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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Matthew 1:19


    CHAPTERS: Matthew 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28     

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    King James Bible - Matthew 1:19

    Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a publick example, was minded to put her away privily.

    World English Bible

    Joseph, her husband, being a righteous man, and not willing to make her a
    public example, intended to put her away secretly.

    Douay-Rheims - Matthew 1:19

    Whereupon Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing publicly to expose her, was minded to put her away privately.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a
    public example, purposed to put her away privately.

    Greek Textus Receptus


    ιωσηφ
    2501 N-PRI δε 1161 CONJ ο 3588 T-NSM ανηρ 435 N-NSM αυτης 846 P-GSF δικαιος 1342 A-NSM ων 5607 5752 V-PXP-NSM και 2532 CONJ μη 3361 PRT-N θελων 2309 5723 V-PAP-NSM αυτην 846 P-ASF παραδειγματισαι 3856 5658 V-AAN εβουληθη 1014 5675 V-AOI-3S λαθρα 2977 ADV απολυσαι 630 5658 V-AAN αυτην 846 P-ASF

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (19) -
    Le 19:20 De 22:23,24

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 1:19

    Y Jos su marido, como era justo, y no queriendo infamarla, quiso dejarla secretamente.

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Matthew 1:19

    Verse 19. To make her a
    public example] paradeigmatisai, to expose her to public infamy; from para, near, and deiknumai, I show, or expose; what is oddly, though emphatically, called in England, showing up-exposing a character to public view. Though Joseph was a righteous man, dikaiov, and knew that the law required that such persons as he supposed his wife to be should be put to death, yet, as righteousness is ever directed by mercy, he determined to put her away or divorce her privately, i.e. without assigning any cause, that her life might be saved; and, as the offense was against himself, he had a right to pass it by if he chose. Some have supposed that the term dikaiov should be translated merciful, and it certainly often has this signification; but here it is not necessary.

    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 18-25 - Let us look to the circumstances under which the Son of
    God entere into this lower world, till we learn to despise the vain honours of this world, when compared with piety and holiness. The mystery of Christ's becoming man is to be adored, not curiously inquired into. It was so ordered that Christ should partake of our nature, yet that he should be pure from the defilement of original sin, which has bee communicated to all the race of Adam. Observe, it is the thoughtful not the unthinking, whom God will guide. God's time to come with instruction to his people, is when they are at a loss. Divine comfort most delight the soul when under the pressure of perplexed thoughts Joseph is told that Mary should bring forth the Saviour of the world He was to call his name Jesus, a Saviour. Jesus is the same name with Joshua. And the reason of that name is clear, for those whom Chris saves, he saves from their sins; from the guilt of sin by the merit of his death, and from the power of sin by the Spirit of his grace. I saving them from sin, he saves them from wrath and the curse, and all misery, here and hereafter. Christ came to save his people, not in their sins, but from their sins; and so to redeem them from among men to himself, who is separate from sinners. Joseph did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, speedily, without delay, and cheerfully without dispute. By applying the general rules of the written word, we should in all the steps of our lives, particularly the great turns of them, take direction from God, and we shall find this safe an comfortable __________________________________________________________________


    Greek Textus Receptus


    ιωσηφ
    2501 N-PRI δε 1161 CONJ ο 3588 T-NSM ανηρ 435 N-NSM αυτης 846 P-GSF δικαιος 1342 A-NSM ων 5607 5752 V-PXP-NSM και 2532 CONJ μη 3361 PRT-N θελων 2309 5723 V-PAP-NSM αυτην 846 P-ASF παραδειγματισαι 3856 5658 V-AAN εβουληθη 1014 5675 V-AOI-3S λαθρα 2977 ADV απολυσαι 630 5658 V-AAN αυτην 846 P-ASF

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    19. Not willing (mh qelwn) - was
    minded (eboulhqh). These two words, describing the working of Joseph's mind, and evidently intended to express different phases of thought, open the question of their distinctive meanings in the New Testament, where they frequently occur (qelw much oftener than boulomai), and where the rendering, in so many cases by the same words, furnishes no clue to the distinction. The original words are often used synonymously in cases where no distinction is emphasized; but their use in other cases reveals a radical and recognized difference. An interchange is inadmissable when the greater force of the expression requires qelein. For instance, boulesqai would be entirely inappropriate at Matt. viii. 3, "I will, be thou cleansed;" or at Romans vii. 15.

