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  • PARALLEL HISTORY BIBLE - Isaiah 41:20


    CHAPTERS: Isaiah 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66     

    VERSES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29

    TEXT: BIB   |   AUDIO: MISLR - MISC - DAVIS   |   VIDEO: GEN - BIB


    ENGLISH - HISTORY - INTERNATIONAL - FACEBOOK - GR FORUMS - GODRULES ON YOUTUBE

    HELPS: KJS - KJV - ASV - DBY - DOU - WBS - YLT - HEB - BBE - WEB - NAS - SEV - TSK - CRK - WES - MHC - GILL - JFB

    LXX- Greek Septuagint - Isaiah 41:20

    ινα 2443 ιδωσιν 1492 5632 και 2532 γνωσιν 1097 5632 και 2532 εννοηθωσιν και 2532 επιστωνται αμα 260 οτι 3754 χειρ 5495 κυριου 2962 εποιησεν 4160 5656 ταυτα 5024 5023 παντα 3956 και 2532 ο 3588 3739 αγιος 40 του 3588 ισραηλ 2474 κατεδειξεν

    Douay Rheims Bible

    That they may see and know, and consider, and understand together that the
    hand of the Lord hath done this, and the Holy One of Israel hath created it.

    King James Bible - Isaiah 41:20

    That they may see, and know, and consider, and understand together, that the
    hand of the LORD hath done this, and the Holy One of Israel hath created it.

    World English Bible

    that they may see, know, consider, and understand together, that the
    hand of Yahweh has done this, and the Holy One of Israel has created it.

    Early Church Father Links

    Anf-05 iv.v.xii.iii.v Pg 11

    World Wide Bible Resources


    Isaiah 41:20

    Early Christian Commentary - (A.D. 100 - A.D. 325)

    Anf-01 vi.ii.xiv Pg 13
    Isa. xlix. 6. The text of Cod. Sin., and of the other mss., is here in great confusion: we have followed that given by Hefele.

    <index subject1="Holy Spirit" title="146" id="vi.ii.xiv-p13.3"/>And again, the prophet saith, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; because He hath anointed me to preach the Gospel to the humble: He hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to proclaim deliverance to the captives, and recovery of sight to the blind; to announce the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of recompense; to comfort all that mourn.”1653

    1653


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxi Pg 6
    Isa. xlix. 6.



    Anf-03 iv.ix.iv Pg 9
    I am not acquainted with any such passage. Oehler refers to Isa. xlix. in his margin, but gives no verse, and omits to notice this passage of the present treatise in his index.

    Thus, therefore, before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold; just as before the carnal circumcision there was withal a spiritual circumcision foreshown. In short, let them teach us, as we have already premised, that Adam observed the sabbath; or that Abel, when offering to God a holy victim, pleased Him by a religious reverence for the sabbath; or that Enoch, when translated, had been a keeper of the sabbath; or that Noah the ark-builder observed, on account of the deluge, an immense sabbath; or that Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son; or that Melchizedek in his priesthood received the law of the sabbath.


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxv Pg 21
    Isa. xlii. 6 and xlix. 6.

    and if we understand these to be meant in the word babes4484

    4484


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xi Pg 45
    Isa. xlix. 6 (Sept. quoted in Acts xiii. 47).

    —to them, that is, “who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death?”5722

    5722


    Anf-03 v.ix.xi Pg 10
    Isa. xlix. 6.

    Hear now also the Son’s utterances respecting the Father: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because He hath anointed me to preach the gospel unto men.”7883

    7883


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xiii Pg 7
    Isa. lii. 10 ff. following LXX. on to liv. 6.



    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 2
    Ps. lxxii.

    And at the close of this Psalm which I have quoted, it is written, ‘The hymns of David the son of Jesse are ended.’2034

    2034 [A striking passage in De Maistre (Œuvres, vol. vi. p. 275) is worthy of comparison.]

    Moreover, that Solomon was a renowned and great king, by whom the temple called that at Jerusalem was built, I know; but that none of those things mentioned in the Psalm happened to him, is evident. For neither did all kings worship him; nor did he reign to the ends of the earth; nor did his enemies, falling before him, lick the dust. Nay, also, I venture to repeat what is written in the book of Kings as committed by him, how through a woman’s influence he worshipped the idols of Sidon, which those of the Gentiles who know God, the Maker of all things through Jesus the crucified, do not venture to do, but abide every torture and vengeance even to the extremity of death, rather than worship idols, or eat meat offered to idols.”


    Npnf-201 iv.viii.xvii Pg 11


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 2
    Ps. lxxii.

    And at the close of this Psalm which I have quoted, it is written, ‘The hymns of David the son of Jesse are ended.’2034

    2034 [A striking passage in De Maistre (Œuvres, vol. vi. p. 275) is worthy of comparison.]

    Moreover, that Solomon was a renowned and great king, by whom the temple called that at Jerusalem was built, I know; but that none of those things mentioned in the Psalm happened to him, is evident. For neither did all kings worship him; nor did he reign to the ends of the earth; nor did his enemies, falling before him, lick the dust. Nay, also, I venture to repeat what is written in the book of Kings as committed by him, how through a woman’s influence he worshipped the idols of Sidon, which those of the Gentiles who know God, the Maker of all things through Jesus the crucified, do not venture to do, but abide every torture and vengeance even to the extremity of death, rather than worship idols, or eat meat offered to idols.”


    Npnf-201 iv.viii.xvii Pg 11


    Anf-02 vi.iv.v.vi Pg 12.3


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxvi Pg 4
    Isa. lxii. 10 to end, Isa. lxiii. 1–6.



    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xxiv Pg 36
    Isa. xlix. 18.

    Accordingly the Spirit, admiring such as soar up to the celestial realms by these ascensions, says, “They fly, as if they were kites; they fly as clouds, and as young doves, unto me”3469

    3469


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xi Pg 25
    Isa. xlix. 18.

    This spouse Christ invites home to Himself also by Solomon from the call of the Gentiles, because you read: “Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse.”3834

    3834


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiii Pg 32
    Isa. xlix. 18.

    And yet again: “Thou seest these unknown and strange ones; and thou wilt say in thine heart, Who hath begotten me these? But who hath brought me up these? And these, where have they been?”3934

    3934


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 143


    Anf-01 v.vii.i Pg 6
    Isa. v. 26, Isa. xlix. 22.

    for all ages, through His resurrection, to all His holy and faithful [followers], whether among Jews or Gentiles, in the one body of His Church.


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xl Pg 4
    Ps. xlv. 11.

    But if thou, being obstinately hardened, dost reject the operation of His skill, and show thyself ungrateful towards Him, because thou wert created a [mere] man, by becoming thus ungrateful to God, thou hast at once lost both His workmanship and life. For creation is an attribute of the goodness of God but to be created is that of human nature. If then, thou shalt deliver up to Him what is thine, that is, faith towards Him and subjection, thou shalt receive His handiwork, and shall be a perfect work of God.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxiii Pg 9
    Ps. xlv. 6–11.

    Therefore these words testify explicitly that He is witnessed to by Him who established these things,2186

    2186 The incarnation, etc.

    as deserving to be worshipped, as God and as Christ. Moreover, that the word of God speaks to those who believe in Him as being one soul, and one synagogue, and one church, as to a daughter; that it thus addresses the church which has sprung from His name and partakes of His name (for we are all called Christians), is distinctly proclaimed in like manner in the following words, which teach us also to forget [our] old ancestral customs, when they speak thus:2187

    2187 “Being so,” literally.

    ‘Hearken, O daughter, and behold, and incline thine ear; forget thy people and the house of thy father, and the King shall desire thy beauty: because He is thy Lord, and thou shalt worship Him.’ ”


    Anf-01 ix.vi.vi Pg 10
    Ps. xlv. 16.

    Christ Himself, therefore, together with the Father, is the God of the living, who spake to Moses, and who was also manifested to the fathers.


    Anf-01 ix.vii.xxxv Pg 6
    Jer. xxiii. 6, 7.


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 52
    Isa. vi. 1; Ps. cx. 1.

    others beheld Him coming on the clouds as the Son of man;4293

    4293


    Anf-03 vi.ii.xii Pg 8
    Or, as some read, “in the cross.”

    And in another prophet He declares, “All day long I have stretched forth My hands to an unbelieving people, and one that gainsays My righteous way.”1612

    1612


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xi Pg 6
    Dan. ii. 19, 20; iii. 28, 29; iv. 34, 37" id="v.iv.vi.xi-p6.1" parsed="|Dan|2|19|2|20;|Dan|3|28|3|29;|Dan|4|34|0|0;|Dan|4|37|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Dan.2.19-Dan.2.20 Bible:Dan.3.28-Dan.3.29 Bible:Dan.4.34 Bible:Dan.4.37">Dan. ii. 19, 20; iii. 28, 29; iv. 34, 37.

    Now, if the title of Father may be claimed for (Marcion’s) sterile god, how much more for the Creator? To none other than Him is it suitable, who is also “the Father of mercies,”5683

    5683


    Anf-01 v.xiv.vi Pg 11
    Prov. viii. 22, 23; 25.


    Anf-03 v.v.xlv Pg 3
    Prov. viii. 22, 23.

    Then that the Word was produced, “through whom all things were made, and without whom nothing was made.”6594

    6594


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xxxiv Pg 2
    Mic. v. 2.

    Now there is a village in the land of the Jews, thirty-five stadia from Jerusalem, in which Jesus Christ was born, as you can ascertain also from the registers of the taxing made under Cyrenius, your first procurator in Judæa.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxviii Pg 2
    Mic. v. 2.

    <index subject1="Magi" title="237" id="viii.iv.lxxviii-p2.2"/>Accordingly the Magi from Arabia came to Bethlehem and worshipped the Child, and presented Him with gifts, gold and frankincense, and myrrh; but returned not to Herod, being warned in a revelation after worshipping the Child in Bethlehem. And Joseph, the spouse of Mary, who wished at first to put away his betrothed Mary, supposing her to be pregnant by intercourse with a man, i.e., from fornication, was commanded in a vision not to put away his wife; and the angel who appeared to him told him that what is in her womb is of the Holy Ghost. Then he was afraid, and did not put her away; but on the occasion of the first census which was taken in Judæa, under Cyrenius, he went up from Nazareth, where he lived, to Bethlehem, to which he belonged, to be enrolled; for his family was of the tribe of Judah, which then inhabited that region. Then along with Mary he is ordered to proceed into Egypt, and remain there with the Child until another revelation warn them to return into Judæa. But when the Child was born in Bethlehem, since Joseph could not find a lodging in that village, he took up his quarters in a certain cave near the village; and while they were there Mary brought forth the Christ and placed Him in a manger, and here the Magi who came from Arabia found Him. I have repeated to you,” I continued, “what Isaiah foretold about the sign which foreshadowed the cave; but for the sake of those who have come with us to-day, I shall again remind you of the passage.” Then I repeated the passage from Isaiah which I have already written, adding that, by means of those words, those who presided over the mysteries of Mithras were stirred up by the devil to say that in a place, called among them a cave, they were initiated by him.2244

    2244 Text has, by “them;” but Maranus says the artifice lay in the priest’s compelling the initiated to say that Mithras himself was the initiator in the cave.

    “So Herod, when the Magi from Arabia did not return to him, as he had asked them to do, but had departed by another way to their own country, according to the commands laid on them; and when Joseph, with Mary and the Child, had now gone into Egypt, as it was revealed to them to do; as he did not know the Child whom the Magi had gone to worship, ordered simply the whole of the children then in Bethlehem to be massacred. And Jeremiah prophesied that this would happen, speaking by the Holy Ghost thus: ‘A voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation and much wailing, Rachel weeping for her children; and she would not be comforted, because they are not.’2245

    2245


    Anf-03 iv.ix.xiii Pg 3
    Mic. v. 2; Matt. ii. 3–; 6. Tertullian’s Latin agrees rather with the Greek of St. Matthew than with the LXX.

    But if hitherto he has not been born, what “leader” was it who was thus announced as to proceed from the tribe of Judah, out of Bethlehem? For it behoves him to proceed from the tribe of Judah and from Bethlehem. But we perceive that now none of the race of Israel has remained in Bethlehem; and (so it has been) ever since the interdict was issued forbidding any one of the Jews to linger in the confines of the very district, in order that this prophetic utterance also should be perfectly fulfilled:  “Your land is desert, your cities burnt up by fire,”—that is, (he is foretelling) what will have happened to them in time of war “your region strangers shall eat up in your sight, and it shall be desert and subverted by alien peoples.”1384

    1384


    Npnf-201 iii.vi.viii Pg 4


    Anf-02 vi.iv.vi.iii Pg 15.1


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxi Pg 3
    So Justin concludes from Deut. iv. 19; comp. chap. lv. [The explanation is not very difficult (see Rom. i. 28), but the language of Justin is unguarded.]

    as it is written, but no one ever was seen to endure death on account of his faith in the sun; but for the name of Jesus you may see men of every nation who have endured and do endure all sufferings, rather than deny Him. For the word of His truth and wisdom is more ardent and more light-giving than the rays of the sun, and sinks down into the depths of heart and mind. Hence also the Scripture said, ‘His name shall rise up above the sun.’ And again, Zechariah says, ‘His name is the East.’2414

    2414


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lv Pg 2
    Deut. iv. 19, an apparent [i.e., evident] misinterpretation of the passage. [But see St. John x. 33–36.]

    God has given to the nations to worship as gods; and oftentimes the prophets, employing2120

    2120 Or, “misusing.”

    this manner of speech, say that ‘thy God is a God of gods, and a Lord of lords,’ adding frequently, ‘the great and strong and terrible [God].’ For such expressions are used, not as if they really were gods, but because the Scripture is teaching us that the true God, who made all things, is Lord alone of those who are reputed gods and lords. And in order that the Holy Spirit may convince [us] of this, He said by the holy David, ‘The gods of the nations, reputed gods, are idols of demons, and not gods;’2121

    2121


    Anf-01 ix.iv.vii Pg 32
    Deut. iv. 19.

    And Moses himself, being a man of God, was indeed given as a god before Pharaoh;3356

    3356


    Anf-02 iv.ii.ii.xxxv Pg 4.1


    Anf-02 vi.iv.vi.xiv Pg 15.1


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxiv Pg 5
    Ps. viii. 3.

    unless I understand His method of using words,2380

    2380 Literally, “the operation of His words.” Editors have changed τῶν λόγων into τὸν λόγον or τοῦ λόγου: but there is no need of change.

    I shall not understand intelligently, but just as your teachers suppose, fancying that the Father of all, the unbegotten God, has hands and feet, and fingers, and a soul, like a composite being; and they for this reason teach that it was the Father Himself who appeared to Abraham and to Jacob. <index subject1="Christians" subject2="blamed for not submitting to be circumcised" title="256" id="viii.iv.cxiv-p6.4"/><index subject1="Jews" subject2="their circumcision differs from the Christian" title="256" id="viii.iv.cxiv-p6.5"/><index subject1="Circumcision" title="256" id="viii.iv.cxiv-p6.6"/>Blessed therefore are we who have been circumcised the second time with knives of stone. For your first circumcision was and is performed by iron instruments, for you remain hard-hearted; but our circumcision, which is the second, having been instituted after yours, circumcises us from idolatry and from absolutely every kind of wickedness by sharp stones, i.e., by the words [preached] by the apostles of the corner-stone cut out without hands. And our hearts are thus circumcised from evil, so that we are happy to die for the name of the good Rock, which causes living water to burst forth for the hearts of those who by Him have loved the Father of all, and which gives those who are willing to drink of the water of life. But you do not comprehend me when I speak these things; for you have not understood what it has been prophesied that Christ would do, and you do not believe us who draw your attention to what has been written. For Jeremiah thus cries: ‘Woe unto you! because you have forsaken the living fountain, and have digged for yourselves broken cisterns that can hold no water. Shall there be a wilderness where Mount Zion is, because I gave Jerusalem a bill of divorce in your sight?’2381

    2381


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xii Pg 11
    Matt. xxi. 16; Ps. viii. 3.

    —thus pointing out that what had been declared by David concerning the Son of God, was accomplished in His own person; and indicating that they were indeed ignorant of the meaning of the Scripture and the dispensation of God; but declaring that it was Himself who was announced by the prophets as Christ, whose name is praised in all the earth, and who perfects praise to His Father from the mouth of babes and sucklings; wherefore also His glory has been raised above the heavens.


    Anf-02 vi.ii.iv Pg 41.1


    Anf-02 vi.iii.i.viii Pg 47.1


    Anf-03 vi.ii.ii Pg 3
    Or, “while these things continue, those which respect the Lord rejoice in purity along with them—Wisdom,” etc.

