SEV Biblia, Chapter 20:19 Cuando pusieres cerco a alguna ciudad, peleando contra ella muchos días para tomarla, no destruyas su arboleda metiendo en ella hacha, porque de ella comerás; y no la talarás, (porque el árbol del campo es la vida del hombre) para emplearla en el cerco.
Clarke's Bible Commentary - Deuteronomy 20:19 Verse 19. (For the tree of the field is man's life) to employ them in the siege] The original is exceedingly obscure, and has been variously translated, rwxmb űynpm abl hdŤh Ĺ[ µdah yk hi haadam ets hassadeh labo mippaneycha bammatsor. The following are the chief versions: For, O man, the trees of the field are for thee to employ THEM in the siege-or, For it is man, and the tree of the field, that must go before thee for a bulwark-or, For it is a tree, and not men, to increase the number of those who come against thee to the siege-or, lastly, The tree of the field (is as) a man, to go before thy face for a bulwark. The sense is sufficiently clear, though the strict grammatical meaning of the words cannot be easily ascertained: it was a merciful provision to spare all fruit- bearing trees, because they yielded the fruit which supported man's life; and it was sound policy also, for even the conquerors must perish if the means of life were cut off.
It is diabolic cruelty to add to the miseries of war the horrors of famine; and this is done where the trees of the field are cut down, the dykes broken to drown the land, the villages burnt, and the crops wilfully spoiled. O execrable war! subversive of all the charities of life! THERE are several curious particulars in these verses: 1. The people had the most positive assurances from God that their enemies should not be able to prevail against them by strength, numbers, nor stratagem, because God should go with them to lead and direct them, and should fight for them; and against his might none could prevail. 2. All such interferences were standing proofs of the being of God, of his especial providence, and of the truth of their religion. 3. Though God promised them such protection, yet they were to expect it in the diligent use of their own prudence and industry. The priests, the officers, and the people, had their respective parts to act in this business; if they did their duty respectively, God would take care that they should be successful. Those who will not help themselves with the strength which God has already given them, shall not have any farther assistance from him. In all such cases, the parable of the talents affords an accurate rule. 4. Their going to war against their enemies must not deprive them of mercy and tenderness towards their brethren. He who had built a house and had not yet dwelt in it, who had planted a vineyard and had not eaten of its fruits, who had betrothed a wife and had not yet taken her to his house, was not obliged to go to battle, lest he should fall in the war, and the fruits of his industry and affection be enjoyed by others. He who was faint-hearted was also permitted to return, lest he should give way in the heat of battle, and his example have a fatal influence on others.
John Gill's Bible Commentary Ver. 19. When thou shalt besiege a city a long time, in making war against it to take it , etc.] Before it will surrender; it holding out the siege a considerable time: the Hebrew text says, “many days” f250 ; which the Targum of Jonathan interprets of all the seven days, to make war against it, in order to subdue it on the sabbath day. Jarchi observes, that “days” signify two, and “many” three; hence it is said, they do not besiege cities of the Gentiles less than three days before the sabbath; and he also says it teaches that peace is opened or proclaimed two or three days first: thou shall not destroy the trees thereof by forcing an axe against them ; that is, not cut them down with an axe, such trees as were without the city, and in the power of the besiegers: what sort of trees are meant appears by what follows: for thou mayest eat of them ; the fruit of them, which shows them to be fruit trees, and gives a reason for not cutting them down, since they would be useful in supplying them with what was agreeable to eat: and thou shalt not cut them down to employ them in the siege ; in building bulwarks and batteries, and making of machines to cast out stones, and the like, to the annoyance of the besieged; which might as well or better be made of other trees, as in the next verse: for the tree of the field is man’s life ; by the fruit of which, among other things, his life is supported and maintained: but some give a different version and sense of this clause, for the tree of the field is man f251 , or is man’s; it is his property; but this is not a sufficient reason why it should not be cut down, whether the property of the besieger, in whose hand it is, or of the besieged, to whom it belonged: or, “for, is the tree of the field a man” f252 ? that has given any reason of being thus used? no; it is no cause of the war, nor of the holding out of the siege; and had it a voice, as Josephus observes, it would complain of injury done it, and apologize for itself. Some supply the negative, “for the tree of the field is not a man”; so the Targum of Onkelos, as well as makes it a comparative form of speech; “for not as a man is the tree of the field, to come out against thee in a siege;” the Targum of Jonathan is, “for not as a man is the tree of the field, to be hid from you in a siege;” or, as some in Aben Ezra express it, “it is not as a man, that it should flee from before thee;” it can neither annoy thee, nor get out of thy way; and therefore to lift up an axe against it, to cut it down, as if it was a man, and an enemy that stood in the way, is ridiculous and weak; though the sense of the said writer himself is the same with that of our version; but what seems best is to read the words, “for, O man, of the trees of the field ” (there is enough of them) to bring “before thee for a bulwark ” f254 ; to make use of, without cutting down fruit trees: though some understand it metaphorically, that as the tree of the field is, so is man, or should be, bring forth fruit, that he may not be cut down; (see Matthew 3:10). Plutarch relates, that it was forbidden the worshippers of Osiris to destroy garden trees.
Matthew Henry Commentary Verses 10-12 - The Israelites are here directed about the nations on whom they mad war. Let this show God's grace in dealing with sinners. He proclaim peace, and beseeches them to be reconciled. Let it also show us ou duty in dealing with our brethren. Whoever are for war, we must be for peace. Of the cities given to Israel, none of their inhabitants must be left. Since it could not be expected that they should be cured of their idolatry, they would hurt Israel. These regulations are not the rule of our conduct, but Christ's law of love. The horrors of war must fil the feeling heart with anguish upon every recollection; and are proof of the wickedness of man, the power of Satan, and the just vengeance of God, who thus scourges a guilty world. But how dreadful their case wh are engaged in unequal conflict with their Maker, who will not submi to render him the easy tribute of worship and praise! Certain rui awaits them. Let neither the number nor the power of the enemies of ou souls dismay us; nor let even our own weakness cause us to tremble of to faint. The Lord will save us; but in this war let none engage whose hearts are fond of the world, or afraid of the cross and the conflict Care is here taken that in besieging cities the fruit-trees should no be destroyed. God is a better friend to man than he is to himself; an God's law consults our interests and comforts; while our own appetite and passions, which we indulge, are enemies to our welfare. Many of the Divine precepts restrain us from destroying that which is for our lif and food. The Jews understand this as forbidding all wilful waste upo any account whatsoever. Every creature of God is good; as nothing is to be refused, so nothing is to be abused. We may live to want what we carelessly waste __________________________________________________________________
Original Hebrew כי 3588 תצור 6696 אל 413 עיר 5892 ימים 3117 רבים 7227 להלחם 3898 עליה 5921 לתפשׂה 8610 לא 3808 תשׁחית 7843 את 853 עצה 6086 לנדח 5080 עליו 5921 גרזן 1631 כי 3588 ממנו 4480 תאכל 398 ואתו 853 לא 3808 תכרת 3772 כי 3588 האדם 120 עץ 6086 השׂדה 7704 לבא 935 מפניך 6440 במצור׃ 4692