    The distinction, which is abundantly illustrated in Homer, is substantially maintained by the classical writers throughout, and in the New Testament.

    Qelein is the stronger word, and expresses a purpose or determination or decree, the execution of which is, or is believed to be, in the power of him who wills. Boulesqai expresses wish, inclination, or disposition, whether one desires to do a thing himself or wants some one else to do it. Qelein, therefore, denotes the active resolution, the will urging on to action. Boulesqai is to have a mind, to desire, sometimes a little stronger, running into the sense of purpose. Qelein indicates the impulse of the will; boulesqai, its tendency. Boulesqai can always be rendered by qelein, but qelein cannot always be expressed by boulesqai.

    Thus, Agamemnon says, "I would not (ouk eqelon) receive the ransom for the maid (i.e., I refused to receive), because I greatly desire (boulomai) to have her at home" (Homer, "Il.," i. 112). So Demosthenes: "It is fitting that you should be willing (eqelein) to listen to those who wish (boulomenwn) to advise" ("Olynth.," i. 1). That is to say, It is in your power to determine whether or not you will listen to those who desire to advise you, but who power to do so depends on your consent. Again: "If the gods will it (qelwsi) and you wish it (boulhsqe)" (Demosth., "Olynth.," ii. 20). 1

    In the New Testament, as observed above, though the words are often interchanged, the same distinction is recognized. Thus, Matt. ii. 18, "Rachael would not (hqele) be comforted;" obstinately and positively refused. Joseph, having the right and power under the (assumed) circumstances to make Mary a public example, resolved (qelwn) to spare her this exposure. Then the question arose - What should he do? On this he thought, and, having thought (enqumhqentov), his mind inclined (tendency), he was minded (eboulhqh) to put her away secretly.

    Some instances of the interchanged use of the two words are the following: Mark xv. 15, "Pilate willing" (boulomenov); compare Luke xxiii. 20, "Pilate willing" (qelwn). Acts xxvii. 43, "The centurion willing" (boulomenov); Matt. xxvii. 17, "Whom will ye that I release" (qelete); so ver. 21. John xviii. 39, "Will ye that I release" (boulesqe); Matt. xiv. 5, "When he would have put him to death" (qelwn). Mark vi. 48, "He would have passed by them" (hqele); Acts xix. 30, "Paul would have entered" (boulomenou). Acts xviii. 27, "He was disposed to pass" (boulomenou). Tit. iii. 8, "I will that thou affirm" (boulomai). Mark vi. 25, "I will that though give me" (qelw), etc., etc.

    In the New Testament qelw occurs in the following senses:

    1. A decree or determination of the will.

    (a) Of God (Matt. xii. 7; Rom. ix. 16, 18; Acts xviii. 21; 1 Corinthians iv. 19; xii. 18; xv. 38).

    (b) Of Christ (Matt. viii. 3; John xvii. 24; v. 21; xxi. 22).

    (c) Of men (Acts xxv. 9). Festus, having the power to gratify the Jews, and determining to do so, says to Paul, who has the right to decide, "Wilt thou go up to Jerusalem?" John vi. 67, Others of the disciples had decided to leave Jesus. Christ said to the twelve, "Will ye also go away?" Is that your determination? John vii. 17, I any man sets his will, is determined to do God's will. John viii. 44, The lusts of your father your will is set to do. Acts xxiv. 6.

    2. A wish or desire. Very many of the passages, however, which are cited under this head (as by Grimm) may fairly be interpreted as implying something stronger than a wish; notably Mark xiv. 36, of Christ in Gethsemane. Our Lord would hardly have used what thou wilt in so feeble a sense as that of a desire or wish on God's part. Mark x. 43, "Whosoever will be great," expresses more than the desire for greatness. It is the purpose of the life. Matt. xxvii. 15, It was given to the Jews to decide what prisoner should be released. Luke i. 62, The name of the infant John was referred to Zacharias' decision. John xvii. 24, Surely Christ does more than desire that those whom the Father has given him shall be with him. Luke ix. 54, It is for Jesus to command fire upon the Samaritan villages if he so wills. (See, also, John xv. 7; 1 Cor. iv. 21; Matt. xvi. 25, xix. 17, John xxi. 22; Matt. xiii. 28; xvii. 12.) In the sense of wish or desire may fairly be cited 2 Cor. xi. 12; Matt. xii. 38; Luke viii. 20; xxiii. 8; John xii. 21; Gal. iv. 20; Matt. vii. 12; Mark x. 35.