    For He hath revealed to us by all the prophets that He needs neither sacrifices, nor burnt-offerings, nor oblations, saying thus, “What is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me, saith the Lord? I am full of burnt-offerings, and desire not the fat of lambs, and the blood of bulls and goats, not when ye come to appear before Me: for who hath required these things at your hands? Tread no more My courts, not though ye bring with you fine flour. Incense is a vain abomination unto Me, and your new moons and sabbaths I cannot endure.”1458

    1458


    Anf-03 vi.vii.v Pg 7
    See Ps. viii. 4–6.

    For if he had endured (that), he would not have grieved; nor would he have envied man if he had not grieved. Accordingly he deceived him, because he had envied him; but he had envied because he had grieved: he had grieved because, of course, he had not patiently borne. What that angel of perdition9053

    9053 Compare the expression in de Idol. iv., “perdition of blood” ="bloody perdition,” and the note there.  So here “angel of perdition” may ="lost angel.”

    first was—malicious or impatient—I scorn to inquire: since manifest it is that either impatience took its rise together with malice, or else malice from impatience; that subsequently they conspired between themselves; and that they grew up indivisible in one paternal bosom. But, however, having been instructed, by his own experiment, what an aid unto sinning was that which he had been the first to feel, and by means of which he had entered on his course of delinquency, he called the same to his assistance for the thrusting of man into crime. The woman,9054

    9054 Mulier. See de Orat. c. xxii.

    immediately on being met by him—I may say so without rashness—was, through his very speech with her, breathed on by a spirit infected with impatience: so certain is it that she would never have sinned at all, if she had honoured the divine edict by maintaining her patience to the end. What (of the fact) that she endured not to have been met alone; but in the presence of Adam, not yet her husband, not yet bound to lend her his ears,9055

    9055


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 94
    Isa. l. 8, 9 (loosely quoted).

    and, “Woe unto you, for ye shall wax old as doth a garment, and the moth shall eat you up;” and, “All flesh shall be humbled, and the Lord alone shall be exalted in the highest,”4333

    4333


    Anf-01 vi.ii.vi Pg 3
    Isa. l. 9.

    And again the prophet says, “Since1495

    1495 The Latin omits “since,” but it is found in all the Greek mss.

    as a mighty stone He is laid for crushing, behold I cast down for the foundations of Zion a stone, precious, elect, a corner-stone, honourable.” Next, what says He? “And he who shall trust1496

    1496


    Anf-02 vi.iv.iii Pg 186.1


    Anf-01 ii.ii.xxxix Pg 6
    Job iv. 16–18, Job xv. 15, Job iv. 19–21, Job v. 1–5.


    Anf-03 v.v.xxxiv Pg 8
    Ps. cii. 25, 26.

    Now to be changed is to fall from that primitive state which they lose whilst undergoing the change. “And the stars too shall fall from heaven, even as a fig-tree casteth her green figs6495

    6495 Acerba sua “grossos suos” (Rigalt.). So our marginal reading.

    when she is shaken of a mighty wind.”6496

    6496


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxiii Pg 13
    Isa. xlii. 1–4.

    As therefore from the one man Jacob, who was surnamed Israel, all your nation has been called Jacob and Israel; so we from Christ, who begat us unto God, like Jacob, and Israel, and Judah, and Joseph, and David, are called and are the true sons of God, and keep the commandments of Christ.”


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxxv Pg 3
    Isa. xlii. 1–4.

    Then is it Jacob the patriarch in whom the Gentiles and yourselves shall trust? or is it not Christ? <index subject1="Christians" subject2="are the true Israel" title="267" id="viii.iv.cxxxv-p3.2"/>As, therefore, Christ is the Israel and the Jacob, even so we, who have been quarried out from the bowels of Christ, are the true Israelitic race. But let us attend rather to the very word: ‘And I will bring forth,’ He says, ‘the seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah: and it shall inherit My holy mountain; and Mine Elect and My servants shall possess the inheritance, and shall dwell there; and there shall be folds of flocks in the thicket, and the valley of Achor shall be a resting-place of cattle for the people who have sought Me. But as for you, who forsake Me, and forget My holy mountain, and prepare a table for demons, and fill out drink for the demon, I shall give you to the sword. You shall all fall with a slaughter; for I called you, and you hearkened not, and did evil before me, and did choose that wherein I delighted not.’2472

    2472


    Anf-03 v.ix.xi Pg 9
    Isa. xlii. 1.

    Hear also what He says to the Son: “Is it a great thing for Thee, that Thou shouldest be called my Son to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the dispersed of Israel? I have given Thee for a light to the Gentiles, that Thou mayest be their salvation to the end of the earth.”7882

    7882


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxii Pg 8
    Isa. xlix. 8.

    What, then, is Christ’s inheritance? Is it not the nations? What is the covenant of God? Is it not Christ? As He says in another place: ‘Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten Thee. Ask of Me, and I shall give Thee the nations for Thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for Thy possession.’2422

    2422


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iv Pg 9
    I am not acquainted with any such passage. Oehler refers to Isa. xlix. in his margin, but gives no verse, and omits to notice this passage of the present treatise in his index.

    Thus, therefore, before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold; just as before the carnal circumcision there was withal a spiritual circumcision foreshown. In short, let them teach us, as we have already premised, that Adam observed the sabbath; or that Abel, when offering to God a holy victim, pleased Him by a religious reverence for the sabbath; or that Enoch, when translated, had been a keeper of the sabbath; or that Noah the ark-builder observed, on account of the deluge, an immense sabbath; or that Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son; or that Melchizedek in his priesthood received the law of the sabbath.


    Npnf-201 iii.xii.xii Pg 49


    Anf-01 ii.ii.xviii Pg 3
    Ps. lxxxix. 21.

    <index subject1="God" subject2="His character" title="10" id="ii.ii.xviii-p3.2"/>Yet this very man saith to God, “Have mercy on me, O Lord, according to Thy great mercy; and according to the multitude of Thy compassions, blot out my transgression. Wash me still more from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin. For I acknowledge my iniquity, and my sin is ever before me. Against Thee only have I sinned, and done that which was evil in Thy sight; that Thou mayest be justified in Thy sayings, and mayest overcome when Thou82

    82 Or, “when Thou judgest.”

    art judged. For, behold, I was conceived in transgressions, and in my sins did my mother conceive me. For, behold, Thou hast loved truth; the secret and hidden things of wisdom hast Thou shown me. Thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop, and I shall be cleansed; Thou shalt wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow. Thou shalt make me to hear joy and gladness; my bones, which have been humbled, shall exult. Turn away Thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine iniquities. Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me.83

    83 Literally, “in my inwards.”

    Cast me not away from Thy presence, and take not Thy Holy Spirit from me. Restore to me the joy of Thy salvation, and establish me by Thy governing Spirit. I will teach transgressors Thy ways, and the ungodly shall be converted unto Thee. Deliver me from blood-guiltiness,84

    84 Literally, “bloods.”

    O God, the God of my salvation: my tongue shall exult in Thy righteousness. O Lord, Thou shalt open my mouth, and my lips shall show forth Thy praise. For if Thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would have given it; Thou wilt not delight in burnt-offerings. The sacrifice [acceptable] to God is a bruised spirit; a broken and a contrite heart God will not despise.”85

    85


    Anf-02 vi.iv.iv.xvi Pg 11.1


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xi Pg 40
    Ps. cx. 1.

    Thus God and the Father are truly one and the same; He who was announced by the prophets, and handed down by the true Gospel; whom we Christians worship and love with the whole heart, as the Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things therein.


    Anf-01 ii.ii.xxxvi Pg 9
    Ps. cx. 1; Heb. i. 13.

    But who are His enemies? All the wicked, and those who set themselves to oppose the will of God.161

    161 Some read, “who oppose their own will to that of God.”


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xii Pg 23
    Ps. cx. 1; Matt. xxii. 43–45.

    And again, thus saith Isaiah, “The Lord said to Christ,1627

    1627 Cod. Sin. corrects “to Cyrus,” as LXX.

    my Lord, whose right hand I have holden,1628

    1628 Cod. Sin. has, “he has taken hold.”

    that the nations should yield obedience before Him; and I will break in pieces the strength of kings.”1629

    1629


    Anf-01 ix.iii.xxix Pg 22
    Ps. cx. 1.

    But as for us, we still dwell upon the earth, and have not yet sat down upon His throne. For although the Spirit of the Saviour that is in Him “searcheth all things, even the deep things of God,”3228

    3228


    Anf-01 v.xiv.vi Pg 4
    Ps. cx. 1.

    And how, again, could such an one declare: “Before Abraham was, I am?”1199

    1199


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxvii Pg 9
    Ps. cx. 1.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lvi Pg 26
    Ps. cx. 1.

    as I have already quoted. And again, in other words: ‘Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever. A sceptre of equity is the sceptre of Thy kingdom: Thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity: therefore God, even Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows.’2137

    2137


    Anf-01 ix.iv.vii Pg 2
    Ps. cx. 1.

    Here the [Scripture] represents to us the Father addressing the Son; He who gave Him the inheritance of the heathen, and subjected to Him all His enemies. Since, therefore, the Father is truly Lord, and the Son truly Lord, the Holy Spirit has fitly designated them by the title of Lord. And again, referring to the destruction of the Sodomites, the Scripture says, “Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah fire and brimstone from the Lord out of heaven.”3330

    3330


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xlv Pg 4
    Ps. cx. 1, etc.

    That which he says, “He shall send to Thee the rod of power out of Jerusalem,” is predictive of the mighty, word, which His apostles, going forth from Jerusalem, preached everywhere; and though death is decreed against those who teach or at all confess the name of Christ, we everywhere both embrace and teach it. And if you also read these words in a hostile spirit, ye can do no more, as I said before, than kill us; which indeed does no harm to us, but to you and all who unjustly hate us, and do not repent, brings eternal punishment by fire.


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xvii Pg 21
    Ps. cx. 1.


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 52
    Isa. vi. 1; Ps. cx. 1.

    others beheld Him coming on the clouds as the Son of man;4293

    4293


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxxiii Pg 3
    Or better, “His.” This quotation from Ps. cx. is put very differently from the previous quotation of the same Psalm in chap. xxxii. [Justin often quotes from memory. Kaye, cap. viii.]

    enemies. In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’ Who does not admit, then, that Hezekiah is no priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek? And who does not know that he is not the redeemer of Jerusalem? And who does not know that he neither sent a rod of power into Jerusalem, nor ruled in the midst of his enemies; but that it was God who averted from him the enemies, after he mourned and was afflicted? But our Jesus, who has not yet come in glory, has sent into Jerusalem a rod of power, namely, the word of calling and repentance [meant] for all nations over which demons held sway, as David says, ‘The gods of the nations are demons.’ And His strong word has prevailed on many to forsake the demons whom they used to serve, and by means of it to believe in the Almighty God because the gods of the nations are demons.2278

    2278 This last clause is thought to be an interpolation.

    And we mentioned formerly that the statement, ‘In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee from the womb,’ is made to Christ.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxii Pg 4
    Ps. cx.

    ‘The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of Thy strength out of Sion: rule Thou also in the midst of Thine enemies. With Thee shall be, in the day, the chief of Thy power, in the beauties of Thy saints. From the womb, before the morning star, have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. The Lord is at Thy right hand: He has crushed kings in the day of His wrath: He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill [with] the dead bodies.2031

    2031 πληρώσει πτώματα; Lat. version, implebit ruinas. Thirlby suggested that an omission has taken place in the mss. by the transcriber’s fault.

    He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall He lift up the head.’


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xli Pg 20
    Ps. cx. 1.

    Accordingly, after He had said this, and so suggested a comparison of the Scripture, a ray of light did seem to show them whom He would have them understand Him to be; for they say: “Art thou then the Son of God?”5112

    5112


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xvii Pg 22
    Ps. cx. 1.

    For in another passage the Spirit says to the Father concerning the Son: “Thou hast put all things under His feet.”5968

    5968


    Anf-03 v.v.xi Pg 21
    Ps. cx. 1.

    as being the workers of evil,—if in this way an end is compatible with evil, it must follow of necessity that a beginning is also compatible with it; and Matter will turn out to have a beginning, by virtue of its having also an end. For whatever things are set to the account of evil,6246

    6246 Male deputantur.

    have a compatibility with the condition of evil.


    Anf-03 v.viii.xxii Pg 13
    Ps. cx. 1.

    ), making Him more hurried than the Father, whilst every crowd in our popular assemblies is still with shouts consigning “the Christians to the lions?”7423

    7423 Compare The Apology, xl.; De Spect. xxvii.; De Exhort. Cast. xii.

    Who has yet beheld Jesus descending from heaven in like manner as the apostles saw Him ascend, according to the appointment of the two angels?7424

    7424


    Anf-03 v.ix.iv Pg 5
    Ps. cx. 1.

    “When, however, all things shall be subdued to Him, (with the exception of Him who did put all things under Him,) then shall the Son also Himself be subject unto Him who put all things under Him, that God may be all in all.”7801

    7801


    Anf-03 v.ix.xi Pg 16
    Ps. cx. 1.

    Likewise in the words of Isaiah: “Thus saith the Lord to the Lord7889

    7889 Tertullian reads Κυρίῳ instead of Κύρῳ, “Cyrus.”

    mine Anointed.”7890

    7890


    Anf-03 v.ix.xiii Pg 6
    Ps. cx. 1.

    And Isaiah says this: “Lord, who hath believed our report, and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed?”7910

    7910


    Anf-03 v.ix.xxx Pg 13
    Ps. cx. 1.

    He will come again on the clouds of heaven, just as He appeared when He ascended into heaven.8197

    8197


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 19
    Ps. cx. 1, 2; and viii. 6.

    It is necessary for me to lay claim to those Scriptures which the Jews endeavour to deprive us of, and to show that they sustain my view. Now they say that this Psalm5598

    5598


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 20
    Ps. cx.

    was a chant in honour of Hezekiah,5599

    5599 In Ezechiam cecinisse.

    because “he went up to the house of the Lord,”5600

    5600


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 23
    Tertullian, as usual, argues from the Septuagint, which in the latter clause of Ps. cx. 3 has ἐκ γαστρὸς πρὸ ἑωσφόρου ἐγέννησά σε; and so the Vulgate version has it. This Psalm has been variously applied by the Jews. Raschi (or Rabbi Sol. Jarchi) thinks it is most suitable to Abraham, and possibly to David, in which latter view D. Kimchi agrees with him.  Others find in Solomon the best application; but more frequently is Hezekiah thought to be the subject of the Psalm, as Tertullian observes. Justin Martyr (in Dial. cum Tryph.) also notices this application of the Psalm. But Tertullian in the next sentence appears to recognize the sounder opinion of the older Jews, who saw in this Ps. cx. a prediction of Messiah.  This opinion occurs in the Jerusalem Talmud, in the tract Berachoth, 5. Amongst the more recent Jews who also hold the sounder view, may be mentioned Rabbi Saadias Gaon, on Dan. vii. 13, and R. Moses Hadarsan [singularly enough quoted by Raschi in another part of his commentary (Gen. xxxv. 8)], with others who are mentioned by Wetstein, On the New Testament, Matt. xxii. 44. Modern Jews, such as Moses Mendelsohn, reject the Messianic sense; and they are followed by the commentators of the Rationalist school amongst ourselves and in Germany. J. Olshausen, after Hitzig, comes down in his interpretation of the Psalm as late as the Maccabees, and sees a suitable accomplishment of its words in the honours heaped upon Jonathan by Alexander son of Antiochus Epiphanes (see 1 Macc. x. 20). For the refutation of so inadequate a commentary, the reader is referred to Delitzch on Ps. cx. The variations of opinion, however, in this school, are as remarkable as the fluctuations of the Jewish writers. The latest work on the Psalms which has appeared amongst us (Psalms, chronologically arranged, by four Friends), after Ewald, places the accomplishment of Ps. cx. in what may be allowed to have been its occasionDavid’s victories over the neighboring heathen.

    are applicable to Hezekiah, and to the birth of Hezekiah. We on our side5602

    5602 Nos.

    have published Gospels (to the credibility of which we have to thank5603

    5603 Debemus.

    them5604

    5604 Istos: that is, the Jews (Rigalt.).

    for having given some confirmation, indeed, already in so great a subject5605

    5605 Utique jam in tanto opere.

    ); and these declare that the Lord was born at night, that so it might be “before the morning star,” as is evident both from the star especially, and from the testimony of the angel, who at night announced to the shepherds that Christ had at that moment been born,5606

    5606 Natum esse quum maxime.

    and again from the place of the birth, for it is towards night that persons arrive at the (eastern) “inn.” Perhaps, too, there was a mystic purpose in Christ’s being born at night, destined, as He was, to be the light of the truth amidst the dark shadows of ignorance. Nor, again, would God have said, “I have begotten Thee,” except to His true Son.  For although He says of all the people (Israel), “I have begotten5607

    5607 Generavi: Sept. ἐγέννησα.

    children,”5608

    5608


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxiii Pg 2
    Isa. iv. 4.

    when He washed the disciplesfeet with His own hands.4125

    4125


    Anf-02 vi.iii.iii.ix Pg 7.1


    Anf-02 vi.iii.iii.ix Pg 8.1


    Anf-01 viii.ii.liii Pg 2
    Isa. liv. 1.

