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  • PARALLEL BIBLE - Matthew 5:22


    CHAPTERS: Matthew 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28     

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    King James Bible - Matthew 5:22

    But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.

    World English Bible

    But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the
    fire of Gehenna.

    Douay-Rheims - Matthew 5:22

    But I say to you, that whosoever is angry with his brother, shall be in danger of the judgment. And whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council. And whosoever shall say, Thou Fool, shall be in danger of hell
    fire.

    Webster's Bible Translation

    But I say to you, That whoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judgment: and whoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell-fire.

    Greek Textus Receptus


    εγω
    1473 P-1NS δε 1161 CONJ λεγω 3004 5719 V-PAI-1S υμιν 5213 P-2DP οτι 3754 CONJ πας 3956 A-NSM ο 3588 T-NSM οργιζομενος 3710 5746 V-PPP-NSM τω 3588 T-DSM αδελφω 80 N-DSM αυτου 846 P-GSM εικη 1500 ADV ενοχος 1777 A-NSM εσται 2071 5704 V-FXI-3S τη 3588 T-DSF κρισει 2920 N-DSF ος 3739 R-NSM δ 1161 CONJ αν 302 PRT ειπη 2036 5632 V-2AAS-3S τω 3588 T-DSM αδελφω 80 N-DSM αυτου 846 P-GSM ρακα 4469 ARAM ενοχος 1777 A-NSM εσται 2071 5704 V-FXI-3S τω 3588 T-DSN συνεδριω 4892 N-DSN ος 3739 R-NSM δ 1161 CONJ αν 302 PRT ειπη 2036 5632 V-2AAS-3S μωρε 3474 A-VSM ενοχος 1777 A-NSM εσται 2071 5704 V-FXI-3S εις 1519 PREP την 3588 T-ASF γεενναν 1067 N-ASF του 3588 T-GSN πυρος 4442 N-GSN

    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge

    VERSE (22) -
    :28,34,44; 3:17; 17:5 De 18:18,19 Ac 3:20-23; 7:37 Heb 5:9; 12:25

    SEV Biblia, Chapter 5:22

    Mas yo os digo, que cualquiera que se enojare descontroladamente con su hermano, ser culpado del juicio; y cualquiera que dijere a su hermano: Raca, ser culpado del concejo; y cualquiera que dijere: Fatuo, ser culpado del quemadero del fuego.

    Clarke's Bible Commentary - Matthew 5:22

    Verse 22. Whosoever is
    angry with his brother without a cause] o orgizomenov-eikh, who is vainly incensed. "This translation is literal; and the very objectionable phrase, without a cause, is left out, eikh being more properly translated by that above." What our Lord seems here to prohibit, is not merely that miserable facility which some have of being angry at every trifle, continually taking offense against their best friends; but that anger which leads a man to commit outrages against another, thereby subjecting himself to that punishment which was to be inflicted on those who break the peace. eikh, vainly, or, as in the common translation, without a cause, is wanting in the famous Vatican MS. and two others, the Ethiopic, latter Arabic, Saxon, Vulgate, two copies of the old Itala, J.

    Martyr, Ptolomeus, Origen, Tertullian, and by all the ancient copies quoted by St. Jerome. It was probably a marginal gloss originally, which in process of time crept into the text.

    Shall be in danger of the judgment] enocov estai, shall be liable to the judgment. That is, to have the matter brought before a senate, composed of twenty-three magistrates, whose business it was to judge in cases of murder and other capital crimes. It punished criminals by strangling or beheading; but Dr. Lightfoot supposes the judgment of God to be intended. See at the end of this chapter.

    Raca] hqyr from the Hebrew qr rak, to be empty. It signifies a vain, empty, worthless fellow, shallow brains, a term of great contempt. Such expressions were punished among the Gentoos by a heavy fine. See all the cases, Code of Gentoo Laws, chap. xv sec. 2.

    The council] sunedrion, the famous council, known among the Jews by the name of Sanhedrin. It was composed of seventy-two elders, six chosen out of each tribe. This grand Sanhedrin not only received appeals from the inferior Sanhedrins, or court of twenty-three mentioned above; but could alone take cognizance, in the first instance, of the highest crimes, and alone inflict the punishment of stoning.