    3. A liking (Mark xii. 38; Luke xx. 46; Matt. xxvii. 43). (See note there.)

    Boulomai occurs in the following senses:

    1. Inclination or disposition (Acts xviii. 27; xix. 30; xxv. 22; xxviii. 18; 2 Corinthians i. 15).

    2. Stronger, with the idea of purpose (1 Tim. vi. 9; Jas. i. 18; iii. 4; 1 Cor. xii. 11; Heb. vi. 17).

    In most, if not all of these cases, we might expect qelein; but this use of boulomai there is an implied emphasis on the element of free choice or self-determination, which imparts to the desire or inclination a decretory force. This element is in the human will by gift and consent. In the divine will it is inherent. At this point the Homeric usage may be compared in its occasional employment of boulomai to express determination, but only with reference to the gods, in whom to wish is to will. Thus, "Whether Apollo will (bouletai) ward off the plague" ("Il.," i. 67). "Apollo willed (bouleto) victory to the Trojans" (Il.," vii. 21).

    To make a public example (deigmatisai). The word is kindred to deiknumi, to exhibit, display, point out. Here, therefore, to expose Mary to public shame (Wyc., publish her; Tyn., defame her). The word occurs in Col. ii. 15, of the victorious Savior displaying the vanquished powers of evil as a general displays his trophies or captives in a triumphal procession. "He made a show of them openly." A compound of the same word (paradeigmatizw) appears in Heb. vi. 6, "They crucify the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame."


    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    1:19 {A Righteous Man} (dikaios). Or just, not benignant or merciful. The same adjective is used of Zacharias and Elizabeth (#Lu 1:6) and Simeon (#Lu 2:25). "An upright man," the _Braid Scots_ has it. He had the Jewish conscientiousness for the observance of the law which would have been death by stoning (#De 22:23). Though Joseph was upright, he would not do that. "As a good Jew he would have shown his zeal if he had branded her with public disgrace" (McNeile). {And yet not willing} (kai me qelwn). So we must understand kai here, "and yet." Matthew makes a distinction here between "willing" (qelwn) and "wishing" (ebouleqe), that between purpose (qelw) and desire (boulomai) a distinction not always drawn, though present here. It was not his purpose to "make her a public example" (deigmatisai), from the root (deiknumi to show), a rare word (#Col 2:15). The Latin Vulgate has it _traducere_, the Old Latin _divulgare_, Wycliff _pupplische_ (publish), Tyndale _defame_, Moffatt _disgrace_, Braid Scots "Be i the mooth o' the public." The substantive (deigmatismos) occurs on the Rosetta Stone in the sense of "verification." There are a few instances of the verb in the papyri though the meaning is not clear (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_). The compound form appears (paradeigmatizw) in #Heb 6:6 and there are earlier instances of this compound than of the uncompounded, curiously enough. But new examples of the simple verb, like the substantive, may yet be found. The papyri examples mean to furnish a sample (P Tebt. 5.75), to make trial of (P Ryl. I. 28.32). The substantive means exposure in (P Ryl. I. 28.70). At any rate it is clear that Joseph "was minded to put her away privily." He could give her a bill of divorcement (apolusai), the gt laid down in the Mishna, without a public trial. He had to give her the writ (get) and pay the fine (#De 24:1). So he proposed to do this privately (laqrai) to avoid all the scandal possible. One is obliged to respect and sympathize with the motives of Joseph for he evidently loved Mary and was appalled to find her untrue to him as he supposed. It is impossible to think of Joseph as the actual father of Jesus according to the narrative of Matthew without saying that Matthew has tried by legend to cover up the illegitimate birth of Jesus. The Talmud openly charges this sin against Mary. Joseph had "a short but tragic struggle between his legal conscience and his love" (McNeile).


    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28
    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25

    PARALLEL VERSE BIBLE

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