    For all the Gentiles were “desolate” of the true God, serving the works of their hands; but the Jews and Samaritans, having the word of God delivered to them by the prophets, and always expecting the Christ, did not recognise Him when He came, except some few, of whom the Spirit of prophecy by Isaiah had predicted that they should be saved. He spoke as from their person: “Except the Lord had left us a seed, we should have been as Sodom and Gomorrah.”1880

    1880


    Anf-01 ix.ii.xi Pg 15
    Isa. liv. 1; Gal. iv. 27.

    For in reference to these points, and others of a like nature, the apostle exclaims: “Oh! the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God; how unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out!”2798

    2798


    Anf-02 vi.ii.i Pg 30.1


    Anf-02 vi.iv.ii.vi Pg 10.1


    Anf-01 ix.vii.xxxv Pg 21
    Isa. liv. 11–14.

    And yet again does he say the same thing: “Behold, I make Jerusalem a rejoicing, and my people [a joy]; for the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying. Also there shall not be there any immature [one], nor an old man who does not fulfil his time: for the youth shall be of a hundred years; and the sinner shall die a hundred years old, yet shall be accursed. And they shall build houses, and inhabit them themselves; and shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them themselves, and shall drink wine. And they shall not build, and others inhabit; neither shall they prepare the vineyard, and others eat. For as the days of the tree of life shall be the days of the people in thee; for the works of their hands shall endure.”4764

    4764


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 157


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 136


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxi Pg 59
    Hos. i. 6–9.

    in order that, as says the apostle, “what was not a people may become a people; and she who did not obtain mercy may obtain mercy. And it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said, This is not a people, there shall they be called the children of the living God.”4110

    4110


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xix Pg 3
    Hos. i. and Hos. ii.

    one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths,1992

    1992


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xvi Pg 45
    The sense rather than the words of Hos. i. 6; 9.

    —that is, the (Jewish) nation. Thenceforth Christ extended to all men the law of His Father’s compassion, excepting none from His mercy, as He omitted none in His invitation. So that, whatever was the ampler scope of His teaching, He received it all in His heritage of the nations. “And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise.”4078

    4078


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xix Pg 3
    Hos. i. and Hos. ii.

    one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths,1992

    1992


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iii Pg 27
    See Hos. i. 10; 1 Pet. ii. 10.

    by accepting the new law above mentioned, and the new circumcision before foretold.


    Anf-02 vi.iii.iii.xii Pg 45.1


    Anf-01 ix.vi.x Pg 5
    Isa. xlii. 10, quoted from memory.

    And Jeremiah says: “Behold, I will make a new covenant, not as I made with your fathers”3903

    3903


    Anf-02 vi.ii.i Pg 22.1


    Anf-01 ix.vi.x Pg 5
    Isa. xlii. 10, quoted from memory.

    And Jeremiah says: “Behold, I will make a new covenant, not as I made with your fathers”3903

    3903


    Anf-02 vi.ii.i Pg 22.1


    Anf-01 ix.vi.x Pg 5
    Isa. xlii. 10, quoted from memory.

    And Jeremiah says: “Behold, I will make a new covenant, not as I made with your fathers”3903

    3903


    Anf-02 vi.ii.i Pg 22.1


    Anf-01 viii.ii.liii Pg 2
    Isa. liv. 1.

    For all the Gentiles were “desolate” of the true God, serving the works of their hands; but the Jews and Samaritans, having the word of God delivered to them by the prophets, and always expecting the Christ, did not recognise Him when He came, except some few, of whom the Spirit of prophecy by Isaiah had predicted that they should be saved. He spoke as from their person: “Except the Lord had left us a seed, we should have been as Sodom and Gomorrah.”1880

    1880


    Anf-01 ix.ii.xi Pg 15
    Isa. liv. 1; Gal. iv. 27.

    For in reference to these points, and others of a like nature, the apostle exclaims: “Oh! the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God; how unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out!”2798

    2798


    Anf-02 vi.ii.i Pg 30.1


    Anf-02 vi.iv.ii.vi Pg 10.1


    Anf-01 ix.vii.xxxv Pg 21
    Isa. liv. 11–14.

    And yet again does he say the same thing: “Behold, I make Jerusalem a rejoicing, and my people [a joy]; for the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying. Also there shall not be there any immature [one], nor an old man who does not fulfil his time: for the youth shall be of a hundred years; and the sinner shall die a hundred years old, yet shall be accursed. And they shall build houses, and inhabit them themselves; and shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them themselves, and shall drink wine. And they shall not build, and others inhabit; neither shall they prepare the vineyard, and others eat. For as the days of the tree of life shall be the days of the people in thee; for the works of their hands shall endure.”4764

    4764


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 157


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 136


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxi Pg 59
    Hos. i. 6–9.

    in order that, as says the apostle, “what was not a people may become a people; and she who did not obtain mercy may obtain mercy. And it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said, This is not a people, there shall they be called the children of the living God.”4110

    4110


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xix Pg 3
    Hos. i. and Hos. ii.

    one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths,1992

    1992


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xvi Pg 45
    The sense rather than the words of Hos. i. 6; 9.

    —that is, the (Jewish) nation. Thenceforth Christ extended to all men the law of His Father’s compassion, excepting none from His mercy, as He omitted none in His invitation. So that, whatever was the ampler scope of His teaching, He received it all in His heritage of the nations. “And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise.”4078

    4078


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xix Pg 3
    Hos. i. and Hos. ii.

    one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths,1992

    1992


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iii Pg 27
    See Hos. i. 10; 1 Pet. ii. 10.

    by accepting the new law above mentioned, and the new circumcision before foretold.


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xxi Pg 8
    Isa. ii. 2, 3.

    The gospel will be this “way,” of the new law and the new word in Christ, no longer in Moses.  “And He shall judge among the nations,” even concerning their error. “And these shall rebuke a large nation,” that of the Jews themselves and their proselytes.  “And they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears3396

    3396 Sibynas, Σιβύνη· ὅπλον δόρατι παραπλήσιον. Hesychius, “Sibynam appellant Illyrii telum venabuli simile.” Paulus, ex Festo, p. 336, Müll. (Oehler.)

    into pruning-hooks;” in other words, they shall change into pursuits of moderation and peace the dispositions of injurious minds, and hostile tongues, and all kinds of evil, and blasphemy.  “Nation shall not lift up sword against nation,” shall not stir up discord. “Neither shall they learn war any more,”3397

    3397


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.iv Pg 12
    Isa. ii. 2 (Sept).

    “and in the last days I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh5332

    5332


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iii Pg 14
    Isa. ii. 2, 3.

    —not of Esau, the former son, but of Jacob, the second; that is, of our “people,” whose “mount” is Christ, “præcised without concisors’ hands,1174

    1174


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxv Pg 10
    Isa. ii. 3, 4; Mic. iv. 2, 3.

    If therefore another law and word, going forth from Jerusalem, brought in such a [reign of] peace among the Gentiles which received it (the word), and convinced, through them, many a nation of its folly, then [only] it appears that the prophets spake of some other person. But if the law of liberty, that is, the word of God, preached by the apostles (who went forth from Jerusalem) throughout all the earth, caused such a change in the state of things, that these [nations] did form the swords and war-lances into ploughshares, and changed them into pruning-hooks for reaping the corn, [that is], into instruments used for peaceful purposes, and that they are now unaccustomed to fighting, but when smitten, offer also the other cheek,4347

    4347


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iii Pg 17
    Isa. ii. 3, 4.

    Who else, therefore, are understood but we, who, fully taught by the new law, observe these practices,—the old law being obliterated, the coming of whose abolition the action itself1177

    1177 i.e., of beating swords into ploughs, etc.

    demonstrates? For the wont of the old law was to avenge itself by the vengeance of the glaive, and to pluck out “eye for eye,” and to inflict retaliatory revenge for injury.1178

    1178


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xxi Pg 10
    Isa. ii. 4.

    that is, the provocation of hostilities; so that you here learn that Christ is promised not as powerful in war, but pursuing peace. Now you must deny either that these things were predicted, although they are plainly seen, or that they have been accomplished, although you read of them; else, if you cannot deny either one fact or the other, they must have been accomplished in Him of whom they were predicted. For look at the entire course of His call up to the present time from its beginning, how it is addressed to the nations (Gentiles) who are in these last days approaching to God the Creator, and not to proselytes, whose election3398

    3398 Allectio.

    was rather an event of the earliest days.  Verily the apostles have annulled3399

    3399 Junius explains the author’s induxerunt by deleverunt; i.e., “they annulled your opinion about proselytes being the sole called, by their promulgation of the gospel.”

    that belief of yours.


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.i Pg 18
    Isa. ii. 4.

    meaning not those of the Jewish people only, but of the nations which are judged by the new law of the gospel and the new word of the apostles, and are amongst themselves rebuked of their old error as soon as they have believed. And as the result of this, “they beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears (which are a kind of hunting instruments) into pruning-hooks;”3493

    3493


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.i Pg 19
    Isa. ii. 4.

    that is to say, minds, which once were fierce and cruel, are changed by them into good dispositions productive of good fruit. And again:  “Hearken unto me, hearken unto me, my people, and ye kings, give ear unto me; for a law shall proceed from me, and my judgment for a light to the nations;”3494

    3494


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.i Pg 20
    Isa. ii. 4, according to the Sept.

    wherefore He had determined and decreed that the nations also were to be enlightened by the law and the word of the gospel. This will be that law which (according to David also) is unblameable, because “perfect, converting the soul3495

    3495


    Npnf-201 iv.viii.xvii Pg 11


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxiv Pg 45
    Isa. xi. 8, 9.

    And, indeed, we are aware (without doing violence to the literal sense of the passage, since even these noxious animals have actually been unable to do hurt where there has been faith) that under the figure of scorpions and serpents are portended evil spirits, whose very prince is described4457

    4457 Deputetur.

    by the name of serpent, dragon, and every other most conspicuous beast in the power of the Creator.4458

    4458 Penes Creatorem.

    This power the Creator conferred first of all upon His Christ, even as the ninetieth Psalm says to Him: “Upon the asp and the basilisk shalt Thou tread; the lion and the dragon shalt Thou trample under foot.”4459

    4459


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxxiv Pg 9
    Isa. xi. 12.

    and remembered His own dead ones who had formerly fallen asleep,4261

    4261 Comp. book iii. 20, 4.

    and came down to them that He might deliver them: but the second in which He will come on the clouds,4262

    4262


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxix Pg 4
    Isa. xxxv. 1–7.

    The spring of living water which gushed forth from God in the land destitute of the knowledge of God, namely the land of the Gentiles, was this Christ, who also appeared in your nation, and healed those who were maimed, and deaf, and lame in body from their birth, causing them to leap, to hear, and to see, by His word. And having raised the dead, and causing them to live, by His deeds He compelled the men who lived at that time to recognise Him. But though they saw such works, they asserted it was magical art. For they dared to call Him a magician, and a deceiver of the people. Yet He wrought such works, and persuaded those who were [destined to] believe on Him; for even if any one be labouring under a defect of body, yet be an observer of the doctrines delivered by Him, He shall raise him up at His second advent perfectly sound, after He has made him immortal, and incorruptible, and free from grief.
    hands was cut out of a great mountain, has been imitated by them, and that they have attempted likewise to imitate the whole of Isaiah’s2210

    2210 The text here has ταῦτα ποιῆσαι ὁμοίως. Maranus suggests ᾽Ησαίου for ποιῆσαι; and so we have translated.

    words?2211

    2211 Justin says that the priests of Mithras imitated all the words of Isaiah about to be quoted; and to prove it, is content with a single example, namely, the precepts of righteousness, which they were wont to relate to him, as in these words of Isaiah: “He who walks in righteousness,” etc. Justin omitted many other passages, as easy and obvious. For since Mithras is the same as fire, it manifestly answers to the fire of which Isaiah speaks. And since Justin reminded them who are initiated, that they are said to be initiated by Mithras himself, it was not necessary to remind them that the words of Isaiah are imitated in this: “You shall see the King with glory.” Bread and water are referred to by Isaiah: so also in these mysteries of Mithras, Justin testifies that bread and a cup of water are placed before them (Apol. i.).—Maranus.

    For they2212

    2212 i.e., the devils.

    contrived that the words of righteousness be quoted also by them.2213

    2213 i.e., the priests of Mithras.

    But I must repeat to you the words of Isaiah referred to, in order that from them you may know that these things are so. They are these: ‘Hear, ye that are far off, what I have done; those that are near shall know my might. The sinners in Zion are removed; trembling shall seize the impious. Who shall announce to you the everlasting place? The man who walks in righteousness, speaks in the right way, hates sin and unrighteousness, and keeps his hands pure from bribes, stops the ears from hearing the unjust judgment of blood closes the eyes from seeing unrighteousness: he shall dwell in the lofty cave of the strong rock. Bread shall be given to him, and his water [shall be] sure. Ye shall see the King with glory, and your eyes shall look far off. Your soul shall pursue diligently the fear of the Lord. Where is the scribe? where are the counsellors? where is he that numbers those who are nourished,—the small and great people? with whom they did not take counsel, nor knew the depth of the voices, so that they heard not. The people who are become depreciated, and there is no understanding in him who hears.’2214

    2214


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.viii Pg 37
    Isa. xxxv. 1.

    When “stayed” by the crowds, He said, “I must preach the kingdom of God to other cities also.”3710

    3710


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 90


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 130


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.x Pg 4
    Isa. xxxv. 2.

    What glory, and what excellency? “Be strong, ye weak hands, and ye feeble knees:”3763

    3763


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxiii Pg 13
    Isa. xlii. 1–4.

    As therefore from the one man Jacob, who was surnamed Israel, all your nation has been called Jacob and Israel; so we from Christ, who begat us unto God, like Jacob, and Israel, and Judah, and Joseph, and David, are called and are the true sons of God, and keep the commandments of Christ.”


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxxv Pg 3
    Isa. xlii. 1–4.

    Then is it Jacob the patriarch in whom the Gentiles and yourselves shall trust? or is it not Christ? <index subject1="Christians" subject2="are the true Israel" title="267" id="viii.iv.cxxxv-p3.2"/>As, therefore, Christ is the Israel and the Jacob, even so we, who have been quarried out from the bowels of Christ, are the true Israelitic race. But let us attend rather to the very word: ‘And I will bring forth,’ He says, ‘the seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah: and it shall inherit My holy mountain; and Mine Elect and My servants shall possess the inheritance, and shall dwell there; and there shall be folds of flocks in the thicket, and the valley of Achor shall be a resting-place of cattle for the people who have sought Me. But as for you, who forsake Me, and forget My holy mountain, and prepare a table for demons, and fill out drink for the demon, I shall give you to the sword. You shall all fall with a slaughter; for I called you, and you hearkened not, and did evil before me, and did choose that wherein I delighted not.’2472

    2472


    Anf-03 v.ix.xi Pg 9
    Isa. xlii. 1.

    Hear also what He says to the Son: “Is it a great thing for Thee, that Thou shouldest be called my Son to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the dispersed of Israel? I have given Thee for a light to the Gentiles, that Thou mayest be their salvation to the end of the earth.”7882

    7882


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xv Pg 5
    Isa. xliii. 5.

    Inasmuch as then, “wheresoever the carcase is, there shall also the eagles be gathered together,”3964

    3964


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiii Pg 31
    Isa. xlix. 12.

    Concerning whom He says again: “Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold, all these have gathered themselves together.”3933

    3933


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xxi Pg 8
    Isa. ii. 2, 3.

    The gospel will be this “way,” of the new law and the new word in Christ, no longer in Moses.  “And He shall judge among the nations,” even concerning their error. “And these shall rebuke a large nation,” that of the Jews themselves and their proselytes.  “And they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears3396

    3396 Sibynas, Σιβύνη· ὅπλον δόρατι παραπλήσιον. Hesychius, “Sibynam appellant Illyrii telum venabuli simile.” Paulus, ex Festo, p. 336, Müll. (Oehler.)

    into pruning-hooks;” in other words, they shall change into pursuits of moderation and peace the dispositions of injurious minds, and hostile tongues, and all kinds of evil, and blasphemy.  “Nation shall not lift up sword against nation,” shall not stir up discord. “Neither shall they learn war any more,”3397

    3397


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.iv Pg 12
    Isa. ii. 2 (Sept).