    Thou fool] Moreh, probably from hrm marah, to rebel, a rebel against God, apostate from all good. This term implied, among the Jews, the highest enormity, and most aggravated guilt. Among the Gentoos, such an expression was punished by cutting out the tongue, and thrusting a hot iron, of ten fingers breadth, into the mouth of the person who used it.

    Code of Gentoo Laws, chap. xv sec. 2. p. 212.

    Shall be in danger of hell fire.] enocov estai eiv thn geennan tou purov, shall be liable to the hell of fire. Our Lord here alludes to the valley of the son of Hinnom, nh yg Ghi hinom. This place was near Jerusalem, and had been formerly used for those abominable sacrifices, in which the idolatrous Jews had caused their children to pass through the fire to Molech. A particular place in this valley was called Tophet, from tpt tophet, the fire stove, in which some supposed they burnt their children alive to the above idol. See 2 Kings xxiii. 10; 2 Chron. xxviii. 3; Jeremiah vii. 31, 32. From the circumstances of this valley having been the scene of those infernal sacrifices, the Jews, in our saviour's time, used the word for hell, the place of the damned. See the word applied in this sense by the Targum, on Ruth ii. 12; Psa. cxl. 12; Gen. iii. 24; xv. 17. It is very probable that our Lord means no more here than this: if a man charge another with apostasy from the Jewish religion, or rebellion against God, and cannot prove his charge, then he is exposed to that punishment (burning alive) which the other must have suffered, if the charge had been substantiated. There are three kinds of offenses here, which exceed each other in their degrees of guilt. 1st. Anger against a man, accompanied with some injurious act. 2dly. Contempt, expressed by the opprobrious epithet raka, or shallow brains. 3dly. Hatred and mortal enmity, expressed by the term moreh, or apostate, where such apostasy could not be proved. Now, proportioned to these three offenses were three different degrees of punishment, each exceeding the other in its severity, as the offenses exceeded each other in their different degrees of guilt. 1st. The judgment, the council of twenty-three, which could inflict the punishment of strangling. 2dly. The Sanhedrin, or great council, which could inflict the punishment of stoning. And 3dly. The being burnt alive in the valley of the son of Hinnom. This appears to be the meaning of our Lord.

    Now, if the above offenses were to be so severely punished, which did not immediately affect the life of another, how much sorer must the punishment of murder be! ver. 21. And as there could not be a greater punishment inflicted than death, in the above terrific forms, and this was to be inflicted for minor crimes; then the punishment of murder must not only have death here, but a hell of fire in the eternal world, attached to it. It seems that these different degrees of guilt, and the punishment attached to each, had not been properly distinguished among the Jews. Our Lord here calls their attention back to them, and gives then to understand, that in the coming world there are different degrees of punishment prepared for different degrees of vice; and that not only the outward act of iniquity should be judged and punished by the Lord, but that injurious words, and evil passions, should all meet their just recompense and reward. Murder is the most punishable of all crimes, according to the written law, in respect both of our neighbours and civil society. But he who sees the heart, and judges it by the eternal law, punishes as much a word or a desire, if the hatred whence they proceed be complete and perfected. Dr. Lightfoot has some curious observations on this passage in the preface to his Harmony of the Evangelists. See his works, vol. ii., and the conclusion of this chapter.


