SEV Biblia, Chapter 20:5 Y los alcaldes hablarán al pueblo, diciendo: Â¿Quién ha edificado casa nueva, y no la ha estrenado? Vaya, y vuélvase a su casa, para que no muera por ventura en la batalla, y algún otro la estrene.
Clarke's Bible Commentary - Deuteronomy 20:5 Verse 5. That hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it?] From the title of Psa. xxx.,-A Psalm or Song at the Dedication of the House of David-it is evident that it was a custom in Israel to dedicate a new house to God with prayer, praise, and thanksgiving; and this was done in order to secure the Divine presence and blessing, for no pious or sensible man could imagine he could dwell safely in a house that was not under the immediate protection of God. Hence it has been a custom in the most barbarous nations to consecrate a part of a new house to the deity they worshipped.
The houses of the inhabitants of Bonny, in Africa, are generally divided into three apartments: one is a kind of state room or parlour; another serves for a common room, or kitchen; and the third is dedicated to the Juju, the serpent god, which they worship; for even those savages believe that in every house their god should have his temple! At the times of dedication among the Jews, besides prayer and praise, a feast was made, to which the relatives and neighbours were invited. Something of this custom is observed in some parts of our own country in what is called warming the house; but in these cases the feasting only is kept up-the prayer and praise forgotten! so that the dedication appears to be rather more to Bacchus than to Jehovah, the author of every good and perfect gift.
John Gill's Bible Commentary Ver. 5. And the officers shall speak unto the people , etc.] What these officers were is not easy to say; they seem not to be officers of the army, for they are distinguished from captains of the armies, ( Deuteronomy 20:9), unless they can be thought to be general officers; but the word for them is the same that is used of such that attended the judges and were ministers to them, ( Deuteronomy 16:18), and perhaps they were a sort of heralds that published and proclaimed what the anointed of war had said; and so the above writer affirms, that what here follows was first spoken by him, and after that (what is said, ( Deuteronomy 20:3,4)) the anointed of war speaks, saying, what man is there , etc.] (to the end of ( Deuteronomy 20:7)) thus far the anointed of war speaks, and then an officer causes all the people to hear it with an high voice, saying, what man is there that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it ? or perfected it, as the Targum of Jonathan, not quite finished it, has not, as that paraphrast says, fixed in it the door posts, or rather perhaps he means the Mezuzah, or writing, which the Jews thought themselves obliged to fasten to the door posts of their houses; (see Deuteronomy 11:20) until this was done, an house was not thought to be completed; though Jarchi interprets this of inhabitation; of a man’s having built a house, but has not yet dwelt in it; (see Deuteronomy 28:30), so Josephus explains it, of its not having been used and enjoyed by a man a full year; but there seems to be something more than all this in dedication; for though it does not signify a consecration or dedication of it to holy uses, as the dedication of the tabernacle and temple, yet there was something done, some ceremony used at entrance into a new house; a good man entered into it, no doubt, with prayer and praise, as the thirtieth psalm was composed by David at the dedication of his house; (see Nehemiah 12:27) and perhaps it was usual to have their friends together, and make a cheerful entertainment on the occasion. Ben Melech on the place, assures us it was a custom to make a feast and merriment at eating the first meal in a new house: let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it ; or perfect it, as the above Targum, or dwell in it, as well as have the pleasure of entertaining his friends in it at the first opening of it; this was either a command, enjoining a man, in such a circumstance, to return, and so the rest that follow, or a permission to him, allowing him to do it if he thought fit.
Matthew Henry Commentary Verses 1-9 - In the wars wherein Israel engaged according to the will of God, the might expect the Divine assistance. The Lord was to be their onl confidence. In these respects they were types of the Christian' warfare. Those unwilling to fight, must be sent away. The unwillingnes might arise from a man's outward condition. God would not be served by men forced against their will. Thy people shall be willing, Ps 110:3 In running the Christian race, and fighting the good fight of faith, we must lay aside all that would make us unwilling. If a man' unwillingness rose from weakness and fear, he had leave to return from the war. The reason here given is, lest his brethren's heart fail a well as his heart. We must take heed that we fear not with the fear of them that are afraid, Isa 8:12.
Original Hebrew ודברו 1696 השׁטרים 7860 אל 413 העם 5971 לאמר 559 מי 4310 האישׁ 376 אשׁר 834 בנה 1129 בית 1004 חדשׁ 2319 ולא 3808 חנכו 2596 ילך 1980 וישׁב 7725 לביתו 1004 פן 6435 ימות 4191 במלחמה 4421 ואישׁ 376 אחר 312 יחנכנו׃ 2596