    “and in the last days I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh5332

    5332


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iii Pg 14
    Isa. ii. 2, 3.

    —not of Esau, the former son, but of Jacob, the second; that is, of our “people,” whose “mount” is Christ, “præcised without concisors’ hands,1174

    1174


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxxv Pg 5
    Isa. ii. 5 f.

    even so it is necessary for us here to observe that there are two seeds of Judah, and two races, as there are two houses of Jacob: the one begotten by blood and flesh, the other by faith and the Spirit.


    Anf-02 vi.iv.v.vi Pg 12.3


    Anf-03 v.ix.xiii Pg 4
    Isa. xlv. 14, 15 (Sept.).

    For here too, by saying, “God is in Thee,” and “Thou art God,” he sets forth Two who were God: (in the former expression in Thee, he means) in Christ, and (in the other he means) the Holy Ghost. That is a still grander statement which you will find expressly made in the Gospel: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.”7908

    7908


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xiv Pg 13
    Isa. xlix. 6. The text of Cod. Sin., and of the other mss., is here in great confusion: we have followed that given by Hefele.

    <index subject1="Holy Spirit" title="146" id="vi.ii.xiv-p13.3"/>And again, the prophet saith, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; because He hath anointed me to preach the Gospel to the humble: He hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to proclaim deliverance to the captives, and recovery of sight to the blind; to announce the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of recompense; to comfort all that mourn.”1653

    1653


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxi Pg 6
    Isa. xlix. 6.



    Anf-03 iv.ix.iv Pg 9
    I am not acquainted with any such passage. Oehler refers to Isa. xlix. in his margin, but gives no verse, and omits to notice this passage of the present treatise in his index.

    Thus, therefore, before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold; just as before the carnal circumcision there was withal a spiritual circumcision foreshown. In short, let them teach us, as we have already premised, that Adam observed the sabbath; or that Abel, when offering to God a holy victim, pleased Him by a religious reverence for the sabbath; or that Enoch, when translated, had been a keeper of the sabbath; or that Noah the ark-builder observed, on account of the deluge, an immense sabbath; or that Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son; or that Melchizedek in his priesthood received the law of the sabbath.


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxv Pg 21
    Isa. xlii. 6 and xlix. 6.

    and if we understand these to be meant in the word babes4484

    4484


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.xi Pg 45
    Isa. xlix. 6 (Sept. quoted in Acts xiii. 47).

    —to them, that is, “who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death?”5722

    5722


    Anf-03 v.ix.xi Pg 10
    Isa. xlix. 6.

    Hear now also the Son’s utterances respecting the Father: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because He hath anointed me to preach the gospel unto men.”7883

    7883


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiii Pg 31
    Isa. xlix. 12.

    Concerning whom He says again: “Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold, all these have gathered themselves together.”3933

    3933


    Anf-01 viii.ii.liii Pg 2
    Isa. liv. 1.

    For all the Gentiles were “desolate” of the true God, serving the works of their hands; but the Jews and Samaritans, having the word of God delivered to them by the prophets, and always expecting the Christ, did not recognise Him when He came, except some few, of whom the Spirit of prophecy by Isaiah had predicted that they should be saved. He spoke as from their person: “Except the Lord had left us a seed, we should have been as Sodom and Gomorrah.”1880

    1880


    Anf-01 ix.ii.xi Pg 15
    Isa. liv. 1; Gal. iv. 27.

    For in reference to these points, and others of a like nature, the apostle exclaims: “Oh! the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God; how unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out!”2798

    2798


    Anf-02 vi.ii.i Pg 30.1


    Anf-02 vi.iv.ii.vi Pg 10.1


    Anf-01 ix.vii.xxxv Pg 21
    Isa. liv. 11–14.

    And yet again does he say the same thing: “Behold, I make Jerusalem a rejoicing, and my people [a joy]; for the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying. Also there shall not be there any immature [one], nor an old man who does not fulfil his time: for the youth shall be of a hundred years; and the sinner shall die a hundred years old, yet shall be accursed. And they shall build houses, and inhabit them themselves; and shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them themselves, and shall drink wine. And they shall not build, and others inhabit; neither shall they prepare the vineyard, and others eat. For as the days of the tree of life shall be the days of the people in thee; for the works of their hands shall endure.”4764

    4764


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 157


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 2
    Ps. lxxii.

    And at the close of this Psalm which I have quoted, it is written, ‘The hymns of David the son of Jesse are ended.’2034

    2034 [A striking passage in De Maistre (Œuvres, vol. vi. p. 275) is worthy of comparison.]

    Moreover, that Solomon was a renowned and great king, by whom the temple called that at Jerusalem was built, I know; but that none of those things mentioned in the Psalm happened to him, is evident. For neither did all kings worship him; nor did he reign to the ends of the earth; nor did his enemies, falling before him, lick the dust. Nay, also, I venture to repeat what is written in the book of Kings as committed by him, how through a woman’s influence he worshipped the idols of Sidon, which those of the Gentiles who know God, the Maker of all things through Jesus the crucified, do not venture to do, but abide every torture and vengeance even to the extremity of death, rather than worship idols, or eat meat offered to idols.”


    Npnf-201 iv.viii.xvii Pg 11


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 2
    Ps. lxxii.

    And at the close of this Psalm which I have quoted, it is written, ‘The hymns of David the son of Jesse are ended.’2034

    2034 [A striking passage in De Maistre (Œuvres, vol. vi. p. 275) is worthy of comparison.]

    Moreover, that Solomon was a renowned and great king, by whom the temple called that at Jerusalem was built, I know; but that none of those things mentioned in the Psalm happened to him, is evident. For neither did all kings worship him; nor did he reign to the ends of the earth; nor did his enemies, falling before him, lick the dust. Nay, also, I venture to repeat what is written in the book of Kings as committed by him, how through a woman’s influence he worshipped the idols of Sidon, which those of the Gentiles who know God, the Maker of all things through Jesus the crucified, do not venture to do, but abide every torture and vengeance even to the extremity of death, rather than worship idols, or eat meat offered to idols.”


    Npnf-201 iv.viii.xvii Pg 11


    Anf-02 vi.iv.v.vi Pg 12.3


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxvi Pg 4
    Isa. lxii. 10 to end, Isa. lxiii. 1–6.



    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiii Pg 31
    Isa. xlix. 12.

    Concerning whom He says again: “Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold, all these have gathered themselves together.”3933

    3933


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxx Pg 4
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    And it is plain that this was spoken not of Judah, but of Christ. For all we out of all nations do expect not Judah, but Jesus, who led your fathers out of Egypt. For the prophecy referred even to the advent of Christ: ‘Till He come for whom this is laid up, and He shall be the expectation of nations.’ Jesus came, therefore, as we have shown at length, and is expected again to appear above the clouds; whose name you profane, and labour hard to get it profaned over all the earth. It were possible for me, sirs,” I continued, “to contend against you about the reading which you so interpret, saying it is written, ‘Till the things laid up for Him come;’ though the Seventy have not so explained it, but thus, ‘Till He comes for whom this is laid up.’ But since what follows indicates that the reference is to Christ (for it is, ‘and He shall be the expectation of nations’), I do not proceed to have a mere verbal controversy with you, as I have not attempted to establish proof about Christ from the passages of Scripture which are not admitted by you2409

    2409 [Note this important point. He forbears to cite the New Testament.]

    which I quoted from the words of Jeremiah the prophet, and Esdras, and David; but from those which are even now admitted by you, which had your teachers comprehended, be well assured they would have deleted them, as they did those about the death of Isaiah, whom you sawed asunder with a wooden saw. And this was a mysterious type of Christ being about to cut your nation in two, and to raise those worthy of the honour to the everlasting kingdom along with the holy patriarchs and prophets; but He has said that He will send others to the condemnation of the unquenchable fire along with similar disobedient and impenitent men from all the nations. ‘For they shall come,’ He said, ‘from the west and from the east, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven; but the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness.’2410

    2410


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xxxii Pg 2
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    It is yours to make accurate inquiry, and ascertain up to whose time the Jews had a lawgiver and king of their own. Up to the time of Jesus Christ, who taught us, and interpreted the prophecies which were not yet understood, [they had a lawgiver] as was foretold by the holy and divine Spirit of prophecy through Moses, “that a ruler would not fail the Jews until He should come for whom the kingdom was reserved” (for Judah was the forefather of the Jews, from whom also they have their name of Jews); and after He (i.e., Christ) appeared, you began to rule the Jews, and gained possession of all their territory. And the prophecy, “He shall be the expectation of the nations,” signified that there would be some of all nations who should look for Him to come again. And this indeed you can see for yourselves, and be convinced of by fact. For of all races of men there are some who look for Him who was crucified in Judæa, and after whose crucifixion the land was straightway surrendered to you as spoil of war. And the prophecy, “binding His foal to the vine, and washing His robe in the blood of the grape,” was a significant symbol of the things that were to happen to Christ, and of what He was to do. For the foal of an ass stood bound to a vine at the entrance of a village, and He ordered His acquaintances to bring it to Him then; and when it was brought, He mounted and sat upon it, and entered Jerusalem, where was the vast temple of the Jews which was afterwards destroyed by you. And after this He was crucified, that the rest of the prophecy might be fulfilled. <index subject1="Christ Jesus" subject2="blood of" title="173" id="viii.ii.xxxii-p2.2"/>For this “washing His robe in the blood of the grape” was predictive of the passion He was to endure, cleansing by His blood those who believe on Him. For what is called by the Divine Spirit through the prophet “His robe,” are those men who believe in Him in whom abideth the seed1828

    1828 Grabe would here read, not σπέρμα, but πνεῦμα, the spirit; but the Benedictine, Otto, and Trollope all think that no change should be made.

    of God, the Word. And what is spoken of as “the blood of the grape,” signifies that He who should appear would have blood, though not of the seed of man, but of the power of God. <index subject1="Christ Jesus" subject2="called the Word" title="173" id="viii.ii.xxxii-p3.3"/>And the first power after God the Father and Lord of all is the Word, who is also the Son; and of Him we will, in what follows, relate how He took flesh and became man. For as man did not make the blood of the vine, but God, so it was hereby intimated that the blood should not be of human seed, but of divine power, as we have said above. And Isaiah, another prophet, foretelling the same things in other words, spoke thus: “A star shall rise out of Jacob, and a flower shall spring from the root of Jesse; and His arm shall the nations trust.1829

    1829


    Anf-01 v.vi.ix Pg 12
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    have been fulfilled in the Gospel, [our Lord saying,] “Go ye and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.”964

    964


    Anf-01 viii.ii.liv Pg 2
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    The devils, accordingly, when they heard these prophetic words, said that Bacchus was the son of Jupiter, and gave out that he was the discoverer of the vine, and they number wine1883

    1883 In the ms. the reading is οἶνον (wine); but as Justin’s argument seems to require ὄνον (an ass), Sylburg inserted this latter word in his edition; and this reading is approved by Grabe and Thirlby, and adopted by Otto and Trollope. It may be added, that ἀναγράφουσι is much more suitable to ὄνον than to οἶνον.

    [or, the ass] among his mysteries; and they taught that, having been torn in pieces, he ascended into heaven. And because in the prophecy of Moses it had not been expressly intimated whether He who was to come was the Son of God, and whether He would, riding on the foal, remain on earth or ascend into heaven, and because the name of “foal” could mean either the foal of an ass or the foal of a horse, they, not knowing whether He who was foretold would bring the foal of an ass or of a horse as the sign of His coming, nor whether He was the Son of God, as we said above, or of man, gave out that Bellerophon, a man born of man, himself ascended to heaven on his horse Pegasus. And when they heard it said by the other prophet Isaiah, that He should be born of a virgin, and by His own means ascend into heaven, they pretended that Perseus was spoken of. And when they knew what was said, as has been cited above, in the prophecies written aforetime, “Strong as a giant to run his course,”1884

    1884


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lii Pg 2
    [Bible:Gen.49.11 Bible:Gen.49.18 Bible:Gen.49.24">Gen. xlix. 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 24. These texts are frequently referred to by Justin.]

    that there would be two advents of Christ, and that in the first He would suffer, and that after He came there would be neither prophet nor king in your nation (I proceeded), and that the nations who believed in the suffering Christ would look for His future appearance. And for this reason the Holy Spirit had uttered these truths in a parable, and obscurely: for,” I added, “it is said, ‘Judah, thy brethren have praised thee: thy hands [shall be] on the neck of thine enemies; the sons of thy father shall worship thee. Judah is a lion’s whelp; from the germ, my son, thou art sprung up. Reclining, he lay down like a lion, and like [a lion’s] whelp: who shall raise him up? A ruler shall not depart from Judah, or a leader from his thighs, until that which is laid up in store for him shall come; and he shall be the desire of nations, binding his foal to the vine, and the foal of his ass to the tendril of the vine. He shall wash his garments in wine, and his vesture in the blood of the grape. His eyes shall be bright with2113

    2113 Or, “in comparison of.”

    wine, and his teeth white like milk.’2114

    2114


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xi Pg 11
    Gen. xlix. 10–12, LXX.

    For, let those who have the reputation of investigating everything, inquire at what time a prince and leader failed out of Judah, and who is the hope of the nations, who also is the vine, what was the ass’s colt [referred to as] His, what the clothing, and what the eyes, what the teeth, and what the wine, and thus let them investigate every one of the points mentioned; and they shall find that there was none other announced than our Lord, Christ Jesus. Wherefore Moses, when chiding the ingratitude of the people, said, “Ye infatuated people, and unwise, do ye thus requite the Lord?”3925

    3925


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 3
    Isa. xxxv. 10.

    Well, there is nothing eternal until after the resurrection. “And sorrow and sighing,” continues he, “shall flee away.”7729

    7729


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 4
    Ver. 10.

    The angel echoes the same to John: “And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes;”7730

    7730


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iv Pg 9
    I am not acquainted with any such passage. Oehler refers to Isa. xlix. in his margin, but gives no verse, and omits to notice this passage of the present treatise in his index.

    Thus, therefore, before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold; just as before the carnal circumcision there was withal a spiritual circumcision foreshown. In short, let them teach us, as we have already premised, that Adam observed the sabbath; or that Abel, when offering to God a holy victim, pleased Him by a religious reverence for the sabbath; or that Enoch, when translated, had been a keeper of the sabbath; or that Noah the ark-builder observed, on account of the deluge, an immense sabbath; or that Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son; or that Melchizedek in his priesthood received the law of the sabbath.


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iv Pg 9
    I am not acquainted with any such passage. Oehler refers to Isa. xlix. in his margin, but gives no verse, and omits to notice this passage of the present treatise in his index.

    Thus, therefore, before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold; just as before the carnal circumcision there was withal a spiritual circumcision foreshown. In short, let them teach us, as we have already premised, that Adam observed the sabbath; or that Abel, when offering to God a holy victim, pleased Him by a religious reverence for the sabbath; or that Enoch, when translated, had been a keeper of the sabbath; or that Noah the ark-builder observed, on account of the deluge, an immense sabbath; or that Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son; or that Melchizedek in his priesthood received the law of the sabbath.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxx Pg 2
    Deut. xxxii. 43.

    and I added what follows of the passage: “ ‘Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people, and let all the angels of God be strengthened in Him: for the blood of His sons He avenges, and will avenge, and will recompense His enemies with vengeance, and will recompense those that hate Him; and the Lord will purify the land of His people.’ And by these words He declares that we, the nations, rejoice with His people, —to wit, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the prophets, and, in short, all of that people who are well-pleasing to God, according to what has been already agreed on between us. But we will not receive it of all your nation; since we know from Isaiah2459

    2459 Isa. lxvi. 24.

    that the members of those who have transgressed shall be consumed by the worm and unquenchable fire, remaining immortal; so that they become a spectacle to all flesh. <index subject1="Israel applied to Chirst" title="265" id="viii.iv.cxxx-p3.2"/>But in addition to these, I wish, sirs,” said I, “to add some other passages from the very words of Moses, from which you may understand that God has from of old dispersed all men according to their kindreds and tongues; and out of all kindreds has taken to Himself your kindred, a useless, disobedient, and faithless generation; and has shown that those who were selected out of every nation have obeyed His will through Christ,—whom He calls also Jacob, and names Israel, —and these, then, as I mentioned fully previously, must be Jacob and Israel. For when He says, ‘Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people,’ He allots the same inheritance to them, and does not call them by the same name;2460

    2460 The reading is, “and calls them by the same name.” But the whole argument shows that the Jews and Gentiles are distinguished by name. [But that Gentiles are also called (Israel) by the same name is the point here.]

    but when He says that they as Gentiles rejoice with His people, He calls them Gentiles to reproach you. For even as you provoked Him to anger by your idolatry, so also He has deemed those who were idolaters worthy of knowing His will, and of inheriting His inheritance.