    John Gill's Bible Commentary

    Ver. 22. But I say unto you , etc.] This is a Rabbinical way of speaking, used when a question is determined, and a false notion is refuted; it is a magisterial form of expression, and well suits with Christ, the great teacher and master in Israel; who spake as one having authority, opposing himself, not to the law of Moses, thou shalt not kill; but to the false gloss the ancient doctors had put upon it, with which their later ones agreed. You say, that if one man kills another himself, he is to be put to death by the sanhedrim; and if he does it by proxy, he is to be left to the judgment of God, so wholly restraining the law to actual murder; but I affirm, that whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of judgment . By brother is meant, not in a religious sense, one that is of the same faith, or in the same church state; nor, in a strict natural sense, one that is so in the bonds of consanguinity; but in a large sense, any man, of whatsoever country or nation: for we are to be angry with no man; that is, as is rightly added, without a cause : for otherwise there is an anger which is not sinful, is in God, in Christ, in the holy angels; and is commendable in the people of God, when it arises from a true zeal for religion, the glory of God, and the interest of Christ; and is kindled against sin, their own, or others, all manner of vice, false doctrine, and false worship: but it is causeless anger which is here condemned by Christ, as a breach of the law, thou shalt not kill; and such persons are in danger of judgment ; not of any of the courts of judicature among the Jews, as the sanhedrim of three, or of twenty three, or of seventy one, which took no notice of anger, as a passion in the mind, only of facts committed; but of the judgment of God, as in the preceding verse, it being distinguished from the sanhedrim, or council, in the next clause. And whosoever shall say to his brother Raca, shall be in danger of the council , or sanhedrim. The word Raca is expressive of indignation and contempt; it was used as a term of reproach. Some derive it from qqr to spit upon; as if the person that used it thought the man he spoke to deserved to be spit upon, and treated in the most contemptuous manner: but rather the word signifies empty and vain, and denotes a worthless, empty headed man; a man of no brains; a foolish, witless, fellow: so it is often used in Jewish writings. Take a few instances, as follow: a certain person said to R. Jochanan f287 , Rabbi, expound, for it becomes thee to expound; for as thou hast said, so have I seen: he replied to him, aqyr Reka, if thou hadst not seen, thou wouldst not have believed.

    Again f288 , it happened to R. Simeon ben Eliezer of Migdal Edar, who went from the house of Rabbi; and he met with a certain man very much deformed; he says unto him, hqyr Reka, how many are the deformed sons of Abraham our father? Many more instances might be given f289 . Now I do not find that the use of this reproachful word was cognizable by the Jewish sanhedrim, or great council; nor is it our Lords meaning that it was, only that it ought to have been taken notice of in a proper manner, as well as actual murder. He adds, but whosoever shall say thou fool, shall be danger of hell fire . The word fool does not signify a man of weak parts, one that is very ignorant in things natural; this the word Raca imports; but a wicked reprobate man; in which sense Solomon often uses the word. The Persic version renders it here wicked. There is a manifest gradation in the text from causeless anger in the breast, or reproachful words; and from thence to a censorious judging of a mans spiritual and eternal estate, which is what is here condemned. Thou fool, is, thou wicked man, thou ungodly wretch, thou graceless creature, whose portion will be eternal damnation. Calling a man by such names was not allowed of by the Jews themselves, whose rules are: he that calls his neighbour a servant, let him be excommunicated; a bastard, let him be beaten with forty stripes; [r , a wicked man, let him descend with him into his life or livelihood f290 .

    The gloss upon it is, as if he should say, to this the sanhedrim is not obliged, but it is lawful to hate him, yea to lessen his sustenance, and exercise his trade, which was done to bring him to poverty and distress. So, it seems, the sanhedrim were not obliged to take notice of him. Again, they say, it is forbidden a man to call his neighbour by a name of reproach everyone that calls his neighbour [r , a wicked man, shall be brought down to hell; which is pretty much what Christ here says, shall be in danger of hell fire ; or deserving of hell fire; or liable to, and in danger of punishment, even unto hell fire. An expression much like this may be observed in Jarchi, on ( Isaiah 24:23) where he speaks of some persons nhgl nhg ybyywjm , who are guilty, deserving, or in danger of hell unto hell. The word geenna , here used, and which is often used in the New Testament for hell, is but the Hebrew nh ayg , Ge-Hinnom, the valley of Hinnom, where the children were caused to pass through the fire to Moloch. This place, the Jewish writers say, Was a place well known, near to Jerusalem, a valley, whose fire was never quenched; and in which they burned the bones of anything that was unclean, and dead carcasses, and other pollutions.

    Hence the word came to be used among them, as might be shown in innumerable instances, to express the place and state of the damned; and very fitly describes it.


    Matthew Henry Commentary

    Verses 21-26 - The Jewish teachers had taught, that nothing except actual murder wa forbidden by the sixth commandment. Thus they explained away it spiritual meaning. Christ showed the full meaning of this commandment according to which we must be judged hereafter, and therefore ought to be ruled now. All rash anger is heart murder. By our brother, here, we are to understand any person, though ever so much below us, for we ar all made of one blood. "Raca," is a scornful word, and comes from pride: "Thou fool," is a spiteful word, and comes from hatred Malicious slanders and censures are poison that kills secretly an slowly. Christ told them that how light soever they made of these sins they would certainly be called into judgment for them. We ough carefully to preserve Christian love and peace with all our brethren and if at any time there is a quarrel, we should confess our fault humble ourselves to our brother, making or offering satisfaction for wrong done in word or deed: and we should do this quickly; because till this is done, we are unfit for communion with God in holy ordinances. And when we are preparing for any religious exercises, it is good for us to make that an occasion of serious reflection an self-examination. What is here said is very applicable to our being reconciled to God through Christ. While we are alive, we are in the way to his judgement-seat; after death, it will be too late. When we consider the importance of the case, and the uncertainty of life, ho needful it is to seek peace with God, without delay!


