live together as husband and wife till actual marriage, breach of faithfulness on the part of the betrothed was treated as adultery and punished with death. _The New Testament in Braid Scots_ actually has "mairry't till Joseph" for "betrothed to Joseph." Matthew uses the genitive absolute construction here, a very common Greek idiom.

    {Of the Holy Ghost} (ek pneumatos hagiou). The discovery that Mary was pregnant was inevitable and it is plain that she had not told Joseph. She "was found with child" (heureqe en gastri ecousa). this way of putting it, the usual Greek idiom, plainly shows that it was the discovery that shocked Joseph. He did not as yet know what Matthew plainly asserts that the Holy Ghost, not Joseph and not any man, was responsible for the pregnancy of Mary. The problem of the Virgin Birth of Jesus has been a disturbing fact to some through all the ages and is today to those who do not believe in the pre-existence of Christ, the Son of God, before his Incarnation on earth. this is the primal fact about the Birth of Christ. The Incarnation of Christ is clearly stated by Paul (#2Co 8:9; Php 2:5-11; and involved in #Col 1:15-19) and by John (#Joh 1:14; 17:5). If one frankly admits the actual pre-existence of Christ and the real Incarnation, he has taken the longest and most difficult step in the matter of the supernatural Birth of Christ. That being true, no merely human birth without the supernatural element can possibly explain the facts. Incarnation is far more than the Indwelling of God by the Holy Spirit in the human heart. To admit real incarnation and also full human birth, both father and mother, creates a greater difficulty than to admit the Virgin Birth of Jesus begotten by the Holy Spirit, as Matthew here says, and born of the Virgin Mary. It is true that only Matthew and Luke tell the story of the supernatural birth of Jesus, though #Joh 1:14 seems to refer to it. Mark has nothing whatever concerning the birth and childhood of Jesus and so cannot be used as a witness on the subject. Both Matthew and Luke present the birth of Jesus as not according to ordinary human birth. Jesus had no human father. There is such a thing in nature as parthenogenesis in the lower orders of life. But that scientific fact has no bearing here. We see here God sending his Son into the world to be the world's Savior and he gave him a human mother, but not a human father so that Jesus Christ is both Son of God and Son of Man, the God Man. Matthew tells the story of the birth of Jesus from the standpoint of Joseph as Luke gives it from the standpoint of Mary. The two narratives harmonize with each other. One credits these most wonderful of all birth narratives according as he believes in the love and power of Almighty God to do what he wills. There is no miracle with God who has all power and all knowledge. The laws of nature are simply the expression of God's will, but he has not revealed all his will in the laws that we discover. God is Spirit. He is Person. He holds in his own power all life. #Joh 3:16 is called the Little Gospel because it puts briefly the love of God for men in sending his own Son to live and die for us.



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