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xli Pg 2
    Ps. xcvi. 1, etc. This last clause, which is not extant in our copies, either of the LXX, or of the Hebrew, Justin charged the Jews with erasing. See Dial. Tryph., c. 73. [Concerning the eighteen Jewish alterations, see Pearson on the Creed, art. iv. p. 335. Ed. London, 1824.]


    Anf-01 ix.vi.x Pg 4
    Ps. xcvi. 1.

    and Esaias, “Sing unto the Lord a new hymn. His beginning (initium), His name is glorified from the height of the earth: they declare His powers in the isles.”3902

    3902


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-02 vi.ii.i Pg 7.1
    Repentance, men understand, so far as nature is able, to be an emotion of the mind arising from disgust8421

    8421 “Offensa sententiæ pejoris;” or possibly, “the miscarriage of some,” etc.

    at some previously cherished worse sentiment: that kind of men I mean which even we ourselves were in days gone by—blind, without the Lord’s light.  From the reason of repentance, however, they are just as far as they are from the Author of reason Himself. Reason, in fact, is a thing of God, inasmuch as there is nothing which God the Maker of all has not provided, disposed, ordained by reason—nothing which He has not willed should be handled and understood by reason. All, therefore, who are ignorant of God, must necessarily be ignorant also of a thing which is His, because no treasure-house8422

    8422 Thesaurus.

    at all is accessible to strangers. And thus, voyaging all the universal course of life without the rudder of reason, they know not how to shun the hurricane which is impending over the world.8423

    8423 Sæculo. [Erasmus doubted the genuineness of this treatise, partly because of the comparative purity of its style. See Kaye, p. 42.]

    Moreover, how irrationally they behave in the practice of repentance, it will be enough briefly to show just by this one fact, that they exercise it even in the case of their good deeds. They repent of good faith, of love, of simple-heartedness, of patience, of mercy, just in proportion as any deed prompted by these feelings has fallen on thankless soil.  They execrate their own selves for having done good; and that species chiefly of repentance which is applied to the best works they fix in their heart, making it their care to remember never again to do a good turn. On repentance for evil deeds, on the contrary, they lay lighter stress. In short, they make this same (virtue) a means of sinning more readily than a means of right-doing.


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 33


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.i Pg 9


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xv Pg 52
    Jer. xvii. 5.

    Whereas in Psalm cxvii. it is said: “It is better to trust in the Lord than to put confidence in man; it is better to trust in the Lord than to place hope in princes.”4032

    4032


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xv Pg 52
    Jer. xvii. 5.

    Whereas in Psalm cxvii. it is said: “It is better to trust in the Lord than to put confidence in man; it is better to trust in the Lord than to place hope in princes.”4032

    4032


    Anf-01 ix.vi.vi Pg 4
    Isa. xii. 4.

    For neither in an ambiguous, nor arrogant, nor boastful manner, does He say these things; but since it was impossible, without God, to come to a knowledge of God, He teaches men, through His Word, to know God. To those, therefore, who are ignorant of these matters, and on this account imagine that they have discovered another Father, justly does one say, “Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God.”3846

    3846


    Anf-01 ix.vi.v Pg 3
    [Jer. vii. 4. One of the most powerful arguments in all Scripture is contained in the first twelve verses of this chapter, and it rebukes an inveterate superstition of the human heart. Comp. Rev. ii. 5, and the message to Rome, Rom. xi. 21.]

    This is just as if any one should say, that if straw were a creation of God, it would never part company with the wheat; and that the vine twigs, if made by God, never would be lopped away and deprived of the clusters. But as these [vine twigs] have not been originally made for their own sake, but for that of the fruit growing upon them, which being come to maturity and taken away, they are left behind, and those which do not conduce to fructification are lopped off altogether; so also [was it with] Jerusalem, which had in herself borne the yoke of bondage (under which man was reduced, who in former times was not subject to God when death was reigning, and being subdued, became a fit subject for liberty), when the fruit of liberty had come, and reached maturity, and been reaped and stored in the barn, and when those which had the power to produce fruit had been carried away from her [i.e., from Jerusalem], and scattered throughout all the world. Even as Esaias saith, “The children of Jacob shall strike root, and Israel shall flourish, and the whole world shall be filled with his fruit.”3835

    3835


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xvi Pg 7
    Comp. Isa. v., Jer. xxv.; but the words do not occur in Scripture.

    And it so happened as the Lord had spoken. <index subject1="Temple" subject2="the true" title="147" id="vi.ii.xvi-p7.3"/>Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of God. There is—where He himself declared He would make and finish it. For it is written, “And it shall come to pass, when the week is completed, the temple of God shall be built in glory in the name of the Lord.”1678

    1678


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxx Pg 4
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    And it is plain that this was spoken not of Judah, but of Christ. For all we out of all nations do expect not Judah, but Jesus, who led your fathers out of Egypt. For the prophecy referred even to the advent of Christ: ‘Till He come for whom this is laid up, and He shall be the expectation of nations.’ Jesus came, therefore, as we have shown at length, and is expected again to appear above the clouds; whose name you profane, and labour hard to get it profaned over all the earth. It were possible for me, sirs,” I continued, “to contend against you about the reading which you so interpret, saying it is written, ‘Till the things laid up for Him come;’ though the Seventy have not so explained it, but thus, ‘Till He comes for whom this is laid up.’ But since what follows indicates that the reference is to Christ (for it is, ‘and He shall be the expectation of nations’), I do not proceed to have a mere verbal controversy with you, as I have not attempted to establish proof about Christ from the passages of Scripture which are not admitted by you2409

    2409 [Note this important point. He forbears to cite the New Testament.]

    which I quoted from the words of Jeremiah the prophet, and Esdras, and David; but from those which are even now admitted by you, which had your teachers comprehended, be well assured they would have deleted them, as they did those about the death of Isaiah, whom you sawed asunder with a wooden saw. And this was a mysterious type of Christ being about to cut your nation in two, and to raise those worthy of the honour to the everlasting kingdom along with the holy patriarchs and prophets; but He has said that He will send others to the condemnation of the unquenchable fire along with similar disobedient and impenitent men from all the nations. ‘For they shall come,’ He said, ‘from the west and from the east, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven; but the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness.’2410

    2410


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xxxii Pg 2
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    It is yours to make accurate inquiry, and ascertain up to whose time the Jews had a lawgiver and king of their own. Up to the time of Jesus Christ, who taught us, and interpreted the prophecies which were not yet understood, [they had a lawgiver] as was foretold by the holy and divine Spirit of prophecy through Moses, “that a ruler would not fail the Jews until He should come for whom the kingdom was reserved” (for Judah was the forefather of the Jews, from whom also they have their name of Jews); and after He (i.e., Christ) appeared, you began to rule the Jews, and gained possession of all their territory. And the prophecy, “He shall be the expectation of the nations,” signified that there would be some of all nations who should look for Him to come again. And this indeed you can see for yourselves, and be convinced of by fact. For of all races of men there are some who look for Him who was crucified in Judæa, and after whose crucifixion the land was straightway surrendered to you as spoil of war. And the prophecy, “binding His foal to the vine, and washing His robe in the blood of the grape,” was a significant symbol of the things that were to happen to Christ, and of what He was to do. For the foal of an ass stood bound to a vine at the entrance of a village, and He ordered His acquaintances to bring it to Him then; and when it was brought, He mounted and sat upon it, and entered Jerusalem, where was the vast temple of the Jews which was afterwards destroyed by you. And after this He was crucified, that the rest of the prophecy might be fulfilled. <index subject1="Christ Jesus" subject2="blood of" title="173" id="viii.ii.xxxii-p2.2"/>For this “washing His robe in the blood of the grape” was predictive of the passion He was to endure, cleansing by His blood those who believe on Him. For what is called by the Divine Spirit through the prophet “His robe,” are those men who believe in Him in whom abideth the seed1828

    1828 Grabe would here read, not σπέρμα, but πνεῦμα, the spirit; but the Benedictine, Otto, and Trollope all think that no change should be made.

    of God, the Word. And what is spoken of as “the blood of the grape,” signifies that He who should appear would have blood, though not of the seed of man, but of the power of God. <index subject1="Christ Jesus" subject2="called the Word" title="173" id="viii.ii.xxxii-p3.3"/>And the first power after God the Father and Lord of all is the Word, who is also the Son; and of Him we will, in what follows, relate how He took flesh and became man. For as man did not make the blood of the vine, but God, so it was hereby intimated that the blood should not be of human seed, but of divine power, as we have said above. And Isaiah, another prophet, foretelling the same things in other words, spoke thus: “A star shall rise out of Jacob, and a flower shall spring from the root of Jesse; and His arm shall the nations trust.1829

    1829


    Anf-01 v.vi.ix Pg 12
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    have been fulfilled in the Gospel, [our Lord saying,] “Go ye and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.”964

    964


    Anf-01 viii.ii.liv Pg 2
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    The devils, accordingly, when they heard these prophetic words, said that Bacchus was the son of Jupiter, and gave out that he was the discoverer of the vine, and they number wine1883

    1883 In the ms. the reading is οἶνον (wine); but as Justin’s argument seems to require ὄνον (an ass), Sylburg inserted this latter word in his edition; and this reading is approved by Grabe and Thirlby, and adopted by Otto and Trollope. It may be added, that ἀναγράφουσι is much more suitable to ὄνον than to οἶνον.

    [or, the ass] among his mysteries; and they taught that, having been torn in pieces, he ascended into heaven. And because in the prophecy of Moses it had not been expressly intimated whether He who was to come was the Son of God, and whether He would, riding on the foal, remain on earth or ascend into heaven, and because the name of “foal” could mean either the foal of an ass or the foal of a horse, they, not knowing whether He who was foretold would bring the foal of an ass or of a horse as the sign of His coming, nor whether He was the Son of God, as we said above, or of man, gave out that Bellerophon, a man born of man, himself ascended to heaven on his horse Pegasus. And when they heard it said by the other prophet Isaiah, that He should be born of a virgin, and by His own means ascend into heaven, they pretended that Perseus was spoken of. And when they knew what was said, as has been cited above, in the prophecies written aforetime, “Strong as a giant to run his course,”1884

    1884


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lii Pg 2
    [Bible:Gen.49.11 Bible:Gen.49.18 Bible:Gen.49.24">Gen. xlix. 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 24. These texts are frequently referred to by Justin.]

    that there would be two advents of Christ, and that in the first He would suffer, and that after He came there would be neither prophet nor king in your nation (I proceeded), and that the nations who believed in the suffering Christ would look for His future appearance. And for this reason the Holy Spirit had uttered these truths in a parable, and obscurely: for,” I added, “it is said, ‘Judah, thy brethren have praised thee: thy hands [shall be] on the neck of thine enemies; the sons of thy father shall worship thee. Judah is a lion’s whelp; from the germ, my son, thou art sprung up. Reclining, he lay down like a lion, and like [a lion’s] whelp: who shall raise him up? A ruler shall not depart from Judah, or a leader from his thighs, until that which is laid up in store for him shall come; and he shall be the desire of nations, binding his foal to the vine, and the foal of his ass to the tendril of the vine. He shall wash his garments in wine, and his vesture in the blood of the grape. His eyes shall be bright with2113

    2113 Or, “in comparison of.”

    wine, and his teeth white like milk.’2114

    2114


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xi Pg 11
    Gen. xlix. 10–12, LXX.

    For, let those who have the reputation of investigating everything, inquire at what time a prince and leader failed out of Judah, and who is the hope of the nations, who also is the vine, what was the ass’s colt [referred to as] His, what the clothing, and what the eyes, what the teeth, and what the wine, and thus let them investigate every one of the points mentioned; and they shall find that there was none other announced than our Lord, Christ Jesus. Wherefore Moses, when chiding the ingratitude of the people, said, “Ye infatuated people, and unwise, do ye thus requite the Lord?”3925

    3925


    Anf-01 v.iii.x Pg 7
    Isa. lxii. 2; 12.

    This was first fulfilled in Syria; for “the disciples were called Christians at Antioch,”700

    700


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxix Pg 6
    Isa. lxii. 12.

    Therefore we are not a people to be despised, nor a barbarous race, nor such as the Carian and Phrygian nations; but God has even chosen us and He has become manifest to those who asked not after Him. ‘Behold, I am God,’ He says, ‘to the nation which called not on My name.’2405

    2405


    Anf-01 ix.vi.v Pg 3
    [Jer. vii. 4. One of the most powerful arguments in all Scripture is contained in the first twelve verses of this chapter, and it rebukes an inveterate superstition of the human heart. Comp. Rev. ii. 5, and the message to Rome, Rom. xi. 21.]

    This is just as if any one should say, that if straw were a creation of God, it would never part company with the wheat; and that the vine twigs, if made by God, never would be lopped away and deprived of the clusters. But as these [vine twigs] have not been originally made for their own sake, but for that of the fruit growing upon them, which being come to maturity and taken away, they are left behind, and those which do not conduce to fructification are lopped off altogether; so also [was it with] Jerusalem, which had in herself borne the yoke of bondage (under which man was reduced, who in former times was not subject to God when death was reigning, and being subdued, became a fit subject for liberty), when the fruit of liberty had come, and reached maturity, and been reaped and stored in the barn, and when those which had the power to produce fruit had been carried away from her [i.e., from Jerusalem], and scattered throughout all the world. Even as Esaias saith, “The children of Jacob shall strike root, and Israel shall flourish, and the whole world shall be filled with his fruit.”3835

    3835


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xvi Pg 7
    Comp. Isa. v., Jer. xxv.; but the words do not occur in Scripture.

    And it so happened as the Lord had spoken. <index subject1="Temple" subject2="the true" title="147" id="vi.ii.xvi-p7.3"/>Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of God. There is—where He himself declared He would make and finish it. For it is written, “And it shall come to pass, when the week is completed, the temple of God shall be built in glory in the name of the Lord.”1678

    1678


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 3
    Isa. xxxv. 10.

    Well, there is nothing eternal until after the resurrection. “And sorrow and sighing,” continues he, “shall flee away.”7729

    7729


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 4
    Ver. 10.

    The angel echoes the same to John: “And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes;”7730

    7730


    Anf-02 vi.iii.iii.xii Pg 39.2


    Anf-02 vi.iii.iii.xii Pg 39.2


    Anf-01 ix.vi.v Pg 3
    [Jer. vii. 4. One of the most powerful arguments in all Scripture is contained in the first twelve verses of this chapter, and it rebukes an inveterate superstition of the human heart. Comp. Rev. ii. 5, and the message to Rome, Rom. xi. 21.]

    This is just as if any one should say, that if straw were a creation of God, it would never part company with the wheat; and that the vine twigs, if made by God, never would be lopped away and deprived of the clusters. But as these [vine twigs] have not been originally made for their own sake, but for that of the fruit growing upon them, which being come to maturity and taken away, they are left behind, and those which do not conduce to fructification are lopped off altogether; so also [was it with] Jerusalem, which had in herself borne the yoke of bondage (under which man was reduced, who in former times was not subject to God when death was reigning, and being subdued, became a fit subject for liberty), when the fruit of liberty had come, and reached maturity, and been reaped and stored in the barn, and when those which had the power to produce fruit had been carried away from her [i.e., from Jerusalem], and scattered throughout all the world. Even as Esaias saith, “The children of Jacob shall strike root, and Israel shall flourish, and the whole world shall be filled with his fruit.”3835

    3835


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xvi Pg 7
    Comp. Isa. v., Jer. xxv.; but the words do not occur in Scripture.

    And it so happened as the Lord had spoken. <index subject1="Temple" subject2="the true" title="147" id="vi.ii.xvi-p7.3"/>Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of God. There is—where He himself declared He would make and finish it. For it is written, “And it shall come to pass, when the week is completed, the temple of God shall be built in glory in the name of the Lord.”1678

    1678


    Anf-01 ix.vi.vi Pg 4
    Isa. xii. 4.

    For neither in an ambiguous, nor arrogant, nor boastful manner, does He say these things; but since it was impossible, without God, to come to a knowledge of God, He teaches men, through His Word, to know God. To those, therefore, who are ignorant of these matters, and on this account imagine that they have discovered another Father, justly does one say, “Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God.”3846

    3846


    Anf-01 ix.vi.x Pg 5
    Isa. xlii. 10, quoted from memory.

    And Jeremiah says: “Behold, I will make a new covenant, not as I made with your fathers”3903

    3903


    Anf-02 vi.ii.i Pg 22.1


    Anf-01 ix.iv.xiv Pg 3
    Rom. x. 15; Isa. lii. 7.

    he shows clearly that it was not merely one, but there were many who used to preach the truth. And again, in the Epistle to the Corinthians, when he had recounted all those who had seen God3529

    3529 All the previous editors accept the reading Deum without remark, but Harvey argues that it must be regarded as a mistake for Dominum. He scarcely seems, however, to give sufficient weight to the quotation which immediately follows.

    after the resurrection, he says in continuation, “But whether it were I or they, so we preach, and so ye believed,”3530

    3530


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.v Pg 8
    Isa. lii. 7.