    Greek Textus Receptus


    εγω
    1473 P-1NS δε 1161 CONJ λεγω 3004 5719 V-PAI-1S υμιν 5213 P-2DP οτι 3754 CONJ πας 3956 A-NSM ο 3588 T-NSM οργιζομενος 3710 5746 V-PPP-NSM τω 3588 T-DSM αδελφω 80 N-DSM αυτου 846 P-GSM εικη 1500 ADV ενοχος 1777 A-NSM εσται 2071 5704 V-FXI-3S τη 3588 T-DSF κρισει 2920 N-DSF ος 3739 R-NSM δ 1161 CONJ αν 302 PRT ειπη 2036 5632 V-2AAS-3S τω 3588 T-DSM αδελφω 80 N-DSM αυτου 846 P-GSM ρακα 4469 ARAM ενοχος 1777 A-NSM εσται 2071 5704 V-FXI-3S τω 3588 T-DSN συνεδριω 4892 N-DSN ος 3739 R-NSM δ 1161 CONJ αν 302 PRT ειπη 2036 5632 V-2AAS-3S μωρε 3474 A-VSM ενοχος 1777 A-NSM εσται 2071 5704 V-FXI-3S εις 1519 PREP την 3588 T-ASF γεενναν 1067 N-ASF του 3588 T-GSN πυρος 4442 N-GSN

    Vincent's NT Word Studies

    22. Hell-fire (thn geennan tou purov). Rev., more accurately, the
    hell of fire. The word Gehenna, rendered hell, occurs outside of the Gospels only at Jas. iii. 6. It is the Greek representative of the Hebrew Ge-Hinnom, or Valley of Hinnom, a deep, narrow glen to the south of Jerusalem, where, after the introduction of the worship of the fire-gods by Ahaz, the idolatrous Jews sacrificed their children to Molech. Josiah formally desecrated it, "that no man might make his son or his daughter pass through the fire to Molech" (2 Kings xxiii. 10). After this it became the common refuse-place of the city, into which the bodies of criminals, carcasses of animals, and all sorts of filth were cast. From its depth and narrowness, and its fire and ascending smoke, it became the symbol of the place of the future punishment of the wicked. So Milton:

    "The pleasant valley of Hinnom, Tophet thence And black Gehenna called, the type of hell."

    As fire was the characteristic of the place, it was called the Gehenna of fire. It should be carefully distinguished from Hades (adhv), which is never used for the place of punishment, but for the place of departed spirits, without reference to their moral condition. This distinction, ignored by the A.V., is made in the Rev.


    Robertson's NT Word Studies

    5:22 {But I say unto you} (egw de legw humin). Jesus thus assumes a tone of superiority over the Mosaic regulations and proves it in each of the six examples. He goes further than the Law into the very heart. "{Raca}" (Raka) and "{Thou fool}" (mwre). The first is probably an Aramaic word meaning "Empty," a frequent word for contempt. The second word is Greek (dull, stupid) and is a fair equivalent of "raca." It is urged by some that m"re is a Hebrew word, but Field (_Otium Norvicense_) objects to that idea. "_Raca_ expresses contempt for a man's head=you stupid! _M"re_ expresses contempt for his heart and character=you scoundrel" (Bruce). "{The hell of fire}" (tn geennan tou puros), "the gehenna of fire," the genitive case (tou puros) as the genus case describing gehenna as marked by fire. gehenna is the Valley of Hinnom where the fire burned continually. Here idolatrous Jews once offered their children to Molech (#2Ki 23:10). Jesus finds one cause of murder to be abusive language. gehenna "should be carefully distinguished from Hades (haids) which is never used for the place of punishment, but for the _place of departed spirits_, without reference to their moral condition" (Vincent). The place of torment is in Hades (#Lu 16:23), but so is heaven.


    CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28
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