    For the herald of good, that is, of God’s “grace” was well aware that along with it “peace” also was to be proclaimed.5392

    5392 Pacem quam præferendam.

    Now, when he announces these blessings as “from God the Father and the Lord Jesus,”5393

    5393


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.xxii Pg 3
    Isa. lii. 7 and Rom. x. 15.

    not of war nor evil tidings. In response to which is the psalm, “Their sound is gone through all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world;”3401

    3401


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xiii Pg 9
    Our author’s reading of Isa. lii. 7.

    So one of the twelve (minor prophets), Nahum: “For behold upon the mountain the swift feet of Him that bringeth glad tidings of peace.”3911

    3911 Nahum i. 15.

    Moreover, concerning the voice of His prayer to the Father by night, the psalm manifestly says: “O my God, I will cry in the day-time, and Thou shalt hear; and in the night season, and it shall not be in vain to me.”3912

    3912


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxxiv Pg 55
    See Isa. lii. 7, xxxiii. 14 (Sept.), and Amos ix. 6.

    Down in hell, however, it was said concerning them: “They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them!”—even those who did not believe them or at least did not sincerely4856

    4856 Omnino.

    believe that after death there were punishments for the arrogance of wealth and the glory of luxury, announced indeed by Moses and the prophets, but decreed by that God, who deposes princes from their thrones, and raiseth up the poor from dunghills.4857

    4857


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ii Pg 19
    Isa. lii. 7.

    —even proclaiming the gospel to the Gentiles, because He also says, “In His name shall the Gentiles trust;”5253

    5253


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xiii Pg 7
    Isa. lii. 10 ff. following LXX. on to liv. 6.



    Anf-01 ix.vii.xxxvi Pg 17
    Isa. lxv. 17, 18.

    Now this is what has been said by the apostle: “For the fashion of this world passeth away.”4780

    4780


    Anf-01 ix.vii.xxxv Pg 22
    Isa. lxv. 18.



    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxx Pg 2
    Deut. xxxii. 43.

    and I added what follows of the passage: “ ‘Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people, and let all the angels of God be strengthened in Him: for the blood of His sons He avenges, and will avenge, and will recompense His enemies with vengeance, and will recompense those that hate Him; and the Lord will purify the land of His people.’ And by these words He declares that we, the nations, rejoice with His people, —to wit, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the prophets, and, in short, all of that people who are well-pleasing to God, according to what has been already agreed on between us. But we will not receive it of all your nation; since we know from Isaiah2459

    2459 Isa. lxvi. 24.

    that the members of those who have transgressed shall be consumed by the worm and unquenchable fire, remaining immortal; so that they become a spectacle to all flesh. <index subject1="Israel applied to Chirst" title="265" id="viii.iv.cxxx-p3.2"/>But in addition to these, I wish, sirs,” said I, “to add some other passages from the very words of Moses, from which you may understand that God has from of old dispersed all men according to their kindreds and tongues; and out of all kindreds has taken to Himself your kindred, a useless, disobedient, and faithless generation; and has shown that those who were selected out of every nation have obeyed His will through Christ,—whom He calls also Jacob, and names Israel, —and these, then, as I mentioned fully previously, must be Jacob and Israel. For when He says, ‘Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people,’ He allots the same inheritance to them, and does not call them by the same name;2460

    2460 The reading is, “and calls them by the same name.” But the whole argument shows that the Jews and Gentiles are distinguished by name. [But that Gentiles are also called (Israel) by the same name is the point here.]

    but when He says that they as Gentiles rejoice with His people, He calls them Gentiles to reproach you. For even as you provoked Him to anger by your idolatry, so also He has deemed those who were idolaters worthy of knowing His will, and of inheriting His inheritance.


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 3
    Isa. xxxv. 10.

    Well, there is nothing eternal until after the resurrection. “And sorrow and sighing,” continues he, “shall flee away.”7729

    7729


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 4
    Ver. 10.

    The angel echoes the same to John: “And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes;”7730

    7730


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iv Pg 9
    I am not acquainted with any such passage. Oehler refers to Isa. xlix. in his margin, but gives no verse, and omits to notice this passage of the present treatise in his index.

    Thus, therefore, before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold; just as before the carnal circumcision there was withal a spiritual circumcision foreshown. In short, let them teach us, as we have already premised, that Adam observed the sabbath; or that Abel, when offering to God a holy victim, pleased Him by a religious reverence for the sabbath; or that Enoch, when translated, had been a keeper of the sabbath; or that Noah the ark-builder observed, on account of the deluge, an immense sabbath; or that Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son; or that Melchizedek in his priesthood received the law of the sabbath.


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iv Pg 9
    I am not acquainted with any such passage. Oehler refers to Isa. xlix. in his margin, but gives no verse, and omits to notice this passage of the present treatise in his index.

    Thus, therefore, before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold; just as before the carnal circumcision there was withal a spiritual circumcision foreshown. In short, let them teach us, as we have already premised, that Adam observed the sabbath; or that Abel, when offering to God a holy victim, pleased Him by a religious reverence for the sabbath; or that Enoch, when translated, had been a keeper of the sabbath; or that Noah the ark-builder observed, on account of the deluge, an immense sabbath; or that Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son; or that Melchizedek in his priesthood received the law of the sabbath.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxx Pg 2
    Deut. xxxii. 43.

    and I added what follows of the passage: “ ‘Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people, and let all the angels of God be strengthened in Him: for the blood of His sons He avenges, and will avenge, and will recompense His enemies with vengeance, and will recompense those that hate Him; and the Lord will purify the land of His people.’ And by these words He declares that we, the nations, rejoice with His people, —to wit, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the prophets, and, in short, all of that people who are well-pleasing to God, according to what has been already agreed on between us. But we will not receive it of all your nation; since we know from Isaiah2459

    2459 Isa. lxvi. 24.

    that the members of those who have transgressed shall be consumed by the worm and unquenchable fire, remaining immortal; so that they become a spectacle to all flesh. <index subject1="Israel applied to Chirst" title="265" id="viii.iv.cxxx-p3.2"/>But in addition to these, I wish, sirs,” said I, “to add some other passages from the very words of Moses, from which you may understand that God has from of old dispersed all men according to their kindreds and tongues; and out of all kindreds has taken to Himself your kindred, a useless, disobedient, and faithless generation; and has shown that those who were selected out of every nation have obeyed His will through Christ,—whom He calls also Jacob, and names Israel, —and these, then, as I mentioned fully previously, must be Jacob and Israel. For when He says, ‘Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people,’ He allots the same inheritance to them, and does not call them by the same name;2460

    2460 The reading is, “and calls them by the same name.” But the whole argument shows that the Jews and Gentiles are distinguished by name. [But that Gentiles are also called (Israel) by the same name is the point here.]

    but when He says that they as Gentiles rejoice with His people, He calls them Gentiles to reproach you. For even as you provoked Him to anger by your idolatry, so also He has deemed those who were idolaters worthy of knowing His will, and of inheriting His inheritance.


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xli Pg 2
    Ps. xcvi. 1, etc. This last clause, which is not extant in our copies, either of the LXX, or of the Hebrew, Justin charged the Jews with erasing. See Dial. Tryph., c. 73. [Concerning the eighteen Jewish alterations, see Pearson on the Creed, art. iv. p. 335. Ed. London, 1824.]


    Anf-01 ix.vi.x Pg 4
    Ps. xcvi. 1.

    and Esaias, “Sing unto the Lord a new hymn. His beginning (initium), His name is glorified from the height of the earth: they declare His powers in the isles.”3902

    3902


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-02 vi.ii.i Pg 7.1
    Repentance, men understand, so far as nature is able, to be an emotion of the mind arising from disgust8421

    8421 “Offensa sententiæ pejoris;” or possibly, “the miscarriage of some,” etc.

    at some previously cherished worse sentiment: that kind of men I mean which even we ourselves were in days gone by—blind, without the Lord’s light.  From the reason of repentance, however, they are just as far as they are from the Author of reason Himself. Reason, in fact, is a thing of God, inasmuch as there is nothing which God the Maker of all has not provided, disposed, ordained by reason—nothing which He has not willed should be handled and understood by reason. All, therefore, who are ignorant of God, must necessarily be ignorant also of a thing which is His, because no treasure-house8422

    8422 Thesaurus.

    at all is accessible to strangers. And thus, voyaging all the universal course of life without the rudder of reason, they know not how to shun the hurricane which is impending over the world.8423

    8423 Sæculo. [Erasmus doubted the genuineness of this treatise, partly because of the comparative purity of its style. See Kaye, p. 42.]

    Moreover, how irrationally they behave in the practice of repentance, it will be enough briefly to show just by this one fact, that they exercise it even in the case of their good deeds. They repent of good faith, of love, of simple-heartedness, of patience, of mercy, just in proportion as any deed prompted by these feelings has fallen on thankless soil.  They execrate their own selves for having done good; and that species chiefly of repentance which is applied to the best works they fix in their heart, making it their care to remember never again to do a good turn. On repentance for evil deeds, on the contrary, they lay lighter stress. In short, they make this same (virtue) a means of sinning more readily than a means of right-doing.


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 33


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.i Pg 9


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xv Pg 52
    Jer. xvii. 5.

    Whereas in Psalm cxvii. it is said: “It is better to trust in the Lord than to put confidence in man; it is better to trust in the Lord than to place hope in princes.”4032

    4032


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xv Pg 52
    Jer. xvii. 5.

    Whereas in Psalm cxvii. it is said: “It is better to trust in the Lord than to put confidence in man; it is better to trust in the Lord than to place hope in princes.”4032

    4032


    Anf-01 ix.vi.vi Pg 4
    Isa. xii. 4.

    For neither in an ambiguous, nor arrogant, nor boastful manner, does He say these things; but since it was impossible, without God, to come to a knowledge of God, He teaches men, through His Word, to know God. To those, therefore, who are ignorant of these matters, and on this account imagine that they have discovered another Father, justly does one say, “Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God.”3846

    3846


    Anf-01 ix.vi.v Pg 3
    [Jer. vii. 4. One of the most powerful arguments in all Scripture is contained in the first twelve verses of this chapter, and it rebukes an inveterate superstition of the human heart. Comp. Rev. ii. 5, and the message to Rome, Rom. xi. 21.]

    This is just as if any one should say, that if straw were a creation of God, it would never part company with the wheat; and that the vine twigs, if made by God, never would be lopped away and deprived of the clusters. But as these [vine twigs] have not been originally made for their own sake, but for that of the fruit growing upon them, which being come to maturity and taken away, they are left behind, and those which do not conduce to fructification are lopped off altogether; so also [was it with] Jerusalem, which had in herself borne the yoke of bondage (under which man was reduced, who in former times was not subject to God when death was reigning, and being subdued, became a fit subject for liberty), when the fruit of liberty had come, and reached maturity, and been reaped and stored in the barn, and when those which had the power to produce fruit had been carried away from her [i.e., from Jerusalem], and scattered throughout all the world. Even as Esaias saith, “The children of Jacob shall strike root, and Israel shall flourish, and the whole world shall be filled with his fruit.”3835

    3835


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xvi Pg 7
    Comp. Isa. v., Jer. xxv.; but the words do not occur in Scripture.

    And it so happened as the Lord had spoken. <index subject1="Temple" subject2="the true" title="147" id="vi.ii.xvi-p7.3"/>Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of God. There is—where He himself declared He would make and finish it. For it is written, “And it shall come to pass, when the week is completed, the temple of God shall be built in glory in the name of the Lord.”1678

    1678


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxx Pg 4
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    And it is plain that this was spoken not of Judah, but of Christ. For all we out of all nations do expect not Judah, but Jesus, who led your fathers out of Egypt. For the prophecy referred even to the advent of Christ: ‘Till He come for whom this is laid up, and He shall be the expectation of nations.’ Jesus came, therefore, as we have shown at length, and is expected again to appear above the clouds; whose name you profane, and labour hard to get it profaned over all the earth. It were possible for me, sirs,” I continued, “to contend against you about the reading which you so interpret, saying it is written, ‘Till the things laid up for Him come;’ though the Seventy have not so explained it, but thus, ‘Till He comes for whom this is laid up.’ But since what follows indicates that the reference is to Christ (for it is, ‘and He shall be the expectation of nations’), I do not proceed to have a mere verbal controversy with you, as I have not attempted to establish proof about Christ from the passages of Scripture which are not admitted by you2409

    2409 [Note this important point. He forbears to cite the New Testament.]

    which I quoted from the words of Jeremiah the prophet, and Esdras, and David; but from those which are even now admitted by you, which had your teachers comprehended, be well assured they would have deleted them, as they did those about the death of Isaiah, whom you sawed asunder with a wooden saw. And this was a mysterious type of Christ being about to cut your nation in two, and to raise those worthy of the honour to the everlasting kingdom along with the holy patriarchs and prophets; but He has said that He will send others to the condemnation of the unquenchable fire along with similar disobedient and impenitent men from all the nations. ‘For they shall come,’ He said, ‘from the west and from the east, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven; but the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness.’2410

    2410


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xxxii Pg 2
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    It is yours to make accurate inquiry, and ascertain up to whose time the Jews had a lawgiver and king of their own. Up to the time of Jesus Christ, who taught us, and interpreted the prophecies which were not yet understood, [they had a lawgiver] as was foretold by the holy and divine Spirit of prophecy through Moses, “that a ruler would not fail the Jews until He should come for whom the kingdom was reserved” (for Judah was the forefather of the Jews, from whom also they have their name of Jews); and after He (i.e., Christ) appeared, you began to rule the Jews, and gained possession of all their territory. And the prophecy, “He shall be the expectation of the nations,” signified that there would be some of all nations who should look for Him to come again. And this indeed you can see for yourselves, and be convinced of by fact. For of all races of men there are some who look for Him who was crucified in Judæa, and after whose crucifixion the land was straightway surrendered to you as spoil of war. And the prophecy, “binding His foal to the vine, and washing His robe in the blood of the grape,” was a significant symbol of the things that were to happen to Christ, and of what He was to do. For the foal of an ass stood bound to a vine at the entrance of a village, and He ordered His acquaintances to bring it to Him then; and when it was brought, He mounted and sat upon it, and entered Jerusalem, where was the vast temple of the Jews which was afterwards destroyed by you. And after this He was crucified, that the rest of the prophecy might be fulfilled. <index subject1="Christ Jesus" subject2="blood of" title="173" id="viii.ii.xxxii-p2.2"/>For this “washing His robe in the blood of the grape” was predictive of the passion He was to endure, cleansing by His blood those who believe on Him. For what is called by the Divine Spirit through the prophet “His robe,” are those men who believe in Him in whom abideth the seed1828

    1828 Grabe would here read, not σπέρμα, but πνεῦμα, the spirit; but the Benedictine, Otto, and Trollope all think that no change should be made.

    of God, the Word. And what is spoken of as “the blood of the grape,” signifies that He who should appear would have blood, though not of the seed of man, but of the power of God. <index subject1="Christ Jesus" subject2="called the Word" title="173" id="viii.ii.xxxii-p3.3"/>And the first power after God the Father and Lord of all is the Word, who is also the Son; and of Him we will, in what follows, relate how He took flesh and became man. For as man did not make the blood of the vine, but God, so it was hereby intimated that the blood should not be of human seed, but of divine power, as we have said above. And Isaiah, another prophet, foretelling the same things in other words, spoke thus: “A star shall rise out of Jacob, and a flower shall spring from the root of Jesse; and His arm shall the nations trust.1829

    1829


    Anf-01 v.vi.ix Pg 12
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    have been fulfilled in the Gospel, [our Lord saying,] “Go ye and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.”964

    964


    Anf-01 viii.ii.liv Pg 2
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    The devils, accordingly, when they heard these prophetic words, said that Bacchus was the son of Jupiter, and gave out that he was the discoverer of the vine, and they number wine1883

    1883 In the ms. the reading is οἶνον (wine); but as Justin’s argument seems to require ὄνον (an ass), Sylburg inserted this latter word in his edition; and this reading is approved by Grabe and Thirlby, and adopted by Otto and Trollope. It may be added, that ἀναγράφουσι is much more suitable to ὄνον than to οἶνον.

    [or, the ass] among his mysteries; and they taught that, having been torn in pieces, he ascended into heaven. And because in the prophecy of Moses it had not been expressly intimated whether He who was to come was the Son of God, and whether He would, riding on the foal, remain on earth or ascend into heaven, and because the name of “foal” could mean either the foal of an ass or the foal of a horse, they, not knowing whether He who was foretold would bring the foal of an ass or of a horse as the sign of His coming, nor whether He was the Son of God, as we said above, or of man, gave out that Bellerophon, a man born of man, himself ascended to heaven on his horse Pegasus. And when they heard it said by the other prophet Isaiah, that He should be born of a virgin, and by His own means ascend into heaven, they pretended that Perseus was spoken of. And when they knew what was said, as has been cited above, in the prophecies written aforetime, “Strong as a giant to run his course,”1884

    1884


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lii Pg 2
    [Bible:Gen.49.11 Bible:Gen.49.18 Bible:Gen.49.24">Gen. xlix. 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 24. These texts are frequently referred to by Justin.]

    that there would be two advents of Christ, and that in the first He would suffer, and that after He came there would be neither prophet nor king in your nation (I proceeded), and that the nations who believed in the suffering Christ would look for His future appearance. And for this reason the Holy Spirit had uttered these truths in a parable, and obscurely: for,” I added, “it is said, ‘Judah, thy brethren have praised thee: thy hands [shall be] on the neck of thine enemies; the sons of thy father shall worship thee. Judah is a lion’s whelp; from the germ, my son, thou art sprung up. Reclining, he lay down like a lion, and like [a lion’s] whelp: who shall raise him up? A ruler shall not depart from Judah, or a leader from his thighs, until that which is laid up in store for him shall come; and he shall be the desire of nations, binding his foal to the vine, and the foal of his ass to the tendril of the vine. He shall wash his garments in wine, and his vesture in the blood of the grape. His eyes shall be bright with2113

    2113 Or, “in comparison of.”

    wine, and his teeth white like milk.’2114

    2114


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xi Pg 11
    Gen. xlix. 10–12, LXX.

    For, let those who have the reputation of investigating everything, inquire at what time a prince and leader failed out of Judah, and who is the hope of the nations, who also is the vine, what was the ass’s colt [referred to as] His, what the clothing, and what the eyes, what the teeth, and what the wine, and thus let them investigate every one of the points mentioned; and they shall find that there was none other announced than our Lord, Christ Jesus. Wherefore Moses, when chiding the ingratitude of the people, said, “Ye infatuated people, and unwise, do ye thus requite the Lord?”3925

    3925


    Anf-01 v.iii.x Pg 7
    Isa. lxii. 2; 12.

    This was first fulfilled in Syria; for “the disciples were called Christians at Antioch,”700

    700


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxix Pg 6
    Isa. lxii. 12.

    Therefore we are not a people to be despised, nor a barbarous race, nor such as the Carian and Phrygian nations; but God has even chosen us and He has become manifest to those who asked not after Him. ‘Behold, I am God,’ He says, ‘to the nation which called not on My name.’2405

    2405


    Anf-01 ix.vi.v Pg 3
    [Jer. vii. 4. One of the most powerful arguments in all Scripture is contained in the first twelve verses of this chapter, and it rebukes an inveterate superstition of the human heart. Comp. Rev. ii. 5, and the message to Rome, Rom. xi. 21.]

    This is just as if any one should say, that if straw were a creation of God, it would never part company with the wheat; and that the vine twigs, if made by God, never would be lopped away and deprived of the clusters. But as these [vine twigs] have not been originally made for their own sake, but for that of the fruit growing upon them, which being come to maturity and taken away, they are left behind, and those which do not conduce to fructification are lopped off altogether; so also [was it with] Jerusalem, which had in herself borne the yoke of bondage (under which man was reduced, who in former times was not subject to God when death was reigning, and being subdued, became a fit subject for liberty), when the fruit of liberty had come, and reached maturity, and been reaped and stored in the barn, and when those which had the power to produce fruit had been carried away from her [i.e., from Jerusalem], and scattered throughout all the world. Even as Esaias saith, “The children of Jacob shall strike root, and Israel shall flourish, and the whole world shall be filled with his fruit.”3835

    3835


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xvi Pg 7
    Comp. Isa. v., Jer. xxv.; but the words do not occur in Scripture.

    And it so happened as the Lord had spoken. <index subject1="Temple" subject2="the true" title="147" id="vi.ii.xvi-p7.3"/>Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of God. There is—where He himself declared He would make and finish it. For it is written, “And it shall come to pass, when the week is completed, the temple of God shall be built in glory in the name of the Lord.”1678

    1678


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 3
    Isa. xxxv. 10.

    Well, there is nothing eternal until after the resurrection. “And sorrow and sighing,” continues he, “shall flee away.”7729

    7729


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 4
    Ver. 10.

    The angel echoes the same to John: “And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes;”7730

    7730


    Anf-02 vi.iii.iii.xii Pg 39.2


    Anf-02 vi.iii.iii.xii Pg 39.2


    Anf-01 ix.vi.v Pg 3
    [Jer. vii. 4. One of the most powerful arguments in all Scripture is contained in the first twelve verses of this chapter, and it rebukes an inveterate superstition of the human heart. Comp. Rev. ii. 5, and the message to Rome, Rom. xi. 21.]

    This is just as if any one should say, that if straw were a creation of God, it would never part company with the wheat; and that the vine twigs, if made by God, never would be lopped away and deprived of the clusters. But as these [vine twigs] have not been originally made for their own sake, but for that of the fruit growing upon them, which being come to maturity and taken away, they are left behind, and those which do not conduce to fructification are lopped off altogether; so also [was it with] Jerusalem, which had in herself borne the yoke of bondage (under which man was reduced, who in former times was not subject to God when death was reigning, and being subdued, became a fit subject for liberty), when the fruit of liberty had come, and reached maturity, and been reaped and stored in the barn, and when those which had the power to produce fruit had been carried away from her [i.e., from Jerusalem], and scattered throughout all the world. Even as Esaias saith, “The children of Jacob shall strike root, and Israel shall flourish, and the whole world shall be filled with his fruit.”3835

    3835


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xvi Pg 7
    Comp. Isa. v., Jer. xxv.; but the words do not occur in Scripture.

    And it so happened as the Lord had spoken. <index subject1="Temple" subject2="the true" title="147" id="vi.ii.xvi-p7.3"/>Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of God. There is—where He himself declared He would make and finish it. For it is written, “And it shall come to pass, when the week is completed, the temple of God shall be built in glory in the name of the Lord.”1678

    1678


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 3
    Isa. xxxv. 10.

    Well, there is nothing eternal until after the resurrection. “And sorrow and sighing,” continues he, “shall flee away.”7729

    7729


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 4
    Ver. 10.

    The angel echoes the same to John: “And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes;”7730

    7730


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iv Pg 9
    I am not acquainted with any such passage. Oehler refers to Isa. xlix. in his margin, but gives no verse, and omits to notice this passage of the present treatise in his index.

    Thus, therefore, before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold; just as before the carnal circumcision there was withal a spiritual circumcision foreshown. In short, let them teach us, as we have already premised, that Adam observed the sabbath; or that Abel, when offering to God a holy victim, pleased Him by a religious reverence for the sabbath; or that Enoch, when translated, had been a keeper of the sabbath; or that Noah the ark-builder observed, on account of the deluge, an immense sabbath; or that Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son; or that Melchizedek in his priesthood received the law of the sabbath.


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iv Pg 9
    I am not acquainted with any such passage. Oehler refers to Isa. xlix. in his margin, but gives no verse, and omits to notice this passage of the present treatise in his index.

    Thus, therefore, before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold; just as before the carnal circumcision there was withal a spiritual circumcision foreshown. In short, let them teach us, as we have already premised, that Adam observed the sabbath; or that Abel, when offering to God a holy victim, pleased Him by a religious reverence for the sabbath; or that Enoch, when translated, had been a keeper of the sabbath; or that Noah the ark-builder observed, on account of the deluge, an immense sabbath; or that Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son; or that Melchizedek in his priesthood received the law of the sabbath.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxxx Pg 2
    Deut. xxxii. 43.

    and I added what follows of the passage: “ ‘Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people, and let all the angels of God be strengthened in Him: for the blood of His sons He avenges, and will avenge, and will recompense His enemies with vengeance, and will recompense those that hate Him; and the Lord will purify the land of His people.’ And by these words He declares that we, the nations, rejoice with His people, —to wit, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the prophets, and, in short, all of that people who are well-pleasing to God, according to what has been already agreed on between us. But we will not receive it of all your nation; since we know from Isaiah2459

    2459 Isa. lxvi. 24.

    that the members of those who have transgressed shall be consumed by the worm and unquenchable fire, remaining immortal; so that they become a spectacle to all flesh. <index subject1="Israel applied to Chirst" title="265" id="viii.iv.cxxx-p3.2"/>But in addition to these, I wish, sirs,” said I, “to add some other passages from the very words of Moses, from which you may understand that God has from of old dispersed all men according to their kindreds and tongues; and out of all kindreds has taken to Himself your kindred, a useless, disobedient, and faithless generation; and has shown that those who were selected out of every nation have obeyed His will through Christ,—whom He calls also Jacob, and names Israel, —and these, then, as I mentioned fully previously, must be Jacob and Israel. For when He says, ‘Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people,’ He allots the same inheritance to them, and does not call them by the same name;2460

    2460 The reading is, “and calls them by the same name.” But the whole argument shows that the Jews and Gentiles are distinguished by name. [But that Gentiles are also called (Israel) by the same name is the point here.]

    but when He says that they as Gentiles rejoice with His people, He calls them Gentiles to reproach you. For even as you provoked Him to anger by your idolatry, so also He has deemed those who were idolaters worthy of knowing His will, and of inheriting His inheritance.


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xli Pg 2
    Ps. xcvi. 1, etc. This last clause, which is not extant in our copies, either of the LXX, or of the Hebrew, Justin charged the Jews with erasing. See Dial. Tryph., c. 73. [Concerning the eighteen Jewish alterations, see Pearson on the Creed, art. iv. p. 335. Ed. London, 1824.]


    Anf-01 ix.vi.x Pg 4
    Ps. xcvi. 1.

    and Esaias, “Sing unto the Lord a new hymn. His beginning (initium), His name is glorified from the height of the earth: they declare His powers in the isles.”3902

    3902


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-02 vi.ii.i Pg 7.1
    Repentance, men understand, so far as nature is able, to be an emotion of the mind arising from disgust8421

    8421 “Offensa sententiæ pejoris;” or possibly, “the miscarriage of some,” etc.

    at some previously cherished worse sentiment: that kind of men I mean which even we ourselves were in days gone by—blind, without the Lord’s light.  From the reason of repentance, however, they are just as far as they are from the Author of reason Himself. Reason, in fact, is a thing of God, inasmuch as there is nothing which God the Maker of all has not provided, disposed, ordained by reason—nothing which He has not willed should be handled and understood by reason. All, therefore, who are ignorant of God, must necessarily be ignorant also of a thing which is His, because no treasure-house8422

    8422 Thesaurus.

    at all is accessible to strangers. And thus, voyaging all the universal course of life without the rudder of reason, they know not how to shun the hurricane which is impending over the world.8423

    8423 Sæculo. [Erasmus doubted the genuineness of this treatise, partly because of the comparative purity of its style. See Kaye, p. 42.]

    Moreover, how irrationally they behave in the practice of repentance, it will be enough briefly to show just by this one fact, that they exercise it even in the case of their good deeds. They repent of good faith, of love, of simple-heartedness, of patience, of mercy, just in proportion as any deed prompted by these feelings has fallen on thankless soil.  They execrate their own selves for having done good; and that species chiefly of repentance which is applied to the best works they fix in their heart, making it their care to remember never again to do a good turn. On repentance for evil deeds, on the contrary, they lay lighter stress. In short, they make this same (virtue) a means of sinning more readily than a means of right-doing.


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 33


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.i Pg 9


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiii Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xv Pg 52
    Jer. xvii. 5.

    Whereas in Psalm cxvii. it is said: “It is better to trust in the Lord than to put confidence in man; it is better to trust in the Lord than to place hope in princes.”4032

    4032


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xv Pg 52
    Jer. xvii. 5.

    Whereas in Psalm cxvii. it is said: “It is better to trust in the Lord than to put confidence in man; it is better to trust in the Lord than to place hope in princes.”4032

    4032


    Anf-01 ix.vi.vi Pg 4
    Isa. xii. 4.

    For neither in an ambiguous, nor arrogant, nor boastful manner, does He say these things; but since it was impossible, without God, to come to a knowledge of God, He teaches men, through His Word, to know God. To those, therefore, who are ignorant of these matters, and on this account imagine that they have discovered another Father, justly does one say, “Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God.”3846

    3846


    Anf-01 ix.vi.v Pg 3
    [Jer. vii. 4. One of the most powerful arguments in all Scripture is contained in the first twelve verses of this chapter, and it rebukes an inveterate superstition of the human heart. Comp. Rev. ii. 5, and the message to Rome, Rom. xi. 21.]

    This is just as if any one should say, that if straw were a creation of God, it would never part company with the wheat; and that the vine twigs, if made by God, never would be lopped away and deprived of the clusters. But as these [vine twigs] have not been originally made for their own sake, but for that of the fruit growing upon them, which being come to maturity and taken away, they are left behind, and those which do not conduce to fructification are lopped off altogether; so also [was it with] Jerusalem, which had in herself borne the yoke of bondage (under which man was reduced, who in former times was not subject to God when death was reigning, and being subdued, became a fit subject for liberty), when the fruit of liberty had come, and reached maturity, and been reaped and stored in the barn, and when those which had the power to produce fruit had been carried away from her [i.e., from Jerusalem], and scattered throughout all the world. Even as Esaias saith, “The children of Jacob shall strike root, and Israel shall flourish, and the whole world shall be filled with his fruit.”3835

    3835


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xvi Pg 7
    Comp. Isa. v., Jer. xxv.; but the words do not occur in Scripture.

    And it so happened as the Lord had spoken. <index subject1="Temple" subject2="the true" title="147" id="vi.ii.xvi-p7.3"/>Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of God. There is—where He himself declared He would make and finish it. For it is written, “And it shall come to pass, when the week is completed, the temple of God shall be built in glory in the name of the Lord.”1678

    1678


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxx Pg 4
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    And it is plain that this was spoken not of Judah, but of Christ. For all we out of all nations do expect not Judah, but Jesus, who led your fathers out of Egypt. For the prophecy referred even to the advent of Christ: ‘Till He come for whom this is laid up, and He shall be the expectation of nations.’ Jesus came, therefore, as we have shown at length, and is expected again to appear above the clouds; whose name you profane, and labour hard to get it profaned over all the earth. It were possible for me, sirs,” I continued, “to contend against you about the reading which you so interpret, saying it is written, ‘Till the things laid up for Him come;’ though the Seventy have not so explained it, but thus, ‘Till He comes for whom this is laid up.’ But since what follows indicates that the reference is to Christ (for it is, ‘and He shall be the expectation of nations’), I do not proceed to have a mere verbal controversy with you, as I have not attempted to establish proof about Christ from the passages of Scripture which are not admitted by you2409

    2409 [Note this important point. He forbears to cite the New Testament.]

    which I quoted from the words of Jeremiah the prophet, and Esdras, and David; but from those which are even now admitted by you, which had your teachers comprehended, be well assured they would have deleted them, as they did those about the death of Isaiah, whom you sawed asunder with a wooden saw. And this was a mysterious type of Christ being about to cut your nation in two, and to raise those worthy of the honour to the everlasting kingdom along with the holy patriarchs and prophets; but He has said that He will send others to the condemnation of the unquenchable fire along with similar disobedient and impenitent men from all the nations. ‘For they shall come,’ He said, ‘from the west and from the east, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven; but the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness.’2410

    2410


    Anf-01 viii.ii.xxxii Pg 2
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    It is yours to make accurate inquiry, and ascertain up to whose time the Jews had a lawgiver and king of their own. Up to the time of Jesus Christ, who taught us, and interpreted the prophecies which were not yet understood, [they had a lawgiver] as was foretold by the holy and divine Spirit of prophecy through Moses, “that a ruler would not fail the Jews until He should come for whom the kingdom was reserved” (for Judah was the forefather of the Jews, from whom also they have their name of Jews); and after He (i.e., Christ) appeared, you began to rule the Jews, and gained possession of all their territory. And the prophecy, “He shall be the expectation of the nations,” signified that there would be some of all nations who should look for Him to come again. And this indeed you can see for yourselves, and be convinced of by fact. For of all races of men there are some who look for Him who was crucified in Judæa, and after whose crucifixion the land was straightway surrendered to you as spoil of war. And the prophecy, “binding His foal to the vine, and washing His robe in the blood of the grape,” was a significant symbol of the things that were to happen to Christ, and of what He was to do. For the foal of an ass stood bound to a vine at the entrance of a village, and He ordered His acquaintances to bring it to Him then; and when it was brought, He mounted and sat upon it, and entered Jerusalem, where was the vast temple of the Jews which was afterwards destroyed by you. And after this He was crucified, that the rest of the prophecy might be fulfilled. <index subject1="Christ Jesus" subject2="blood of" title="173" id="viii.ii.xxxii-p2.2"/>For this “washing His robe in the blood of the grape” was predictive of the passion He was to endure, cleansing by His blood those who believe on Him. For what is called by the Divine Spirit through the prophet “His robe,” are those men who believe in Him in whom abideth the seed1828

    1828 Grabe would here read, not σπέρμα, but πνεῦμα, the spirit; but the Benedictine, Otto, and Trollope all think that no change should be made.

    of God, the Word. And what is spoken of as “the blood of the grape,” signifies that He who should appear would have blood, though not of the seed of man, but of the power of God. <index subject1="Christ Jesus" subject2="called the Word" title="173" id="viii.ii.xxxii-p3.3"/>And the first power after God the Father and Lord of all is the Word, who is also the Son; and of Him we will, in what follows, relate how He took flesh and became man. For as man did not make the blood of the vine, but God, so it was hereby intimated that the blood should not be of human seed, but of divine power, as we have said above. And Isaiah, another prophet, foretelling the same things in other words, spoke thus: “A star shall rise out of Jacob, and a flower shall spring from the root of Jesse; and His arm shall the nations trust.1829

    1829


    Anf-01 v.vi.ix Pg 12
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    have been fulfilled in the Gospel, [our Lord saying,] “Go ye and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.”964

    964


    Anf-01 viii.ii.liv Pg 2
    Gen. xlix. 10.

    The devils, accordingly, when they heard these prophetic words, said that Bacchus was the son of Jupiter, and gave out that he was the discoverer of the vine, and they number wine1883

    1883 In the ms. the reading is οἶνον (wine); but as Justin’s argument seems to require ὄνον (an ass), Sylburg inserted this latter word in his edition; and this reading is approved by Grabe and Thirlby, and adopted by Otto and Trollope. It may be added, that ἀναγράφουσι is much more suitable to ὄνον than to οἶνον.

    [or, the ass] among his mysteries; and they taught that, having been torn in pieces, he ascended into heaven. And because in the prophecy of Moses it had not been expressly intimated whether He who was to come was the Son of God, and whether He would, riding on the foal, remain on earth or ascend into heaven, and because the name of “foal” could mean either the foal of an ass or the foal of a horse, they, not knowing whether He who was foretold would bring the foal of an ass or of a horse as the sign of His coming, nor whether He was the Son of God, as we said above, or of man, gave out that Bellerophon, a man born of man, himself ascended to heaven on his horse Pegasus. And when they heard it said by the other prophet Isaiah, that He should be born of a virgin, and by His own means ascend into heaven, they pretended that Perseus was spoken of. And when they knew what was said, as has been cited above, in the prophecies written aforetime, “Strong as a giant to run his course,”1884

    1884


    Anf-01 viii.iv.lii Pg 2
    [Bible:Gen.49.11 Bible:Gen.49.18 Bible:Gen.49.24">Gen. xlix. 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 24. These texts are frequently referred to by Justin.]

    that there would be two advents of Christ, and that in the first He would suffer, and that after He came there would be neither prophet nor king in your nation (I proceeded), and that the nations who believed in the suffering Christ would look for His future appearance. And for this reason the Holy Spirit had uttered these truths in a parable, and obscurely: for,” I added, “it is said, ‘Judah, thy brethren have praised thee: thy hands [shall be] on the neck of thine enemies; the sons of thy father shall worship thee. Judah is a lion’s whelp; from the germ, my son, thou art sprung up. Reclining, he lay down like a lion, and like [a lion’s] whelp: who shall raise him up? A ruler shall not depart from Judah, or a leader from his thighs, until that which is laid up in store for him shall come; and he shall be the desire of nations, binding his foal to the vine, and the foal of his ass to the tendril of the vine. He shall wash his garments in wine, and his vesture in the blood of the grape. His eyes shall be bright with2113

    2113 Or, “in comparison of.”

    wine, and his teeth white like milk.’2114

    2114


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xi Pg 11
    Gen. xlix. 10–12, LXX.

    For, let those who have the reputation of investigating everything, inquire at what time a prince and leader failed out of Judah, and who is the hope of the nations, who also is the vine, what was the ass’s colt [referred to as] His, what the clothing, and what the eyes, what the teeth, and what the wine, and thus let them investigate every one of the points mentioned; and they shall find that there was none other announced than our Lord, Christ Jesus. Wherefore Moses, when chiding the ingratitude of the people, said, “Ye infatuated people, and unwise, do ye thus requite the Lord?”3925

    3925


    Anf-01 v.iii.x Pg 7
    Isa. lxii. 2; 12.

    This was first fulfilled in Syria; for “the disciples were called Christians at Antioch,”700

    700


    Anf-01 viii.iv.cxix Pg 6
    Isa. lxii. 12.

    Therefore we are not a people to be despised, nor a barbarous race, nor such as the Carian and Phrygian nations; but God has even chosen us and He has become manifest to those who asked not after Him. ‘Behold, I am God,’ He says, ‘to the nation which called not on My name.’2405

    2405


    Anf-01 ix.vi.v Pg 3
    [Jer. vii. 4. One of the most powerful arguments in all Scripture is contained in the first twelve verses of this chapter, and it rebukes an inveterate superstition of the human heart. Comp. Rev. ii. 5, and the message to Rome, Rom. xi. 21.]

    This is just as if any one should say, that if straw were a creation of God, it would never part company with the wheat; and that the vine twigs, if made by God, never would be lopped away and deprived of the clusters. But as these [vine twigs] have not been originally made for their own sake, but for that of the fruit growing upon them, which being come to maturity and taken away, they are left behind, and those which do not conduce to fructification are lopped off altogether; so also [was it with] Jerusalem, which had in herself borne the yoke of bondage (under which man was reduced, who in former times was not subject to God when death was reigning, and being subdued, became a fit subject for liberty), when the fruit of liberty had come, and reached maturity, and been reaped and stored in the barn, and when those which had the power to produce fruit had been carried away from her [i.e., from Jerusalem], and scattered throughout all the world. Even as Esaias saith, “The children of Jacob shall strike root, and Israel shall flourish, and the whole world shall be filled with his fruit.”3835

    3835


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xvi Pg 7
    Comp. Isa. v., Jer. xxv.; but the words do not occur in Scripture.

    And it so happened as the Lord had spoken. <index subject1="Temple" subject2="the true" title="147" id="vi.ii.xvi-p7.3"/>Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of God. There is—where He himself declared He would make and finish it. For it is written, “And it shall come to pass, when the week is completed, the temple of God shall be built in glory in the name of the Lord.”1678

    1678


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 3
    Isa. xxxv. 10.

    Well, there is nothing eternal until after the resurrection. “And sorrow and sighing,” continues he, “shall flee away.”7729

    7729


    Anf-03 v.viii.lviii Pg 4
    Ver. 10.

    The angel echoes the same to John: “And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes;”7730

    7730


    Anf-02 vi.iii.iii.xii Pg 39.2


    Anf-02 vi.iii.iii.xii Pg 39.2


    Anf-01 ix.vi.v Pg 3
    [Jer. vii. 4. One of the most powerful arguments in all Scripture is contained in the first twelve verses of this chapter, and it rebukes an inveterate superstition of the human heart. Comp. Rev. ii. 5, and the message to Rome, Rom. xi. 21.]

    This is just as if any one should say, that if straw were a creation of God, it would never part company with the wheat; and that the vine twigs, if made by God, never would be lopped away and deprived of the clusters. But as these [vine twigs] have not been originally made for their own sake, but for that of the fruit growing upon them, which being come to maturity and taken away, they are left behind, and those which do not conduce to fructification are lopped off altogether; so also [was it with] Jerusalem, which had in herself borne the yoke of bondage (under which man was reduced, who in former times was not subject to God when death was reigning, and being subdued, became a fit subject for liberty), when the fruit of liberty had come, and reached maturity, and been reaped and stored in the barn, and when those which had the power to produce fruit had been carried away from her [i.e., from Jerusalem], and scattered throughout all the world. Even as Esaias saith, “The children of Jacob shall strike root, and Israel shall flourish, and the whole world shall be filled with his fruit.”3835

    3835


    Anf-01 vi.ii.xvi Pg 7
    Comp. Isa. v., Jer. xxv.; but the words do not occur in Scripture.

    And it so happened as the Lord had spoken. <index subject1="Temple" subject2="the true" title="147" id="vi.ii.xvi-p7.3"/>Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of God. There is—where He himself declared He would make and finish it. For it is written, “And it shall come to pass, when the week is completed, the temple of God shall be built in glory in the name of the Lord.”1678

    1678


    Anf-01 vii.ii.iv Pg 3
    [See Grabe, apud Routh, 1. 29.]

    [Testimony is borne to these things in writing by Papias, an ancient man, who was a hearer of John and a friend of Polycarp, in the fourth of his books; for five books were composed by him. And he added, saying, “Now these things are credible to believers. <index subject1="Judas" title="154" id="vii.ii.iv-p3.1"/>And Judas the traitor,” says he, “not believing, and asking, ‘How shall such growths be accomplished by the Lord?’ the Lord said, ‘They shall see who shall come to them.’ These, then, are the times mentioned by the prophet Isaiah: ‘And the wolf shall lie down with the lamb,’ etc. (Isa. xi. 6 ff.).”]


    Anf-03 v.v.xi Pg 20
    Isa. xi. 6.

    when the Father shall have put beneath the feet of His Son His enemies,6245

    6245


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xxiv Pg 45
    Isa. xi. 8, 9.

    And, indeed, we are aware (without doing violence to the literal sense of the passage, since even these noxious animals have actually been unable to do hurt where there has been faith) that under the figure of scorpions and serpents are portended evil spirits, whose very prince is described4457

    4457 Deputetur.

    by the name of serpent, dragon, and every other most conspicuous beast in the power of the Creator.4458

    4458 Penes Creatorem.

    This power the Creator conferred first of all upon His Christ, even as the ninetieth Psalm says to Him: “Upon the asp and the basilisk shalt Thou tread; the lion and the dragon shalt Thou trample under foot.”4459

    4459


    Anf-03 v.iv.iv.v Pg 10
    Isa. xli. 18, 19, inexactly quoted.

    In like manner, when, foretelling the conversion of the Gentiles, He says, “The beasts of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls,” He surely never meant to derive3151

    3151 Relaturus.

    His fortunate omens from the young of birds and foxes, and from the songsters of marvel and fable. But why enlarge on such a subject? When the very apostle whom our heretics adopt,3152

    3152 Hæreticorum apostolus. We have already referred to Marcion’s acceptance of St. Paul’s epistles. It has been suggested that Tertullian in the text uses hæreticorum apostolus as synonymous with ethnicorum apostolus="apostle of the Gentiles,” in which case allusion to St. Paul would of course be equally clear. But this interpretation is unnecessary.

    interprets the law which allows an unmuzzled mouth to the oxen that tread out the corn, not of cattle, but of ourselves;3153

    3153


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxiii Pg 2
    Isa. iv. 4.

    when He washed the disciplesfeet with His own hands.4125

    4125


    Anf-02 vi.iii.iii.ix Pg 7.1


    Anf-02 vi.iii.iii.ix Pg 8.1


    Anf-01 viii.ii.liii Pg 2
    Isa. liv. 1.

    For all the Gentiles were “desolate” of the true God, serving the works of their hands; but the Jews and Samaritans, having the word of God delivered to them by the prophets, and always expecting the Christ, did not recognise Him when He came, except some few, of whom the Spirit of prophecy by Isaiah had predicted that they should be saved. He spoke as from their person: “Except the Lord had left us a seed, we should have been as Sodom and Gomorrah.”1880

    1880


    Anf-01 ix.ii.xi Pg 15
    Isa. liv. 1; Gal. iv. 27.

    For in reference to these points, and others of a like nature, the apostle exclaims: “Oh! the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God; how unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out!”2798

    2798


    Anf-02 vi.ii.i Pg 30.1


    Anf-02 vi.iv.ii.vi Pg 10.1


    Anf-01 ix.vii.xxxv Pg 21
    Isa. liv. 11–14.

    And yet again does he say the same thing: “Behold, I make Jerusalem a rejoicing, and my people [a joy]; for the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying. Also there shall not be there any immature [one], nor an old man who does not fulfil his time: for the youth shall be of a hundred years; and the sinner shall die a hundred years old, yet shall be accursed. And they shall build houses, and inhabit them themselves; and shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them themselves, and shall drink wine. And they shall not build, and others inhabit; neither shall they prepare the vineyard, and others eat. For as the days of the tree of life shall be the days of the people in thee; for the works of their hands shall endure.”4764

    4764


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 157


    Npnf-201 iii.xvi.iv Pg 136


    Anf-01 ix.vi.xxi Pg 59
    Hos. i. 6–9.

    in order that, as says the apostle, “what was not a people may become a people; and she who did not obtain mercy may obtain mercy. And it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said, This is not a people, there shall they be called the children of the living God.”4110

    4110


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xix Pg 3
    Hos. i. and Hos. ii.

    one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths,1992

    1992


    Anf-03 v.iv.v.xvi Pg 45
    The sense rather than the words of Hos. i. 6; 9.

    —that is, the (Jewish) nation. Thenceforth Christ extended to all men the law of His Father’s compassion, excepting none from His mercy, as He omitted none in His invitation. So that, whatever was the ampler scope of His teaching, He received it all in His heritage of the nations. “And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise.”4078

    4078


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xix Pg 3
    Hos. i. and Hos. ii.

    one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths,1992

    1992


    Anf-03 iv.ix.iii Pg 27
    See Hos. i. 10; 1 Pet. ii. 10.

    by accepting the new law above mentioned, and the new circumcision before foretold.


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 2
    Ps. lxxii.

    And at the close of this Psalm which I have quoted, it is written, ‘The hymns of David the son of Jesse are ended.’2034

    2034 [A striking passage in De Maistre (Œuvres, vol. vi. p. 275) is worthy of comparison.]

    Moreover, that Solomon was a renowned and great king, by whom the temple called that at Jerusalem was built, I know; but that none of those things mentioned in the Psalm happened to him, is evident. For neither did all kings worship him; nor did he reign to the ends of the earth; nor did his enemies, falling before him, lick the dust. Nay, also, I venture to repeat what is written in the book of Kings as committed by him, how through a woman’s influence he worshipped the idols of Sidon, which those of the Gentiles who know God, the Maker of all things through Jesus the crucified, do not venture to do, but abide every torture and vengeance even to the extremity of death, rather than worship idols, or eat meat offered to idols.”


    Npnf-201 iv.viii.xvii Pg 11


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 0


    Anf-01 viii.iv.xxxiv Pg 2
    Ps. lxxii.

    And at the close of this Psalm which I have quoted, it is written, ‘The hymns of David the son of Jesse are ended.’2034

    2034 [A striking passage in De Maistre (Œuvres, vol. vi. p. 275) is worthy of comparison.]

    Moreover, that Solomon was a renowned and great king, by whom the temple called that at Jerusalem was built, I know; but that none of those things mentioned in the Psalm happened to him, is evident. For neither did all kings worship him; nor did he reign to the ends of the earth; nor did his enemies, falling before him, lick the dust. Nay, also, I venture to repeat what is written in the book of Kings as committed by him, how through a woman’s influence he worshipped the idols of Sidon, which those of the Gentiles who know God, the Maker of all things through Jesus the crucified, do not venture to do, but abide every torture and vengeance even to the extremity of death, rather than worship idols, or eat meat offered to idols.”


    Anf-03 v.iv.vi.ix Pg 36
    Ps. lxxii. 6.

    describing His descent from heaven to the flesh as gentle and unobserved.5615

    5615


    Npnf-201 iv.viii.xvii Pg 11


    Anf-01 v.iv.vii Pg 8
    Ps. lxxxv. 9.

    And says He, “Upon whom will I look, but upon him that is humble and quiet, and that trembles at my words?”772

    772


    Anf-03 iv.ix.xiii Pg 21
    See Ps. lxvii. 6 (lxvi. 7 in LXX.); lxxxv. 12 (lxxxiv. 13 in LXX.).

    —of course that virgin-earth, not yet irrigated with rains, nor fertilized by showers, out of which man was of yore first formed, out of which now Christ through the flesh has been born of a virgin; “and the tree,”1400

    1400 “Lignum,” as before.

    he says, “hath brought his fruit,”1401

    1401


    Anf-02 ii.ii.iii Pg 45.1


    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge, Chapter 41

    VERSE 	(20) - 

    Isa 43:7-13,21; 44:23; 45:6-8; 66:18 Ex 9:16 Nu 23:23 Job 12:9


    PARALLEL VERSE BIBLE

    God Rules.NET